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Report of the Agricultural 
Experiment Station ofthe... 

California Agricultural Experiment Station 




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— .................. ..,.„..........^^^ 

U N I VERSITY OF CALIFORNIA-COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE. J 
AGMCULTURAL EXPEEIMENT STATION. 



REPORT 



AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS 



UNIVERSITY. OF CALIFORNIA, 



DESCRIPTIONS OF THE REGIONS REPRESENTED. 

By E. W. HILGARD, 

Pro/earn- of Agriculture and Director of the Station. 



BEING A PART OF THE COMBINED REPORTS FOR 1888 AND 1889. 




SACRAMENTO: 

STATE OFFICK, : : J. D. YOUNG, BUPT. STATE PRINTING. 

1890. | , 

~ — — ' — ~ ' — ' 



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UNIVERSITY OF gALIFORNI A-COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE. 
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

REPORT 

ON THE 

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS 

or THE 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, 

WITH 

DESCRIPTIONS OP THE REGIONS REPRESENTED. 

By E. W. HILGARD, 

ProfMKr of Agriculture and Director of the Station. 



BEING A PART OF THE COMBINED REPORTS FOR 1888 AND 1889. 



SACRAMENTO: 
state orncE, : : j. d. young, supt. state printing. 

1890. 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Paok. 

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 15 

THE CENTRAL EXPERIMENT STATION 19 

Location 19 

Adaptation to general experimentation 19 

History of the Berkeley Station 19 

Early utterances regarding its establishment and objects 19 

First planting 20 

Importation of trees, shrubs, and other plants 20 

Propagating houses - 20 

First field experiments 20 

Agricultural laboratory established 20 

" Garden of Economic Plants" 20 

Viticulture and wine-making 20 

The Hatch Aet 21 

General climatic and topographic features of the Bay region 21 

Influence of the summer fogs 21 

The western shore of the bay protected by the ranges 21 

The bay shore from San Pablo to San Jos6 21 

The climate of Berkeley 22 

Meteorological tables of Berkeley and of Oakland 22 

Influence on plant growth 23 

Thermal belts 23 

The soils of the Bay coast 24 

The Contra Costa Range 24 

Its vegetation 24 

The University location and domain .- 24 

Diagram of the agricultural grounds 25 

Experiment grounds of the Central Station 24 

Topography, subdivisions, and drainage 25 

Orchards - 26 

Garden of Economic Plants 26 

The greenhouses, seedhouse, nursery, etc 27 

Harvey hot-water heater 27 

The soils of the experiment grounds 28 

Black adobe - 28 

Yellow clay upland soil 28 

Table of analyses 29 

Discussion - 29 

Adobe and " prairie" soils 29 

Effect of lime on the " hill adobe" 29 

The experiment station building 31 

Gradual growth and completion 31 

General view of the building ... 31 

Vertical section 33 

Interior arrangements - 31 

The main floor — . 31 

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4 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



PiOE. 

Diagram of main floor ..... 34 

Work tables for assistants and students '. 1 38 

" Steam apparatus" 36 

Other laboratory appliances 35 

The balance-room 35 

Second floor 35 

Garret floor 36 

Plan* of basement and cellar! 36 

Thb Woek of thb Exfbbimekt Station 37 

Physical and agricultural features of the State 38 

Projected agricultural survey 38 

Soil samples contributed by the Southern Pacific Railroad Company 38 

Establishment of outlying stations 38 

Viticultural stations 38 

Chemical and physical investigations — 39 

General results in regard to the character of the soils of the State 39 

Abundance of lime and potash 39 

Scarcity of phosphates corroborated by actual trial of fertilizers 39 

Accumulation of lime in the soil of arid regions 39 

Alkali lands - 39 

Means of reclamation 39* 

Great intrinsic fertility 39 

Use of gypsum 40 

Waters 40 

Analysis of well, spring, and medicinal waters 40 

Differences in mineral ingredients of irrigation waters 40 

Rocks, marls, etc 40 

Need of an abundant and cheap supply of land plaster 40 

Agricultural products 41 

Investigation of sugar beets 41 

Investigation of sugar and syrup-making qualities of watermelons 41 

Field cultures 41 

Collection and culture tests of cereals 41 

Grasses and other forage plants 42 

Culture tests of fertilisers 42 

Horticulture and viticulture... 43 

fruit culture 43 

Two branches 43 

The shaping of the trees 43 

Advantage of underdraining 43 

Public uses served by the station 43 

Nomenclature of fruits 44 

Viticulture and wine-making 44 

Large number of grape varieties introduced 44 

Miscellaneous planting and wine-making 44 

Need of definite information 44 

Investigation of the character of grapes and wines from different regions 44 

Establishment of viticultural stations 45 

Vine plantations at the general culture stations 45 

The vines at the Berkeley station 46 

An experimental plot in the Sonoma Valley 46 

Establishment of the laboratory and cellar 45 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 5 

Paos. 

Reports on viticulture! work 46 

Differences in the same grape varieties in different climates 46 

Experiments on methods of fermentation 46 

" Pasteurizing" 46 

Electro-magnetic process. 46 

Examination of lees; cream of tartar 47 

Wine samples sent for examination 47 

Few adulterations 47 

Study of vine diseases 47 

Distribution of the phylloxera 47 

The southern vine disease 47 

Use of quicksilver as a remedy for phylloxera 47 

Examination of specimens of diseased vines 47 

Forestry J 48 

Plantations of forest trees 48 

Eastern oaks, hickories, and other species 48 

The "English" oak 48 

The cork tree - 48 

The distribution of the black wattle and blackwood acacia 48 

Distribution of eucalyptus 48 

Natives of the Mediterranean region 49 

The Japanese elm and camphor tree 49 

Chilian trees 49 

Mulberries 49 

Inter-tropical plant* 49 

Intect petti and Diseases of plant! and animalt 50 

Phylloxera; its distribution and life history 60 

Scale insects 60 

Insecticide washes and gases 60 

Resistant wheats 60 

The codlin moth 60 

Woolly aphis 61 

Fungous diseases of plants 61 

Sulphuring of vines 61 

Apple and pear fungus 61 

The Bordeaux mixture 61 

Diseases of domestic animals 61 

Need of a station veterinarian 61 

Distribution of seeds and plants 61 

A substitute for culture stations 61 

Mode and extent of distribution -'. 61 

Seed tests 62 

Collection of seeds 52 

Economic and general botany 62 

Correspondence... 52 

Wide scope of questions asked 52 

Number of letters written 52 

Publications of the station 53 

Bulletins and reports 58 

THE FOOTHILL EXPERIMENT STATION 54 

General features of the region 54 

Climate 64 



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6 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 

PlOE. 

The lower foothills 54 

The "snow belt" 54 

Meteorological table 54 

Drainage... 55 

Irrigation ditches 65 

The soils of the foothill region 55 

The granite soil 55 

The slate soil 55 

"Blue trap "or "bastard rock "soil 55 

Timber and shrubs 56 

Agriculture in the foothills 56 

Developed later than mining 66 

Fruits— deciduous and semi-tropic 56 

Cereals and forage plants 57 

Vegetables - 57 

Occurrence of the several soils — cross-sections of the foothill belt at various points. . 57 

Soils of the valley border 57 

Gravel plains and bedrock lands 67 

Red loam soil from Wheatland, Yuba County , 58 

Soils of bedrock lands, from Florin and May hew Stations 68 

Loam soil from the " Gravel Plains " near Gait 69 

Loam soil from Huffmans, Merced County 60 

Table of analyses 61 

Discussion of the above soils 62 

Blasting " bedrock lands" with giant powder 62 

Operations of Weinstock & Lubin 62 

Operations of Kroll & Rutter 62 

Butte County section 63 

Situation of Oroville 63 

Soil from near Oroville; S. S. Boynton 64 

Boils from the Therraalito Colony; Hon. A. F. Jones 64 

Bottom soil from south of Oroville; S. 8. Boynton 64 

Subsoil from high bottom land of Feather River; Messrs. White, Cooley & 

Cutts, Marysville 64 

Table of analyses 65 

Discussion of same 65 

Section of the foothills of Tuba and Nevada Counties 66 

The *' bedrock lands " belt 66 

The outer slate belt 66 

The "blue trap" 66 

The Fenn Valley and Indian Springs region 66 

Peculiar soils 1 66 

The plateau of Nevada City, Grass Valley, and Chicago Park 67 

Deciduous fruits at high altitudes 67 

Soils of the Tuba and Nevada section 67 

Soil from the " lone tree tract," southwest of Smartsville 67 

Soil from the slopes of the Yuba, below Smartsville 67 

Soil from Penn Valley, Montgomery's 67 

Bottom soil from Wagoner's, Penn Valley 67 

Red soil from near Reed's place, south from Nevada City 67 

Soils from Grass Valley; H. H. Hanssen 68 

Table of analyses 69 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 7 

Pass. 

Discussion of same 70 

Potash fertilisers 70 

Unusual composition of Grass Valley soils 70 

Large proportion of available land 71 

Section along the Central Pacific Railroad; Sacramento to Colfax 71 

Slight representation of the exterior slate belt 71 

Granites of Roseville and Eocklin 71 

Slate of Newcastle and Auburn 71 

Volcanic tufa of Colfax 71 

The "blue trap" confined to a narrow belt 71 

Granite soil from near Pino Station ; E. W. Maslin 72 

Valley soil from same locality 72 

Bed surface soil from Auburn; N. S. Prosser 72 

Soil and subsoil from near Colfax; M. Lobner 73 

Table of analyses 74 

Discussion of same 78 

Foothill tectUm in Amador County 74 

The lone Valley 74 

The arid clay upland east of lone 74 

The outer slate belt— copper mines 76 

The " blue trap " or diabase 75 

The "cobble belt" 75 

The "inner" slate belt at Jackson 76 

Red soils 75 

The granite soils 75 

The foothills south of Amador 76 

Bed loam soil from La Grange, Tuolumne County 76 

Valley adobe soil from Mount Pleasant, Tuolumne County; J. Taylor 76 

Bed foothills soil, Merced Falls, Merced County 76 

Bed gravelly soil from eleven miles north of Merced City 76 

Table of analyses 77 

Discussion of same 77 

Location or the Station 78 

Difficulty of selection 78 

The geographical consideration 78 

The elevation 78 

Earliness of higher plateau lands and description of tract selected 78 

Plat of same - facing p. 83 

Access to Jackson and to the railroad 78 

The Amador ditch 78 

Surface conformation, soils, and natural vegetation 79 

Description and analyses of the soils of the station tract 79 

Slate soil and subsoil from south slope of Central Hill 80 

Granite soil and subsoil from north slope of Central Hill... 80 

Granite soil from the Fleming tract 80 

Bed subsoil from foothills near lone ; Thos. S. Crafts 80 

Table of analyses 81 

Discussion of same 82 

Improvements on the station tract 82 

Improvements by Citizens' Committee 82 

New road to station 82 

Fencing, grubbing, and plowing of main tract... 83 



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8 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



PlOE. 

Waterpipe from ditch to reservoir 83 

Dwelling 83 

The barn 83 

Horses and wagon 83 

Improvements made from Station Fund 83 

Fencing the McKay and the Italian tracts 83 

Clearing of same 83 

Bridge over the Amador ditch 83 

The roads on the tract— automatic gate 83 

The elevation of the dwelling house 83 

New foundation and bracing of dwelling 84 

The barn and other outbuildings 84 

Benches for visitors 84 

The water supply 84 

The reservoir 84 

The dam, turbine, and pump 84 

New water main 85 

The need and extent of irrigation 85 

Notes on culture experiments in the Foothill Station, by W. 6. Klke, Inspector of 

Stations 85 

The orchard 86 

Miscellaneous trees : mulberries, camphor tree, the Kai apple, bamboos 87 

Vineyard 88 

The proportion of failures 88 

Small fruits 88 

Forage plants 88 

THE SOUTHERN COAST RANGE STATION 89 

The Coast Rakob Region 89 

The mountain ranges -89 

The extent of the region 89 

Choice of the Salinas Valley for the culture station 89 

Qeneral description of the southern coast ranges 90 

The climate 90 

Agriculture 90 

Rocks and soils 91 

The lower Salinas Valley 91 

Stockmen's fables regarding it 92 

The upper Salinas Valley 92 

Meteorological table for the upper Salinas 92 

Comparison with the Tulare Valley 92 

Agriculture 93 

Irrigation not essential 93 

Hydrographic features 93 

The main body of the upper valley 93 

Templeton .„ 94 

Features of the country opposite 94 

Adobe ridge lands 94 

Paso liable* 94 

The Huerhuero and Estrella Plains 95 

Granitic sands 95 

Rich adobe knolls 95 

The tree growth 96 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 9 

Other feature* of the upper valley region 95 

The Cholame Valley 95 

The Carisa Plain 95 

The eastern slope of the Santa Lucia Range 96 

Location of the station... 96 

The tract near Paso Eobles 96, 104 

Plat of same 104 

Details of the station toili 97 

Tree growth 97 

The sandy soil and its vegetation 97 

Table of analyse! 98 

8andy nature of the soils 98 

Discussion of the analyses 98 

8wale soils; their nature and vegetation 99 

Mechanical analysis of swale soil 99 

" Putty soils " in general 100 

Adobe soils of the region 100 

Soils of the knolls 101 

Analysis of black adobe from hilltop 101 

Brown adobe; occurrence 101 

Analysis of same 102 

Improvement! on the station tract 103 

The dwelling 103 

The barn 103 

The water supply 103 

The deep well and its record 103 

Plat of the ground* 104 

Collocation of the vineyard and orchard 105 

Plot for field cultures 105 

Note* by W. G. Klke, on culture experiment* 105 

Field cultures— small grains 105 

Report by Mr. Cruickshank, on grains and forage plants grown in 1889 105 

Corn u 107 

Sorghums and sugar canes 107 

Grasses 107 

Bamboos 107 

Orchard 107 

Training of the trees 107 

Small fruits 110 

Miscellaneous trees : the camphor tree, strawberry tree, pawpaw, black wattle 110 

Kai apple 110 

Citrus trees 110 

Oranges 110 

Olives Ill 

Vineyard Ill 

Percentage of failures Ill 

General results Ill 

THE SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY STATION 112 

Thi Bab Joaquln Valley 112 

Climate 112 

Meteorological table 112 

The winds 112 



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10 UNIVERSITY OP CALIFORNIA. 

PiO«. 

The Tulare and 8an Joaquin Basins 113 

Cole's, Steamboat, and other channels 113 

The water courses 113 

The Tblabb Basik 113 

Hydrography of the Tulare Basin 114 

Kern and Buena Vista Lakes 114 

Kern Island 114 

Kern River 114 

Poso Creek 114 

Tale River 114 

Kaweah River and its forks 114 

Kings River 115 

The Mussel Slough country 115 

Soili of the San Joaquin Valley at large 115 

Soils of the Tulare Valley 116 

Bakertfield tectum 116 

Buena Vista Slough 116 

Bottom soil 116 

Salt-grass soil— analytie 116 

Plains soil, Belleview Ranch 117 

Alluvial soils of Kern River 117 

" Weed patch " and gypsum beds 117 

Tulare Oily section 117 

Soil belts between Tulare Lake and Sierra foothills -• 118 

Soile of the lake border 118 

Soils from Lower Poso Creek and Smyrna region, Kern County 119 

Table of analyses of soils and alkali 120 

Discussion of same 122 

Lake shore deposits richer in lime than old alluvium 122 

The black land* belt 122 

Black lands soil; Paige & Morton 123 

Soil from Mussel Slough, near G range ville 123 

Table of analyses - 123 

Great depth of these soils 124 

Irrigation by percolation 124 

The sandy belt— plains soils 124 

"Salt-grass" land 124 

Soil from Experiment Station tract, Tulare City 124 

" Salt-grass" soil from " Oakland Colony," Tulare City 124 

Subsoil, Burnett's land 125 

Plains soil, east of Visalia — analyses of plains soils 125 

Analysis of the alkali from experiment station 126 

Remarkable fertilizing value 126 

Alkali and black lands of Elk Bayou 127 

The "red lands" belt 127 

Analysis of soil and subsoil 127 

77k Visalia section 128 

" Wire-grass " soil, near Visalia - 128 

Bench soil from Cross Creek 128 

Analyses of soils and alkali 128, 129 

An "inexhaustible" soil 129 

Alkali belt near Ooshen 129 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



11 



Pads. 

"Dry bog soils" „ 129 

Fresno section 130 

Soils of the Fresno ridge 130 

Splendid results of irrigation 130 

Over-irrigation ; alkali and hardpan 130 

General description of same 130 

Exceptional character of the Fresno soils 131 

Table of analyses of Fresno soils 131 

Description of the Station 132 

Location 132 

Governing considerations 132 

The station tract in general 132 

Donors and subscribers 132 

Improvement! made .-. 132 

Water supply 132 

Profile of well bored 133 

The flow of water 133 

Mode of irrigation 133 

Analysis of the welt voter 134 

Plat of the station tract 135 

Buildings 135 

Barn '. 135 

Delay to the construction of the dwelling - 135 

The general plan of planting 135 

Details of plantation 136 

Note* on planting and cultural results, by Inspector W. G. Klke 136 

The orchard 136 

Miscellaneous trees: camphor tree, Kai apple, mulberries 138 

Vineyard 138 

Percentage of failures 138 

Grains 138 

Wheats 138 

Barleys 138 

Grasses and forage plants . 138 

Indian corn 130 

Sorghums and sugar canes 130 

Bamboos 139 

Alkali, Alkali Soils, theib Value and Exclamation 139 

Investigation for the reclamation of alkali land 139 

Popular misapprehension regarding " alkali " 139 

The rise of the alkali in the Ban Joaquin Valley (Bulletin No. 83) 140 

Deficient rainfall produces alkali 140 

Composition of the alkali salts 140 

" Black " and " white " alkali 141 

Large amounts of plant food usually present 141 

Reclamation of alkali soils 141 

Leaching-out desirable 142 

Uselessness of flooding 142 

Underdrainage the general remedy 142 

Irrigation causes rise of alkali 142 

Effects of hardpan 142 

Drainage ditches 143 



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12 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



Variability from place to place - * 143 

Comparison of surface alkali and well water at experiment station, Tulare 143 

Lake water and its alluvium 144 

Efficacy of gypsum against "black'' alkali 144 

Drainage alongside of irrigation 144 

Value of gypsum as a fertilizer 144 

Gypsum a special fertilizer only 144 

Useful for leguminous plants 145 

Useful for setting free supplies of potash 145 

Useful for " black alkali" 145 

Useful for the preservation of manure, and disinfection 145 

Importance of utilizing deposits found 145 

Tablet showing composition of alkali salts 146-148 



APPENDICES. 

1. SOIL INVESTIGATION— IT8 METHODS AND RESULTS 151 

Experiment stations need definite information in regard to facts within their 

sphere of action 151 

Agricultural surveys a necessity to their usefulness 151 

Neglect of systematic soil investigation 151 

The "old farmer" vs. the agricultural chemist 152 

Cause of neglect of chemical soil analysis 152 

Objections not applicable to virgin soils . 152 

Dr. D. D. Owen's views . 152 

Soil observations in Mississippi 152 

In the cotton States at large 153 

In the northwestern Territories, and in California. : 153 

Practical questions to be answered 153 

Soils cultivated without fertilization come within scope 153 

Methods or Investigation 164 

Field survey— sampling of soils .154 

Qualifications of field observers 164 

Directions and descriptive blanks for field work 154-157 

Examination in the laboratory 157 

Limited by time and working force 157 

Physical toil examination 167 

Preliminary observations 167 

Crushing, wetting, kneading, washing 158 

Quantitative determination of physical data 158 

Mechanical analysis 168 

Precautions in preparing samples 158 

The mechanical soil-washer 169 

Direct determination of clay necessary 169 

Determination of relations to water 159 

Chemical toil examination 161 

Test for effervescence ' 161 

General analysis— choice of solvents 161 

Chlorhydric acid preferable 161 

Time and method of digestion 161 

Course of the general analysis 162 



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TABLE OP CONTENTS. 13 

Pao«. 

Determination of phosphoric acid 162 

Determination of humus— Grandean's method 162 

Determination of nitrogen compounds and chlorine 162 

PRK81HTATIOK AMD IKTEBPRRATIOH OF SOIL ANALYSES 163 

The electro-chemic series should be agreed upon 163 

Interpretation of analyses must be based upon comparison with practice in 

the fields 163 

Soils of high plant-food percentages are always fertile 163 

The reverse maxim not true 163 

Physical and chemical data must both be known 161 

" High" and " low" percentages depend on many conditions 164 

Details of the analytical resulti 166 

Insoluble residue and soluble silica -- 166 

Potash; its range in "rich" and "poor" soils 166 

Lime; preeminently important to soil-character 166 

Large percentages not necessary to impart calcareous character 166 

Soils of arid regions necessarily calcareous 166 

Bottom soils more calcareous than adjacent uplands 167 

Subsoils more calcareous than surface soils ■ 167 

Effects of lime on humus; conserves it 167 

" Aufschliessung" of soils by calcic carbonate 167 

Lime in sandy vs. clayey soils 168 

Magnesia; not specially effective 168 

Magnesian soils usually poor 168 

Manganese; apparently of no effect 169 

Iron; is always abundant chemically 169 

"Ferruginous" soils not always rich in iron 169 

Preference given to "red" soils; causes 169 

A symptom of good drainage 169 

Undrained ferruginous soils unsafe 169 

Ferric hydrate absorbs moisture and heat 169 

Alumina; its analytical percentage of little importance 170 

Clay vs. aluminic hydrate 170 

Phosphoric acid 170 

Its analytical determination very instructive 170 

What constitutes " deficiency" 170 

California soils relatively poor in phosphates 170 

Basaltic soils of the Northwest very rich 170 

Soluble phosphoric acid by Grandeau's method 170 

Water and organic matter not instructive 171 

Humus determination of high interest, as representing nitrogen of soil 171 

Ordinary humus-percentages in virgin soils 171 

Small in arid regions 17i 

High in ferruginous soils 171 

High in western Oregon and Washington 171 

Ash of humus; largely silica 172 

Its contents of soluble phosphoric acid 172 

Assayers of ores and soils vs. metallurgical and agricultural experts 172 

2. LI8T OF TREES AND SHRUBS IN THE UNIVERSITY GROUNDS 172 

3. LI8T OF FRUIT TREES IN THE STATION ORCHARDS 182 

4. LI8T OF VARIETIES OF GRAPEVINES REPRESENTED AT THE SEV- 

ERAL STATIONS 197 



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14 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



Paoc 

5. LIST OF MISCELLANEOUS HERBACEOUS PLANTS IN THE GARDEN 

OP ECONOMIC PLANT8 199 

6. ACCOUNT OP EXPENDITURES FROM THE UNITED 8TATE8 EXPERI- 

MENT STATION FUND FOR THE YEAR ENDING JONE 80,1889 203 



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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



President Horace Davis: 

Dear Sir: I transmit herewith for publication a report on the experi- 
ment stations established under the auspices of the University under tbe 
" Hatch Bill," including descriptions of the phvsical and agricultural 
features of the regions represented by them; and in case of the Central 
Station at Berkeley, a historical statement both of its origin, and, summa- 
rily, of the work it has heretofore accomplished. As the enactment of the 
bill creating a national endowment toward tbe carrying on of agricultural 
experimentation in the several States inaugurates a new era in this work, 
both in California and in the country at large, a somewhat full review of 
what has been accomplished up to the time when that law went into effect 
seems both appropriate and necessary in order to put the facts on record 
while they are within reach. Among other points which it is of some in- 
terest to record, is that the University of California was the first to officially 
establish an agricultural experiment station within the United States. 

As stated by me in a report made to you last year, the extra duties 
imposed upon me in the establishment of the outlying sub-stations have 
made it impossible for me to issue either bulletins or reports that required 
my personal attention, until after the relief granted me by the Board of 
Regents in May last went into effect As a consequence the reports are 
now so far behindhand that it seems best to consolidate those for the years 
1888 and 1889 into one, to be issued as fast as my regular current duties 
will permit; not the completion of the whole, but of such parts as will form 
compact subdivisions by themselves. On this plan the following publica- 
tions have already been made: 

1. Reports of Experiments on Methods of Fermentation, and related sub- 
jects. 1888; 48 pages. 

2. Report of the Professor in charge to the President. 1889; 19 pages. 
(This report treats of instruction, experimental work, and the establish- 
ment of the new stations.) 

3. Report of Examinations of Waters, Water Supply, and related subjects. 
1889; 57 pages. 

The report transmitted herewith will, therefore, be the fourth installment 
of the joint reports, and is to be followed by two others, viz.: The record 
and discussion of the viticultural work done since the last report was 
issued ; and of miscellaneous cultural, entomological, and laboratory work 
not included in the present document. It is hoped that these will be ready 
by the end of the present session, or sooner. 

It is for the reason that the viticultural work could not be at present 
included that detailed reference to the three viticultural stations is now 
omitted; Bince such reference would of necessity lead to discussions for 
which the record is not fully completed or digested. 

I have thought it proper to add to the report, as an appendix, a discus- 
sion of the methods and general results of the soil investigations that have 
formed a considerable part of the work of this station from the beginning. 
The fact that such work is now urgently needed by many of the stations, 



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16 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 

and is likely to be carried on by the United States Geological Surrey as a 
portion of its regular operations, while few are familiar with its methods, 
render this publication timely. 

Very respectfully, 

E. W. HILGARD, 
Professor of Agriculture and Director of Experiment Station. 

Berkeley, April 7, 1890. 



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EXPERIMENT STATIONS 

or THE 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



General Culture Stations: 

The Central Station, Berkeley, Alameda County. ' 
The FoothiU Station, near Jackson, Amador County. 
The Southern Coast Range Station, near Paso de Robles, San Luis 
Obispo County. 

The San Joaquin Valley Station, near Tulare City, Tulare County. 

Viticultural Stations (under private auspices) : 

Cupertino, Santa Clara County. 
Mission San Jose, Alameda County. 
Fresno, Fresno County. 



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THE CENTRAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Location: Berkeley, Alameda County. 



The experiment station at Berkeley is the direct outgrowth of experi- 
mental work begun, in connection with the College of Agriculture ot the 
University of California, shortly after the transfer of the institution from its 
first location, in Oakland, to the present and permanent site. . The location 
of the station was therefore not determined by selection for that purpose, 
but by its connection with the University, which was designedly placed 
within easy reach of the city of San Francisco. It thus happens that it 
represents, climatically, only a comparatively limited area, and is better 
adapted to the propagation of a wide range of vegetation, than to culture 
experiments of wide applicability; but this, as well as the great uniformity 
of temperature through the year, renders the Berkeley station peculiarly 
well suited to the needs of general experimentation, as the center of experi- 
mental work in the State. It admits of the growth and propagation, out 
of doors, of plants widely apart in their climatic adaptations, and on that 
account under disadvantage as regards fruiting, but not otherwise under 
stress. The northern currant andthe semi-tropic citrus and dragon trees 
flourish here side by side, and with a little protection even many inter- 
tropical plants can be kept in fair condition. This relieves in a measure 
the need of large plant houses and other expensive appliances, and facili- 
tates approximate iculture experiments within a very wide range. There 
are probably few localities in which a botanical garden might embrace so 
great a variety of growths of all climates, in the open air. 

History of the Berkeley Station.* 

The idea of providing for the work of an agricultural experiment station 
prevailed at the organization of the College of Agriculture of the Univer- 
sity of California. In 1870, Professor E. S. Carr, in an address at the State 
Fair, made the following specific allusion: " The University proposes to fur- 
nish the facilities for all needful experiments; to be the station where tests 
can be made of whatever claims attention." 

Ex-President Gilman, in his report dated December 1, 1873, alludes to 
progress in this work, as follows: "The University domain is being devel- 
oped with a view to illustrate the capability of the State for special cult- 
ures, whether of forests, fruits, or field crops, and the most economical 
methods of production. It will be the station where new plants and pro- 
cesses will be tested and the results made known to the public. * * * 
A fine estate has been provided, well adapted to the establishment of an 
experiment station in agriculture, a botanic garden, an arboretum, etc." 

As is usual in the history of new undertakings, progress at first was slow 
and hesitating. The report for the years 1873--75, by R. E. C. Stearns, at 
that time Secretary of the Board of Regents, shows that forty acres were 
prepared for planting with a view to agricultural experiments in 1874; and 
that during the winter following there were planted five hundred and 

•The historical and cultural details of the Central Station have been supplied by Mr. 
E. J. Wickson, Superintendent of the grounds. 

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



eighty-four named varieties of tree" fruits, seventy-three of grapevines, and 
ninety-five of various small fruits. The purpose of such plantation, as 
described in Mr. Stearns' report, was as follows: " To furnish means of 
correcting the nomenclature of the fruits already in cultivation, and for 
supplying hereafter scions and plants for distribution throughout the State, 
as well as for the introduction of new varieties." This anticipation of the 
value and importance of the standard orchard of the station has been 
largely realized, as will be shown later in this report. 

The introduction and cultural tests of economic plants of the temperate 
and semi-tropic regions were specially designated by the Board of Regents 
at the organization of the college and the establishment of the experiment 
station in 1870. In 1873 there were over five hundred specimens of native 
and foreign shrubs and trees growing on the grounds of the University. 
Seeds were sought from all sub-tropical countries, and especially large col- 
lections of eucalypti and acacias were obtained from Australia. 

From year to year since that time new plants have been obtained by 
donation and purchase. Data concerning the success or failure of these 
plants may be found in the reports and bulletins of the station. 

In 1874 buildings were erected on the grounds set apart for agricultural 
experiments, viz.: a barn thirty-six by forty-four feet; a tool house sixty- 
four by twelve feet; two propagating houses, one sixty-four by fifteen feet, 
the other thirty by twenty-four feet; a house for hatching fish eggs; and 
in addition to these larger structures a complement of sheds and out- 
buildings, hotbeds and cold frames was provided. Propagation of shrubs 
and trees from seed obtained abroad and especially from other arid regions 
of the world was first undertaken, and a foundation was thus laid for the 
arboretums on the station grounds, which are being continually extended 
in area and variety of growths. 

In 1874 E. W. Hilgard was chosen Professor of Agriculture. In the 
winter of 1875-6 the first field experiments were undertaken, to determine 
the effects of deep culture and of the application of various fertilizers. 

In 1875 the laboratory branch of the experiment station work was inaugu- 
rated i the Regents making provision for the expenses thereof for the first 
two years; and at the end of this time, the Legislature opened the way for 
the continuation and extension of the work, by liberal special appropriations 
from year to year. For the records of accomplishment in this important 
branch of station work, reference must be had to the biennial reports. 

In September, 1878, the Regents set apart apiece of ground for the estab- 
lishment of a " garden of economic plants," as suggested in Professor Hil- 
gard 's early reports. The tract comprised about one and five eighths acres, 
and it was planted during the ensuing winter with a large collection of 
grasses and forage plants, cereals, textiles, medicinal plants, vegetables, 
shrubs, trees, etc., the selection being based upon the known or anticipated 
economic importance of the growths chosen. 

In 1878 experimental work in viticulture and. wine making was begun 
as a special branch of investigation; and in 1880 a small experimental 
cellar and laboratory were constructed with funds specially appropriated 
for that purpose by the Legislature. This branch of work was largely 
extended and improved facilities provided for it from year to year, as the 
viticultural reports of the station show. 

From 1880 until the winter of 1888, the work of the station proceeded 
regularly — extending its old features and assuming new ones, as will be 
shown in the proper connections hereafter, the needed funds being provided, 
both by special legislative appropriations and by increased apportionment 
from the general funds of the University — until at the latter date, funds 

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became available under the Act of Congress known as the " Hatch law," 
establishing experiment stations in each State. This was an exceedingly 
important enactment for our station, because the work had outgrown the 
space and facilities which could be spared for it in the older University 
buildings. Its requirements in work exceeded the compass of the old force 
of assistants, and improved facilities for field, garden, and greenhouse cult- 
ures were also imperatively demanded. The addition of the United States 
funds to those hitherto available from the University resources, also made 
possible the establishment of outlying culture sub-stations, of which Pro- 
fessor Hilgard had early seen the need, and which he had advocated in his 
reports and public addresses for the previous decade. 

The most obvious results thus far attained by the realization of funds 
from the Hatch law are: The increased force and vastly extended and 
improved facilities at the Central Station at Berkeley, and the establish- 
ment and equipment of the outlying stations. 

General Climatic and Topographic Features of the Bay Region. 

The "bay region" constitutes a climatic as well as a hydrographic and 
topographic feature; for, insignificant as the break formed by the Golden 
Gate may seem, it modifies profoundly the climate of the country lying 
adjacent and opposite to it, not only by the influence of its cool tide water, 
but as well by the correspondingly cool lower air currents sweeping through 
it almost throughout the season, and carrying with them both the temper- 
ature and the moisture of the ocean, both modified by the cold Alaskan 
current. In summer, the river of fog, a mile and a quarter wide and from 
six hundred to fifteen hundred feet high, may be seen flowing in steadily 
through the Gate in the afternoon, first submerging the city of San Fran- 
cisco, and then broadening and sending off branches right and left up and 
down the bay, and toward evening reaching the opposite shore, where the 
Contra Costa Range forms a barrier for a time. Eventually this is sur- 
mounted, and finally the cloudy ocean may reach as far as Mount Diablo, 
where it dissolves before the dry air of the Great Valley. The direct influ- 
ence of this current extends about ten miles each way on the opposite 
shore, causing an exceptionally low summer temperature, which fails to 
ripen the grape and the fig. On the western shore of the bay the high ranges 
of the immediate coast form a barrier not surmounted by a considerable 
proportion of the summer fogs; under the lee of these a warmer summer 
temperature prevails on the bay-shore slopes of the counties of San Mateo 
and Marin, as well as on both shores of the southern portion of San Fran- 
cisco Bay, toward San Jose". The cold currents strike across San Pablo 
Bay into the lower part of Napa and Sonoma Valleys, but are chiefly 
deflected so as to form a steady and sometimes hard " blow " through the 
Straits of Carquinez, beyond which they enter the Great Valley and form 
the regular "up-valley" winds of that region. 

Back of the bold promontory that narrows the passage from San Pablo 
into San Francisco Bay, begins the sloping plain (and in part the marsh 
belt) that skirts the eastern bay-shore from San Pablo to San Jose\ form- 
ing, with the corresponding plain lying south of San Francisco on the 
western shore, an important and thickly populated agricultural region. 
Opposite San Francisco this slope is about three miles wide, falling about 
three hundred feet from the foot of the Contra Costa hills. Southward it 
widens to seven or eight miles on either shore, a tide marsh belt of varying 
width striking the bay shore; and the two belts, finally uniting at the lower 
end of the bay, form the broad and fertile Santa Clara Valley, so noted for 

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



its charming climate and the production of fruit and wines. Here the 
summer fogs,. having to surmount the high coast mountains, are much- 
diminished, both in frequency and in coolness.'and the vine, fig, and almond 
attain great perfection. 

The Climate of Berkeley. 

The climate of Berkeley, by its proximity to the ocean, is in its main 
features that of the coast, but it is modified and ameliorated locally by its 
varying topography. The experimental grounds, by virtue of their eleva- 
tion and environment, are to a certain extent protected from the intrusion 
of the harsher coast weather conditions of the summer season, and from 
the severe frosts which sometimes visit the lower levels of the district in 
which it is situated. On the other hand, it does not enjoy the summer 
heat which ripens the grape and the fig in other parts of the bay region. 
It is important, therefore, to characterize briefly the leading features of the 
local climate in which the experiments on the University agricultural 
grounds are carried on. Meteorological observations have been recorded, 
under the direction of the Department of Civil Engineering and Astron- 
omy, at the observatory upon the University grounds, for the last four years, 
and the data of the immediate location, so far as available, are given 
below: 



1886. 



1887. 



1889. 



1890. 



Mean temperature of spring 

Mean temperature of summer... 
Mean temperature of autumn... 

Mean temperature of winter 

Maximum temperature 

Minimum temperature 

Mean relative humidity 

Lowest relative humidity 

Rainfall, July to following June . 



48.57 



49.83 
67.70 
58.43 
48.73 
98.50 
31.30 
84.34 
68.07 
20.46 



53.80 
61.27 
58.53 
50.20 
90.00 
24.90 
83.22 
61.68 
17.48 



55.77 
69.17 
59.50 
45.03 
87.20 
33.60 
83.37 
66.18 
18.84 



•43.75 



•To April 1st. 



To secure, at this time, data covering a more considerable period, recourse 
is had to the observations by Dr. J. B. Trembly, in the city of Oakland, 
about four miles distant from the station grounds. From Dr. Trembly's 
records the following statement is deduced: 

Meteorology of Oakland, thawing Approximately the Climate of Berkeley. 



1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


64.46 


65.18 


65.73 


66.15 


52.97 


60.40 


61.17 


69.36 


60.07 


68.95 


67.75 


57.67 


66.92 


56.78 


65.86 


48.20 


60.89 


60.12 


47.60 


45.38 


97.00 


96.00 


84.00 


93.00 


89.00 


30.00 


30.00 


27.00 


27.00 


29.00 


83.00 


81.00 


84.71 


86.29 


88.70 


40.00 


34.40 


38.60 


39.00 


27.00 


28.55 


12.36 


32.33 


23.55 


23.84 



1881. 



Mean temperature of spring; 

Mean temperature of summer.. 
Mean temperature of autumn .. 

Mean temperature of winter 

Maximum temperature 

Minimum temperature 

Mean relative humidity 

Lowest relative humidity 

Rainfall, July to following June 



66.35 
6057 
64.78 
51.10 
87.00 
81.00 
83.25 
29.00 
3154 



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Meteorology ok Oakland— Continued. 





1882. 


1883. 


1884. 


1883. 


1888. 


1887. 


1888. 


Mean temperature of spring 


54.12 


54.63 


55.59 


58.08 


65.06 


55.29 


49.39 


Mean temperature of summer 


60.06 


61.16 


61.89 


61.23 


61.60 


60.29 


55.52 


Mean temperature of autumn 


66.44 


64.25 


57.07 


59.52 


56.89 


66.85 


62.29 


Mean temperature of winter 


46.80 


46.20 


47.38 


51.69 


52.12 


49.80 


59.30 


Maximum temperature 


84.00 


103.00 


88.00 


89.00 


91.00 


101.00 


91.00 




30.00 


25.00 


28.00 


27.00 


30.00 


31.00 


26.00 




82.67 


83.71 


85.39 


86.74 


87.15 


88.53 


85.83 


Lowest relative humiditv 


28 70 


33.90 


38.19 


41.50 


26.70 


41.50 


56.70 




18.13 


20.22 


31.10 


17.96 


32.21 


18.45 


17.10 



These records show clearly the leading characteristics of the climate 
under which culture experiments are made at the Central Station. Sea- 
sonal temperatures are very equable. The variation between the coldest 
and warmest months of the years cited has ranged from 12 to 17 degrees. 
At no time has the mercury fallen more than 7 degrees below the freezing 
point, and has reached this depression but once, while the usual mini- 
mum temperature is but 3 degrees below freezing. Thus only very tender 
plants are winter-killed. In fact, the prevailing low summer temperature 
more seriously limits the adaptability of the location to experimental fruit 
cultures than does the cold of winter. Fruits bloom approximately at the 
same date as the same varieties in the hot interior valleys, but so tardy is 
the growth under the low summer temperature that these varieties ripen a 
month or more later than in the interior, or, as in the case of late-ripening 
varieties, do not reach perfection at all. The same is true of other plants 
and trees which require high summer heat to secure large growth or excel- 
lence in fruitage. On the other hand, plants adapted to comparatively 
cool, moist air may thrive in Berkeley and utterly perish in the interior. 

As the table shows, the atmospheric humidity sinks to a low minimum 
each year; but this condition prevails but for a few days at a time, while 
a dry, north wind is blowing; and plants which show distress (by curling 
of leaves, etc.) during this period, generally recover quickly under the 
influence of a current of moist air, which flows in from the ocean as soon 
as the north wind is stayed. For this reason some plants thrive here which 
would not survive the continued heat and drought of some interior points 
which perhaps do not show a lower minimum humidity. 

Thermal Belts. — Among the climatic peculiarities belonging more or less 
to the whole State, but more especially pronounced in the valleys opening 
toward the bay, is the occurrence of "thermal belts," or minor regions 
exempt to a remarkable degree from the severer frosts of winter, but more 
especially from the later ones of spring, which are so dangerous to fruit 
about the time of bloom. These usually occur between one hundred and 
eight hundred feet above the valleys, varying of course with the trend and 
exposure to the coast winds. The difference in temperature at sunrise 
between these belts and the valleys sometimes amounts to as much as 10 
degrees F., which, in a region where the thermometer rarely falls below 
26 degrees, of course implies a very material difference in the chances of 
such fruits as almonds, apricots, and even the vine, and in many cases 
permits of the successful culture of semi-tropical fruits, such as the orange, 
lemon, pomegranate, etc. Thus the latter are successfully grown (e. g., in 
certain valleys near Martinez, Contra Costa County) within two miles of 
the cold blast that sweeps through Carquinez Straits. Similar cases are 
frequent in the valleys of Napa and Sonoma; a very striking example is 



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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



that of the Vacaville fruit belt in Solano County. In the Santa Clara 
Valley the culture of the almond follows narrowly a similar warm belt. 

The Soils of this bay coast are substantially of three kinds. Imme- 
diately along the shore lies a narrow strip of sandy land, sometimes sand 
drifts, which influence more or less the character of the adjacent marshes; 
most of the soils of the latter, however, are heavy, and when reclaimed 
are very productive. Inland of these lies a broad belt of black, calcareous, 
and very fertile adobe or prairie soil, somewhat refractory in tillage, which, 
toward the foot of the hills, often becomes yellow and relatively poor. 
This adobe belt is interrupted crosswise by the sediment lands of the 
streams flowing from the Coast Range to the bay. These lands have gen- 
erally light soils, and are often of considerable width, although few of 
these streams are now of much importance; but the frequent shifting of 
their channels in past times has increased the alluvial surface. These 
sediment soils frequently, of couree, pass gradually into the adobe proper, 
and are noted for their productiveness; they furnish much of the market 
supplies of the two cities in fruits and vegetables, but are more especially 
noted for the high quality of brewing (Chevalier) barley produced on 
them. Sugar beets likewise succeed well, but cotton fails to mature its 
bolls within reach of the coast fogs. 

The range skirting the eastern shore, commonly known as the Contra 
Costa Range, though traversed by some abrupt canons, has largely rounded 
crests and summits, and gentle slopes, with deep, and in part, very pro- 
ductive soils, now largely used for grazing purposes only, but susceptible of 
cultivation to the top. Extensive plantations of eucalyptus trees have 
been made on this range, and succeed admirably. The slopes originally 
had some redwood timber, and have now in the canons and on the north- 
ern and eastern slopes not inconsiderable bodies of live oak (Q. agrifolia), 
madrona (Arbutus Menziem), laurel (UmbeUvlaria Calif ornica), and buck- 
eye (jEscvIus Calif orniea); on the banks of streams the western alder 
(Alnus incana) and maple (Acer macrophyllum),ihe buckthorn (Frangula 
Californiea), with more or less undergrowth of hazel, poison oak, bramble, 
and others, and much eagle fern (Pteris aquilina). 

The University Location and Domain. 

The University of California is situated in the town of Berkeley, near 
the northern boundary of Alameda County. Its landed property consists 
of about two hundred acres, located at the foot of the Contra Costa hills. 
Its surface is diversified, and varies in elevation from two hundred to eight 
hundred and fifty feet above the sea level; its general slope is toward the 
west. The western boundary of the University grounds is about two miles 
distant from the eastern shore of the Bay of San Francisco; and about 
twelve miles directly west from the University site is the Golden Gate, the 
famous strait connecting San Francisco Bay with the Pacific Ocean. 

Experiment Grounds of the Central Station. 

That portion of the University domain exclusively devoted to the uses 
of the agricultural experiment station is shown in the accompanying 
diagram. In area it is approximately twenty-five acres, and its situation 
the northwest corner of the University property. The natural boundary of 
the tract on the east and south is a small tributary of a stream of periodic 
flow known as Strawberry Creek, and partly the main stream itself, which 
is of no economic importance except that its bed serves as a natural drain- 



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age outlet for a good portion of the tract, and its heavy winter flow brings 
down a good supply of gravel for the garden walks. It constitutes, how- 
ever, a picturesque feature of the grounds, and with its natural border- 

Srowth of oaks, laurels, buckeyes, and shrubs, must be regarded as a most 
esirable feature. 

The lowest part of the tract is the Garden of Economic Plants, in the 
southwest corner; a more elevated site for the garden would have been 
chosen had there been a sufficient connected area of suitable soil available. 
From the garden the ground rises gradually but not evenly toward the 
northwest, the highest point being the extreme northeast corner (as shown in 
the diagram) , which is now occupied with a peach orchard. This elevation 
is approximately seventy-five feet higher than the garden. The area 
marked " standard orchard " on the diagram is about twenty-five feet lower 
than the peach orchard, has a gradual slope to the south and west, and is 
occupied chiefly with the collections of pears and apples. From this area 

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



toward the east there is a rapid slope to the southeast, upon which are grow- 
ing small collections of grapevines, peaches, and nectarines, and a large 
collection of apricots and plums. At the base of this slope is a long, narrow 
strip of level creek-bottom land, devoted chiefly to nursery and propagat- 
ing grounds, and the propagating and tool houses. 

The larger area of the tract, as shown in the diagram, is devoted to field 
experiments with cereals, forage plants, fertilizers, etc., and to the growth 
of nay for station use. It slopes gradually to the west. 

Besides the lands shown on the diagram the station has, by courtesy of 
the Secretary of the Board of Regents of the University, the use of several 
acres of hill and bench land on the east side of the University property, for 
experiments in forestry. Descriptions of each of the several divisions of 
the experiment grounds are given under the appropriate heading. 

The topography of the grounds favors the quick escape of surplus water; 
but the nature of the soil, which is fully described hereafter, is such that 
in some parts of the area trees have been killed by standing water, and 
timely cultivation of the ground has been impossible. These evils have 
been remedied by underdraining with tile, and the improvement secured 
thereby is most marked. Up to the present time (March, 1890) there have 
been laid one thousand nine hundred and twenty-two feet of three-inch 
tile as mains and four thousand and seventy-seven feet of two-inch tile as 
laterals. This work has been done in the main orchard and in the " Gar- 
den of Economic Plants." The draining of portions of the lands devoted 
to field cultures will be accomplished during the coming summer. The 
drains have been cut to an average depth of three and one half feet, the 
tile carefully aligned and bedded in the clay subsoil, and in most cases a 
covering of six inches of pebbles and small cobbles gathered from the ' 
adjacent surface has been placed over the tile, this covering being overlaid 
with about three inches of brush or straw and the trench then filled with 
earth. This refuse material for covering was at hand, and the surface has 
been enough improved by the raking off of small stone to repay the labor 
in doing it. In this way underdrains have been secured which act quickly 
and effectively and constitute a permanent improvement. It is impossible 
to state accurately the cost of laying these drains, for the work was done 
by the regular force of the station at irregular intervals, when other duties 
were not pressing. . 

The Orchards of the station, to which brief references have already been 
made, occupy about five acres of land. In the appendix to this report 
may be found the full list of fruit varieties now growing. The summary- 
is as follows: 



Peaches 96 varieties. 

Nectarines 13 varieties. 

Apricots 26 varieties. 

Plums and prunes 76 varieties. 

Cherries 36 varieties. 

Almonds 7 varieties. 

Olives 80 varieties. 

Pears 146 varieties. 

Apples 137 varieties. 



Crab-apples 16 varieties. 

Quinces 4 varieties. 

Figs 6 varieties. 

Japan persimmons 6 varieties. 

Mulberries 6 varieties. 

Miscellaneous 36 varieties. 

Total 636 varieties. 



The Garden of Economic Plants. — This division is located in the south- 
west corner of the agricultural grounds adjacent to one of the chief en- 
trances to the University domain, and is, therefore, readily accessible to 
visitors, among whom it is popular, especially with plant lovers, who give 
much time to observation of the various growths. The situation was chosen , 
however, rather because it was the largest available area of soil least 
unsuitable for the purpose. An area of free loam at an elevation would 



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have been selected instead of an area of adobe in a depression, but there 
was no chance- to exercise such preference, and the present site was ac- 
cepted with the determination to make the best of it. Quite gratifying 
success has been attained in this effort, and by the use of lime and manure 
and by frequent and thorough cultivation the soil answers the require- 
ments satisfactorily, as shown by the growths now well established; 
although the loss by frosts of some plants, which would have probably 
been saved on a more elevated site, has to be deplored. 

The garden, as originally laid out, included an area of about one and 
five eighths acres, which was surrounded by a serviceable post, rail and 
wire fence. Along the bank of Strawberry Creek, which forms the south- 
ern boundary, was planted a border of exotic shrubs and low trees; along the 
fence, on the east and north sides, a border of a line of New Zealand flax (Phor- 
nium tenax), with an inner line of Esparto grasses; this has formed a very 
acceptable environment. The interior surface is laid out, because of the 
desirability of series of uniform sized areas for comparative experiments, 
into rectangular plots, the smallest series four by four feet, and the largest 
twenty-five by thirty feet, with series of intermediate areas. There were 
originally six hundred and eighty-eight subdivisions, but some changes 
have since been made according to changing needs. The classified list of 
perennial plants now established in the Economic Garden is given in the 
appendix to this report. In addition thereto a considerable area is of 
course given each year to annuals, including vegetables, of which no list is 
given, because of constant changes in the selection. 

Adjacent to the inclosed area of the garden there are plots of ground of 
something less than an acre in extent, which are used in connection there- 
with. These cannot be included in the inclosure, because of the necessity 
of maintaining existing roadways. 

The Greenhouses, Seedhouse, Nursery, Etc. — The propagating houses are 
situated as shown in the diagram. The buildings were erected, as previ- 
ously stated, in 1874.. They were of very light construction, and have 



They have been for years inadequate to the needs of the station, and must 
soon be replaced by a more spacious structure, or, more correctly speak- 
ing, a respectable greenhouse must be provided, and existing structures 
used as propagating sheds. Because of lack of space and untrustworthy 
heating apparatus, no collection of greenhouse plants, such as visitors 
would expect to see in an institution of this kind, has ever been possible. 
Many desirable things have been donated, but have been killed by lack of 
adequate heat, or have been thrown out for fear of their pushing off the 
insecure roofing. During the last few years, both for lack of accommoda- 
tions and because of the space and time demanded in the propagation of 
economic growths, it' has been seen to be impracticable to pay attention to 
ornamental work. From these causes the propagation department of the 
station is apt to be pronounced uninteresting by the amateur, and must 
rest its claim to credit upon its performance in tne line of multiplication 
and distribution of plants of prospective economic value. 

During the summer of 1889 the old home-made heating arrangement 
for the houses was replaced by a Harvey hot-water heating outfit, which 
has proved a great improvement both in the volume and the regularity of 



For the last few years the station has used as a seedhouse a couple of 
rooms in an adjacent cottage occupied as a residence by the foreman. 
There is now provided a substantial, one-story building, forty-five by 
twenty feet, which will hereafter serve for seed storage and the exhibition 



only been maintained 




constant repairing. 




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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



of the collection of grains with head and stalk, fruits, etc. This building 
is now being fitted up with cases containing large and small drawers, 
large and small bins, shelving, tables, and hooks for suspension of speci- 
men sheaves, etc. It will supply much needed accommodations in this 
leading line of the station work. 

A small piece of bottom land adjoining the creek, as shown in the dia- 
gram, has been in continuous use as a nursery for all lines of outdoor 
propagation. During the last two years it has been fully employed in 
growing fruit trees for planting at the outlying stations, scions being taken 
from the standard orchards adjacent to the nursery. 

The Soils of the Experiment Grounds at Berkeley. 

When field experiments began under his direction in 1875, Professor 
Hilgard made a careful examination of the soils of the University domain, 
and published the following characterization of them in the report of 1877: 

There are substantially three varieties of soil within the present inclo- 
sure, viz.: 

1. Black adobe, more or less modified by intermixture with the hill soil; 
occupies a level tract adjoining Strawberry Creek, in the southwest corner. 

2. Yellow clay upland soil, derived directly from the disintegration of 
the soft clay-sandstone forming the bedrock of the lower foothills. This 
somewhat intractable, and not very fertile, soil occupies most of the experi- 
mental grounds of the University, and thence reaches to the foot of the 
mountain slope. 

3. The soil of the mountain slope proper is usually not quite so heavy, 
contains a large amount of powdered rock of various kinds, and when so 
located that it can be cultivated seems to be more productive than the 
preceding. It has not as yet received any detailed examination. 

The record of the examination of the two soils first named is as follows: 
Nob. 1 and 2. Black adobe soil and subsoil, taken on the University 
campus, in the rear of Cottages 3 and 4, half way to the bridge. 

The black soil here is over thirty inches deep, underlaid by a yellow, 
stony subsoil. It becomes exceedingly "sticky" when wet, but plows 
easily when taken just at the right point of moisture; when plowed a little 
too wet, clots heavily, but the clods tend to pulverize in drying. With 
shallow tillage, or when left untitled, it forms widely gaping cracks in the 
dry season. If tilled deeply and thoroughly, it retains moisture and a 
luxuriant growth of weeds throughout the dry season, and is almost ashy 
in its tilth. 

The soil having been sown to grain, so far as known, for many years, 
and worn badly, it was deemed best not to take the surface soil for analy- 
sis, but a layer from twelve to twenty-two inches depth, and then another 
from twenty-two to thirty inches; the latter representing the extreme prob- 
able range of crop roots. 

No. 4. Adobe ridge subsoil, taken from the crest of the ridge on the agri- 
cultural grounds of the University, four hundred feet west-southwest from 
the barn; depth, ten to twenty inches. 

Tint, a tawny yellow. Very heavy in working ; difficult to till at all times ; 
downwards it gradually passes into " rotten clay sandstone (fragments 
of which are everywhere intermixed with the soil), at a depth varying 
from two and one half to five feet. It is, therefore, ill-drained naturally, 
holds water for a long time, and is esteemed rather a poor soil. 



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CENTRAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 29 



Soils and Subsoils of Berkeley Station. 





No. 1. 
Adobe Soil. 
12 to 22 inches. 


No. 2. 
Adobe Subsoil. 
22 to 30 inches. 


No. 4. 
Ridge Adobe 
Subsoil. 


Mechanical Analysis. 
Weight of stones between 1.2 mm and 0.6™ 111 . — . 

Mechanical Analysts of Fine Earth. 

rn 


lo.y 
ft « 

10.0 


45 4 

7 Q 
I.O 

01). if 


14 9 
J ft 
QO O 


1W.U 


Iw.u 


IW.U 


Q1 Q 

oi.y 


oo.u 


ICQ 

lo.y 


Sediment of «C0.25 mm (less than one fourth 










24.6 


22.1 


17.2 


Sediment of 0.25»>"> 


1.1 


6.0 


4.9 




3.4 


5.9 


6.8 




4.8 


7.0 


6.4 




/.0 




a tx 




A 9 


7 Q 


*l 7 
o.i 




A 
.If 


A A 


7 J 




0 ft 


1 Q 
1.0 


11 1 


AA/limont rxf QO fimni 


7.7 


< 2 


0^5 






n 




Chemical Analysis. 


net o 


tr*.o 


QK Q 


77 flJ. 


AG ^ 


»A l¥i 


Potash 


.45 


.34 


.18 


Soda 


.07 


.10 


.15 




1.05 


.99 


.48 




1.21 


1.91 


.45 


Br. ox. of manganese 


.08 


.09 


.03 




4.67 


7.20 


4.01 




7.79 


13.97 


5.53 




.23 


.11 


.05 


Sulphuric acid 


.08 


.02 


.02 


Organic matter and water 


5.72 


6.60 


4.05 




99.19 


100.89 


100.95 


2.22 
.81 
.44 
.08 




.89 
.56 
32 
.03 



















To one familiar with the prairie soils of the southwestern United States, 
the resemblance of the " black adobe " of California to the " black prairie " 
of Mississippi and Alabama is very striking. The analyses given above 
abundantly confirm this supposition. Both the mechanical and chemical 
composition of the adobe is so nearly like that of the " white lime prairie " 
soil of Monroe County, Mississippi, that the differences are scarcely greater 
than might be found in different localities in either region. The conclu- 
sion is that the experience had in the cultivation of the Mississippi prairie 
will doubtless be found directly applicable to the black adobe of the Coast 
Range. 

There is one difference in favor of California adobe; it is about one third 
richer in phosphates than the " prairie," and this explains the fact that 
grain crops, so exhaustive of that ingredient, have for a succession of 
eighteen to twenty years been grown without apparent diminution. 

The fact that the black adobe contains one per cent of lime, shows that 
the addition of any mall amount of lime, as a manure, would be useless — 
a conclusion directly confirmed by the culture experiments. But it is 
nevertheless true that the tillability of the soil may be greatly improved 
by such addition of lime as can be afforded, in cultivation on a large scale, 

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



as in truck gardens, orchards, flower gardens, lawns, etc. The sample 
analyzed probably represents pretty fairly the black adobe of the foothill 
slope, from San Pablo to within two miles of Oakland. 

The differences in the mechanical and chemical composition of the 
ridge adobe from that of the valley is sufficiently striking. It contains 
less than two thirds the amount oT clay, yet it is much heavier in working, 
owing to the small quantities of the finer sediments, which chiefly serve 
to break up the extreme tenacity of pure clay, that is but little disturbed 
by the large sized grains. Then the soil contains less than half as much 
lime as the lowland adobe; less than half, also, of the primarily important 
ingredients, potash and phosphoric acid; and, finally, very much less 
humus, as is shown by its tint. 

The unproductiveness of this soil is clearly owing to two causes com- 
bined — it is naturally poor in plant food, and its mechanical composition 
makes it so refractory that it is only in exceptionally favorable seasons 
that what it does contain of plant food can remain available to plants, 
since, in drying, it becomes of stony hardness, with only cracks to aid the 
circulation or penetration of air and roots. 

This is one of the cases in which improvement by merely supplying the 
plant food w^ould be a waste of money, unless the physical condition be 
corrected at the same time. Underdrainage would probably do this most 
effectually; green manuring would also be a very important aid. But the 
unusually small amount of clay for so heavy a soil promises excellent 
results from the use of a moderate quantity of quicklime, or marl. 

To test this conclusion, based upon the known effect of lime in rendering 
clays less cohesive, the following experiment was made: One hundred 
grammes (about three ounces) of the soil were kneaded into a paste, and 
allowed to dry at steam heat. Two other similar portions were similarly 
treated, after being mixed intimately with, respectively, one per cent and 
one half per cent, by weight, of quicklime, freshly slacked. 

The lumps of soil dried without addition were, as might be expected, of 
stony hardness. Those of the portion dried with one per cent of lime, on 
the contrary, were so crumbly as to make it difficult to handle them with- 
out breaking them all into powder. Those of the portion containing one 
half per cent of lime were not quite so loose, but still resembled a very 
sandy soil, and were readily crumbled to a loose powder between the 
fingers. 

Of course no such extreme change as that noted in the above experi- 
ments need be brought about in the soil of a field. This would require an 
extravagant outlay for lime, even at the rate of one half per cent. But 
even a very small fraction of the effect produced by the quantity men- 
tioned would suffice to effect a very material improvement in the tillability 
of these adobe ridge soils; and in the case of truck gardens, orchards, and 
vineyards, the saving of labor in tillage, together with the increased thrift- 
iness of the soil, would probably very soon pay for the outlay in the pur- 
chase of lime. The quantities needed per acre to produce a profitable 
result will form the subject of experiment. As regards other fertilizers, 
the use of phosphates and of nitrogenous fertilizers (ammonia salts or Chili 
saltpeter) is indicated by the analysis, for the present; for the future, 
potash will also be required. 

This kind of " ridge adobe" seems to be of very extended occurrence in 
the foothills of the Coast Range, and its improvement forms a practical 
question of wide importance. 



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CENTRAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



31 



The Experiment Station Building at Berkeley. 



The experiment station building, like the station itself, has had a grad- 
ual growth, and owes to this circumstance its location on a lower level than 
the rest of the University buildings, it having been erected in part on 
foundations preexisting and devoted exclusively to viticultural work. In 
its present form it is the outcome of the " Hatch Act," as the $3,000 
allowed for buildings by the terms of that Act were, together with about 
$7,000 from the University fund, employed in its completion. Its total 
cost, including that of the basement and cellar previously existing, has 
been about $16,000. 

Prior to the erection of the present superstructure, the agricultural 
department and station were extremely cramped for room, and its various 
branches so far separated in different buildings or stories as to render sys- 
tematic work very difficult, the Director's office being in his private dwell- 
ing at an inconvenient distance. It is only now that work can, with the 
additional assistance provided for, be properly systematized, and the mate- 
rial accumulated during the past fifteen years be made accessible and 
useful to its full extent. 

The general view of the building, on page 32, shows (as a consequence 
of the peculiar location) only the wooden superstructure, beneath which 
are a spacious brick basement, and below this, again, the cellar serving 
for viticultural work. Strawberry Creek flows around the rear, there 
being sufficient room between for the outdoor work, and a platform over 
the creek on which the sulphuring and washing of kegs and other large 
objects can be conveniently done. On this, the southern or sunny, as 
well as in winter the weather side, a dense grove of California laurels 
affords shade and protection. As will be seen -from the plan of the build- 
ing given below, an entrance similar to the one shown in the general view 
on the right (western) end of the building is placed on the left; another 
(double-door) entrance leads directly into the basement on the rear (creek) 
side, where loaded wagons can have convenient access. The vertical sec- 
tion of the building, on page 33, shows the relation of the several stories 
to each other, the dotted line representing the surface of the ground. 

Interior Arrangements. — In the interior arrangements and outfitting of 
the building, its double object has, of course, been kept in view. While it 
is mainly devoted to the purposes of experimental work, yet the special 
agricultural instruction of the College of Agriculture is intended to be 
given here, because of the close and mutually advantageous relations 
existing between the two classes of work. The collections are equally 
necessary and available for both; and as the students admitted to the 
laboratories have as a rule gone through their elementary course in the 
general chemical department of the University, they usually engage in 
some kind of special analytical or experimental work when entering here, 
and thus frequently contribute important data toward the latter; while at 
the same time they acquire the salutary habit of logical reasoning from 
facts observed by themselves, which is so important a result of all original 
investigation. 

The Main Floor (see diagram) has the ceiling fourteen feet high. In 
the several laboratories the walls and ceilings are ceiled with pine, oiled 
and varnished, in order to avoid the inconveniences arising from the inevit- 
able corrosion of plaster-finished walls. The rest of the main and second 
floors is lath-and-plaster finished, the wood work being redwood, oil-finished. 
It was originally intended to give all the wood work of the laboratories two 
coats of soluble glass, for safety against fire; but the very dark tint assumed 





Vertical Section of the Experiment Station Building. 

surface of the ground.) 



(The dotted line indicates the 



under that treatment by all available woods compelled the abandonment 
of this plan, as the rooms would thus have been rendered too dark. The 
laboratory niches and the frame work of the hoods have, however, been 
thus fireproofed, so that a Buneen gas-flame can be made to play against 
them without producing anything more than smoke. The substance of the 
hoods themselves is thick asbestos sheet. 

Work tables with closets beneath run all around the wall space that 
can be sufficiently lighted; they are primarily occupied by the assistants' 
work, but likewise afford room for students. At present, desk room for ten 
students is provided in the agricultural laboratory; but the accommodation 
an readily be increased should demand arise, by placing desks on the 
3» 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 




Experiment Station Building. (Main Floor.) 

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CENTRAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



35 



floor space remaining vacant at present. The main laboratory is provided 
with a " steam apparatus " manufactured according to plans furnished by 
the station, by the firm of P. A. Wolff & Sons at Heilbronn, Germany. 
It is designed specially for such work as is chiefly needed here, so as to 
accommodate numerous digestions, etc., at one and the same time. 

The boiler is of copper, with brass top plate, into which fit steam-tight 
block-tin casserolles, serving as water baths, and also a fourteen-liter 
(three and one half gallon) block-tin still, with connections of the same 
material. The cooler contains three distinct block-tin condensing worms; 
one connecting directly with the main boiler (which can itself be used as 
a thirty-gallon still when the holes are closed with their appropriate cov- 
ers), and supplying "ordinary" distilled water; another, with the block- 
tin still when used for special distillations; the third receives the purified 
steam that has passed through a double-walled copper drying chamber, 
and furnishes the " first class " distilled water for analytical use. This 
fundamental and indispensable appliance cost about $600 set up in place; 
it supplies easily, and with great economy of fuel, the distilled water needed 
for all purposes. 

A smaller steam apparatus, heretofore used in the agricultural lab- 
oratory, occupies a corresponding place in the division more specially 
devoted to viticultural analysis, as.indicated in the diagram. Whenever 
necessary the capacity of these steam baths can be readily doubled by the 
use of additional copper steam chests, fitted with stamped covers. 

A table covered with asbestos sheet, which is again covered with sheet 
zinc, is under the same hood, and serves for combustions in organic 
analysis, for the Kjeldal nitrogen determinations, etc. 

The balance room contains three Becker analytical balances, andjsev- 
eral others for rougher weighings. It is fitted with shelves for record 
books, and the reference library for laboratory use. 




SlCORD Fl/OOB Of THE ExPKBIMENT STATION BUILDING. 



The Second Floor, with ceiling ten feet high, and lath-and-plaster fin- 
ished throughout, is divided into six rooms; the four corner rooms being 
offices, while of the larger central rooms one (on the north front) is spe- 
cially fitted up for a lecture room of practical agriculture, horticulture, and 

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DNIVEB8ITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



entomology; the other (south) one serves as a reading and collection room. 
Both, however, subserve the latter purpose, the lecture room containing the 
collections of cereals, seeds, insects, and other material serving for reference 
or the illustration of lectures, while the large room opposite is fitted to 
receive the library and current periodicals, as well as such other material 
as may overflow from the lecture room. 

From the middle room on the south side stairs lead up to a spacious 
Garret Floor, lighted by a large skylight window for the present, but easily 
capable of having dormers thrown out if desirable. This garret is fitted 
with shelves around the sides, for the reception of reserve specimens and 
stored material of all kinds, including publications and other reserve doc- 
uments. This space is particularly well adapted to the drying of plants 
collected, and can afford vastly increased accommodation in the future by 
fitting with additional shelving, tables, etc. 



0 



5TDRE 
ROOM 



FEHMEHTRTIQN 



AFTER 
FERMENTATION 




CELLAR 
LABORATORY 



FERMENTATION 



1 



FULL 

MB 

5T0IWX 



^FERMENTATION 



STORE 
RDDM 



Basement of the Experiment Station Building. > 

The Basement of the building (see diagram) is in the main devoted to 
viticultural work, except that in the laboratory room, the blast lamp for 
ignitions and glass work, and also the niche for the continuous distillation 
of pure acids, are placed. There is here, likewise, an installation for the 
electro-magnetic treatment of wines. The brick walls of the basement are 
quite heavy, and, as will be seen from the sectional view of the building, 
the three rooms on the north side are so nearly underground, that only 
transom windows, with areas sunk to the level of the ground, can be used 
to light them. Hence, they are well adapted to the maintenance of uni- 
form temperatures during fermentation, and are assigned to the latter use; 
small coal or gas stoves, or simple gas jets, being used to regulate the 
warmth desired. Special closets are provided for maintaining higher tem- 
peratures for the heating of sherries, or special experiments in fermentation, 

The "crushing and pressing" room is provided with three presses of 
different sizes; a hand-crusher, a wine-heater or " pasteurizer," sink and 
drain-board for washing and cleaning, bottle racks, etc. The large room 
adjoining is not usually used for fermentations, as erroneously indicated 
in the diagram, but serves as a general storeroom for the wine packages, 
crates, fermenting tanks, etc. 



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CENTRAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



37 



CELLAR 



CELLAR 



B 



P CELLAR 



Jl 



HALL t! 

WAY ! ; 

n_ 



Cellars of the Experiment Station Building. 

The Cellar, which is entered by a stairway leading down from the hall 
of the basement, is built with extra heavy brick walls laid in a mixture of 
mortar and cement, and, besides, cemented on the outside. The floors are 
of four-inch concrete, sloping so as to permit the outflow of any water, that 
may seep in from above or be spilled on the floor, through a drain laid on 
the outside just above the footing of the walls, and emptying into the creek 
at its lowest point, the southwest corner of the building. At first there was 
some difficulty from springs derived from the creek above, but this has 
been overcome, and the cellars are now as dry as is desirable. 

The temperature of each compartment can be regulated independently 
of the rest, there being heavy doors between. Ventilation can be had either 
through the transom lights placed in deep brick areas (see sectional view) 
or, if it be desired to exclude the outside air from that direction, as in 
winter, the flues in the chimney-stacks can be used for the purpose, with 
the aid of gas flames, if necessary. All the cellars are provided with wide 
shelving of heavy, rough pine, upon which the packages containing wine 
samples can be stored, convenient to access. Rough tables, for the same 
purpose, supported on trestles, easily shifted according to the requirements, 
occupy the floor. 

THE WORK OF THE EXPERIMENT STATION AT BERKELEY. 

As the increase of means afforded by the United States Experiment Sta- 
tion Fund inaugurates a new era in the work of the station, it is proper to 
give, at this time, a Bummary of the kind and amount of work done by 
the Berkeley station since its establishment. 

The fact that the experimental work of greatest practical utility must 
differ in each State or climatic region, and with the greater or less progress 
of settlement or population, is too obvious to need extended comment and 
illustration. In the newer States and Territories the question is not how 
to maintain the fertility of the soil, but rather which soils are most likely 
to afford the settler a comfortable living, and what cultures are best adapted 
to the prevailing conditions of soil, climate, and market ? Later in time, 
and with the incoming of a stable population, comes the question of the 
maintenance of profitable production by the cheapest and most effective 
means; and still later, the more minute discriminations as to the exact 
composition of fertilizers, feeding stuffs, and their most advantageous use, 
leads to such work as now chiefly occupies the attention of the stations of 
Europe, and of the older States in this country. California is still in the 

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



first and second stages; the questions to be determined are broad and 
fundamental, and upon the answer frequently depends the weal or woe of 
whole communities, or even of extended regions. 

Physical and Agricultural Features of the State. — In view of the great 
diversity of soils and climates within the limits of the State of California, 
it is obviously of the first importance that the experiment station should 
be in possession of all the data needed to make intelligent recommenda- 
tions in response to questions and inquiries of all kinds that are addressed 
to it, especially in regard to the probable value and the adaptation of lands 
to certain cultures. This necessity having been felt from the very begin- 
ning of its work, the original basis of the latter was that of an agricultural 
survey, made with a view to the collection of data for a complete descrip- 
tion of the agricultural features of the State, including the construction of 
a soil map. 

This fundamental work has been kept steadily in view, but the pressing 
demand for special work, in elucidation of questions of immediate practi- 
cal importance, has in a large degree overlaid it in consequence of the 
limited working force and funds at command. 

Early in its history (1877) the station issued a bulletin giving directions 
for the taking of representative soil samples, accompanied by accurate 
descriptions of the natural features of the region concerned. A very im- 
portant contribution of such samples was furnished by the liberality of 
the Southern Pacific Railroad Company, consisting of over four hundred 
specimens taken, in part with notes, by an engineer, Mr. N. J. Willson, who 
traveled for that purpose over most of the company's lines within the State 
in 1880. ' 

The examination and, when desirable, the analysis of samples so fur- 
nished (now amounting to over one thousand two hundred) , have served as 
the basis for the classification of the lands of the State. The first results 
of this work are given in Vol. 6 of the report of the Tenth Census of the 
United States, as a monograph on " The Physical and Agricultural Feat- 
ures of California." It is intended to continue and amplify this work as 
rapidly as the financial resources of the institution will permit, and to 
practically confirm the accuracy of the deductions so obtained, by the 
establishment of outlying culture experiment stations in the several cli- 
matic subdivisions of the State. 

Three such stations have already been established and equipped, repre- 
senting, respectively, the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, the San Joaquin 
Valley, and the southern Coast Range. The land and buildings for these 
stations have been obtained by donation and subscription in the regions 
concerned, showing the public interest in the work. Their running equip- 
ment and maintenance are defrayed out of the Congressional appropriation 
under the Hatch Act, and it is estimated that a fourth station, intended to 
represent the southern region of the State — Los Angeles, San Bernardino, 
and San Diego— can be similarly maintained. Most of the expense pf 
home work of the Central Station at Berkeley is now, as has been from the 
beginning, defrayed either from appropriations made for the purpose by 
the Legislature, or, as at present, directly from the State University Fund. 

In addition to the general culture sub-stations just mentioned, three 
exclusively viticultural stations have been established under private 
auspices; the use of the land and of grafting stocks, and ordinary culti- 
vation, being furnished by the owners, while other expenses are borne by 
the Station Fund. 

Of course, all these stations taken together do not nearly represent more 
than half of the climatically different regions of so large a State as Cali- 

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CENTRAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



39 



fornia, coextensive with the Atlantic coast from Boston to Savannah. To 
satisfy the requirements of the whole, additional appropriations from some 
source will be necessary. 

Chemical and Physical Investigations. 

Among the more important general results obtained in the course of this 
work with regard to the character of the soils of the State are the following: 

In nearly all cases they are calcareous, i. e., contain enough of carbonate 
of lime to impart to them the distinctive character of such soils, and to 
render a farther addition of that substance as a fertilizer superfluous and 
ineffective. 

The great majority contain amounts of potash largely in excess of those 
found in the soils of the region east of the Mississippi; very often exceed- 
ing one per cent 

Potash salts are often found circulating in the soil water; the conclusion 
being that the use of potash as a fertilizer will likewise be uncalled for for a 
long time to come. On the other hand, it has been found that phosphoric 
acid exists in the soils of California in relatively small supply as compared 
with those of the East, and of Oregon, Washington, and Montana. 

Actual trial both at the Central Station and by farmers has corroborated 
the conclusions flowing from the above facts, viz.: that while the use of 
simple phosphate fertilizers has produced marked effects on soils somewhat 
worn, the application of potash fertilizers, and of lime, has rarely shown 
any perceptible results. The conclusion that money expended on the pur- 
chase of fertilizers of these classes does not return good interest at present 
is of no mean practical importance. 

These investigations have called attention to the broad fact, heretofore 
overlooked, that the accumulation of lime in the soil of arid regions is as 
necessary a consequence of the climatic conditions as is that of the alkali 
salts; and that such countries must, under ordinary conditions, be expected 
to have calcareous soils. This generalization is amply verified by numer- 
ous soil analyses from the States and Territories west of the one hundredth 
meridian, made in connection with the Northern Transcontinental Survey, 
but thus far unpublished. 

Alkali Lands. — The investigation of alkali lands has received much 
attention and study, with respect to their composition, mode of reclamation, 
and culture plants adapted to their peculiar conditions. 

This subject is of growing importance, not only because of the great 
intrinsic fertility of the alkali lands, many of which have actually been 
shown to suffer from a surfeit of valuable plant food, but also because the 
practice of irrigation without a proper provision for drainage, and in some 
cases natural conditions in the subsoil under cultivation, cause alkali to 
rise where none was ever known before. The crude attempts to reclaim 
alkali lands by surface flooding, heavy manuring, etc., having resulted in 
failure, their study was undertaken from the earliest days of the station, 
the nature of the alkali salts determined, and the means for the repression 
of their injurious effects indicated, first in the report of the station for 1880, 
the demand for which quickly put it out of print. The portion treating of 
alkali lands and irrigation waters was then separately reprinted in 1886, 
and the demand for information on the subject has now nearly exhausted 
the second edition, copies having been asked for and sent to all the States 
and Territories west of the one hundredth meridian, and to many applicants 
east of the same. The remedies suggested in this publication are largely 
based simply upon the diminution of surface evaporation, the prevention 

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



of the formation of surface crusts, and, in case of the presence of the most 
noxious ingredient, carbonate of soda, its neutralization by means of land 
plaster, which converts it into a harmless neutral salt. The analyses having 
further shown the presence in most of the alkali salts of large supplies of 
■potash salts, soluble phosphates, and nitrates, the high and lasting produc- 
tiveness of these lands when reclaimed has been placed beyond all cavil, 
and has, in num/srous cases of intelligent treatment, been amply confirmed 
by experience. 

Waters. — Parallel with the investigation of the soils, the examination 
and analysis of the waters of the State have been pursued with a view to 
ascertaining their qualities for irrigation, as well as for domestic, manu- 
facturing, and medicinal use. 

As regards waters for domestic and manufacturing use, in numerous 
cases the unfitness of well and spring waters for these purposes has been 
shown, and that they had been the cause of disease in man or beast; while 
in other cases the means have been shown for rendering waters, unfit for 
use in their raw state, fairly good by appropriate processes. 

The analysis of medicinal waters has not been carried out to any great 
extent, partly on account of its disproportionate laboriousness, partly be- 
cause such work can usually be paid for by those interested. 

It has thus been ascertained that there are important differences in the 
mineral ingredients of the several irrigation streams; that the water of 
some is exceptionally pure (e. g., Mokelumne and Kings Rivers), while 
others contain enough of alkaline salts to render certain precautions in 
their use desirable or necessary; while still others supply such large 
amounts of potash as to render it probable that that ingredient will 
scarcely ever require any other source of supply for current replacement 
of what is withdrawn by crops. In the case of Tulare Lake, an examina- 
tion of its waters showed its entire unfitness for irrigation purposes, and 
prevented the construction of costly irrigation works that would have been 
worse than useless. The same has occurred in the case of a number of 
artesian wells yielding highly saline or alkaline waters. 

Other interesting facts concerning the waters of California have been 
presented in the reports for the last twelve years, and latterly in a special 
report on " Waters and Water Supply" of the State. 

Rocks, Marls, etc. — The examination of rocks, marls, gypsum, and other 
materials connected with agriculture, have also formed an important por- 
tion of this work; while, on the other hand, the examination of artificial 
or commercial fertilizers is but little called for, since as yet these fertilizers 
are but sparingly used, and so long as no fertilizer control is exercised by 
the State, the publication of such analyses is inexpedient. 

The need of an abundant and cheap supply of land plaster for use on 
the more or legs alkaline lands of the State has caused the transmission to 
the station of a great number of samples of all kinds, most of which 
turned out to be limestone in various forms. The indications furnished by 
analysis have in several cases, however, resulted in the search for and 
actual finding of gypsum deposits; one of which, in the neighborhood of 
Bakersfield, in Kern County, promises to relieve speedily the present diffi- 
culty of obtaining this important material at a living rate. 

It may be mentioned in this connection that in one case it was proposed 
to erect a mill for the grinding of an impure limestone to be used as a fer- 
tilizer; the occasion being favorable reports upon the effects of such dress- 
ings in New England. The statement that to apply limestone as a fertilizer 
in a region where most soils already contain from 3 to 8 per cent of 
carbonate of lime would be useless and would not be recommended by 

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the station, and that natural marls will supply all that is desirable in that 
direction, promptly caused the abandonment of the enterprise before much 
money had been invested. While the prevention of unprofitable ventures 
is not always thankfully received by those concerned, this function of the 
station is none the less important. 

Agricultural Product*. — The examination (including analysis, when nec- 
essary) of agricultural products of various kinds, such as sorghums, sugar 
canes, sugar beets, and the by-products of sugar making therefrom; water- 
melons, oranges, lemons, etc., from different varieties and localities, has 
been more or less constantly part of the station work, as occasion demanded. 
Tanning materials and various other vegetable products of technical inter- 
est have likewise formed the subject of research. The urgent demand for 
information on a great variety of problems of direct and immediate prac- 
tical importance has relegated the investigation of the relative values of 
feeding stuff of various kinds to a future day, although the peculiar Cali- 
fornian practice of using the cereal grasses for hay almost exclusively, gives 
room for a great deal of important work. 

The investigation of the quality of sugar beets has from the first been 
steadily pursued by the station, since at the very outset the high grade of 
the roots grown in favorable locations had been ascertained, and it there- 
fore seemed to be merely a question of time when the beet sugar industry 
would become of great importance to the State. It may fairly be claimed 
that the persistent investigation and direct proof of the excellence of Cali- 
fornia-grown sugar beets has had its full share in the conversion of private 
and public opinion from its first bias toward sugar cane and sorghum. The 
same line -of work will, of course, be continued in the newly established 
stations. 

The station's investigation of the sugar and syrup-making qualities of 
watermelons, made in 1879, put an end to the proposition to manufacture 
sugar from this fruit, which is produced in great perfection and profusion 
in the Great Valley. 

It is hoped that the demonstration of the inferiority of dried fruit heavily 
sulphured according to the prevailing custom, will finally accomplish the 
abandonment of this objectionable and foolish practice. 

Field Cultures. 

Collections and Culture Tests of Cereals. — Naturally, in establishing 
experimental plantations in a State of such vast cereal resources as California, 
the earliest attention was given to securing a collection of the best varieties 
of cereal grains from all parts of the world. A foundation for such a col- 
lection was made in 1878 by the purchase of a large collection of European 
and Asiatic varieties from an enthusiastic collector, and the collection has 
since then been largely increased from year to year by purchase and by 
donation. This collection at the present time includes, in round numbers, 
one hundred and thirty varieties of wheat, seven of spelts,- thirty-nine of 
barley, five of rye, thirty of oats, a few buckwheats, etc. It has been made 
of public service in several ways. The growing plots have been carefully 
labeled and have been studied with interest by many visitors to the grounds. 
Large collections, including in some cases as many as two hundred varieties, 
have been displayed in specimen heads or sheaves and bottled grains at 
the Fairs of the State ana of the Mechanics' Institute; the varieties have 
been carefully studied from year to year with reference to their adaptation 
to local climatic conditions, their resistance to rust and to the attacks of 
the Hessian fly, and varieties possessing especial claim to attention have 

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been widely distributed among the grain growers of the State. It is doubt- 
ful whether any State institution in the country has so full a collection of 
this kind as that possessed by this station. 

Grasses and Other Forage Plants. — The introduction and testing of forage 
plants naturally forms a part of the introduction and distribution of plants, 
to which allusion has been made, but special reference is made to it because 
of its importance and the great popularity it has gained. No greater pub- 
lic service can be rendered than the designation of grasses and forage 
plants adapted to the divers conditions in soil and climate of the differ- 
ent areas in California. Naturally there is during the rainy season, in 
most parts of the State, a luxuriant growth of annual plants, which give 
rich pastures for a short period; but these plants quickly run out by close 
pasturing, which interferes with their seeding. For years there has been a 
constant call for perennial plants which will retain their verdure during the 
dry summer, and being "root" plants, and not " seed" plants, as the popular 
saying is, will survive much closer pasturing than annuals. Alfalfa 
(Medicago sativa) has proved a priceless boon upon the naturally moist 
or irrigated lands of the interior and southern coast valleys; but alfalfa 
does not make winter growth, nor does the plant thrive on the uplands, 
which constitute the great part of the pasture lands of the dairy regions 
of the Coast Range. For these reasons alfalfa does not meet all require- 
ments, and it has been the effort of this station, and its cooperating experi- 
menters in different parts of the State, for ten years past, to discover plants 
of character and growth to meet the special demands. The reports of the 
station show that great progress is being made in this direction. Especi- 
ally full data are given of the results of wide trials of Schrader's brome 
grass and Hungarian brome grass (Bromvx unioloides and inermis) ; New 
Zealand millet grass (Milium multiflorum) ; "gazon" (Paspalum dilatatum) ; 
Texas blue grass (Poa arachnifera) ; tall oat grass (Avena elatior) ; orchard 
grass (Dactelis glomerata) ; perennial ray grass (Lolium perenne) ; and with 
a new Japanese grass (Agropyrum Japonicum, Vasey) . All of these exhibit 
features of value, and are coming into wide use. Experiments with the 
growth of sorghum varieties, especially of " Amber" and " Orange " canes, 
and of " Kaffir " and " Egyptian " corns, and of " Jersey kale," have demon- 
strated the possibility of securing with them on moist or irrigated land a 
vast amount of summer feed, which is of inestimable value to dairymen 
in keeping up the flow of milk in the summer time, when the natural 
pastures afford only " dry feed," which, though very rich, leads to rapid 
"shrinkage" in the milk flow. Just now the introduction of the Silo 
system of fodder preservation is gaining some prominence in this State, 
the purpose being to preserve winter and spring growth for summer and 
fall use — a complete reversal of eastern dairy economy. In this investi- 
gation of fitness the station will continue to participate. 

Culture Tests of Fertilizers. — The question of how to render the refrac- 
tory soil of the greater part of the experimental grounds, the "hill adobe" 
(see above, the description of the soils of the Central Station), more tract- 
able and productive, was early approached by means of culture tests of 
fertilizers. As shown in the reports for 1879, 1880, and 1882, a number of 
plots of one twentieth acre each was set aside for this purpose and sown to 
cereals (oats or wheat) for four consecutive years. The fertilizers tried 
were potash salts, ammonia salts, sodic nitrate, phosphates, gypsum, and 
lime. Summarizing the results of these experiments, it may be broadly 
said that only the phosphates and nitrogenous manures and lime produced 
any consistent ana sensible effect upon production. 



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As these results agreed with the forecast made in 1877, as the result of 
the analysis of the soil in question, it was deemed unnecessary to proceed 
farther with these tests, ana none have been made since, save to ascertain 
the maximum dose of phosphate that would be useful. This was found 
in a dressing of eight hundred pounds of bone meal per acre. Superphos- 
phates not being then in the market, no tests were made with them. 

Horticulture and Viticulture. 

Fruit Culture. — In this department of horticulture two chief branches 
have been kept in view, viz.: to introduce and propagate for distribution 
fruit varieties and other plants of economic value, from the various tem- 
perate and sub-tropical countries of the world; and to aid in the identifica- 
tion or correct naming of fruit varieties, by the maintenance of a standard 
collection, and by the determination of samples sent in for the purpose by 
producers. This is of particular importance in respect to grapes. 

Of the land devoted to orchard experiments much is naturally ill suited 
for the growth of fruit trees, but has been recently greatly improved by 
underdraining, manuring, and thorough cultivation. The shaping of the 
oldest trees, when first planted, with high heads and too many main 
branches, is chargeable to an earlier administration, which allowed an 
English gardener, without much California experience, to train the trees 
in a way which would have long ago cost them their lives if the planting 
had been done in a hot interior region of the State. The later plantings 
have been given the low heads and modified goblet form which experience 
has shown to be best suited to California conditions — even if such form 
cannot be successfully claimed to be the best for fruit trees in any region 
where it is not necessary to guard against breaking down from the thawing 
of very heavy snowfall. 

The advantage of underdraining orchards on relative subsoils has been 
clearly demonstrated by experience with the station orchard during the 
last two years. Portions of the area upon which cherry trees had been 
killed by standing water, and upon which it was impossible to go with a 
team during the wet season, have been rendered much more suitable for 
tree growth, and capable of cultivation at the same time that work is done 
upon other portions of the orchard naturally well drained. The general 
facts of this underdrainage work have already been given. Of the orchard 
drains, it may be added that mains were laid in the natural valleys, and 
laterals were carried therefrom between each alternate pair of tree rows. 
By this mode the laterals were about fifty feet distant from each other. In 
such heavy retentive soil it would have been better to place the laterals 
somewhat nearer to each other, but the location of the trees prevented. 
As the ground is, however, quite sloping, the long distance between lat- 
erals is of far less importance than if the surface were more nearly level. 
It has been shown that the subterranean water passes quite readily down 
the slope and finds its way into the tile. Soon after heavy rainfalls the 
mains discharge their full capacity, and considering the speed of the out- 
flow, because of the great inclination of the pipes, the volume of surplus 
water taken from the soil is immense. Any one contemplating drainage 
of soggy hillsides may obtain points of interest by a personal visit to the 
drained lands of the station, and by information gained from explanation 
of the matter by the foreman in charge. 

Of the public uses thus far served by the station orchards it has been 
frequently noted that the growth of the trees and the character of the fruit 
of the several hundred correctly named varieties now in bearing are studied 

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with much interest by amateur and professional horticulturists who visit 
the station for that purpose. Large collections have also been shown for 
several years at the State Fair and at other industrial exhibitions, and 
have attracted much attention. It is true, that owing to the prevalence of 
coast fogs and the influence of unfavorable soil, the pears and apples from 
the station orchards have not compared well in size and beauty with fruit 
grown in more favorable locations; but the advantage of large collections 
correctly named is generally recognized. When fruit specimens of the 
same variety from the several outlying stations can be exhibited side by 
side, as it is hoped to do in the future, valuable comparative data will be 
afforded. 

Another way in which the standard collections of the station are aiding 
in the correction of confused local nomenclature is seen in the constant 
demand which exists for scions true to name, the products of which become 
standards for comparison in the different neighborhoods to which they 
have been taken; and thus the local modifications of fruits by changes of 
soil and climates are ruled out in making comparisons, or noted for con- 
trast, when such studies seem desirable. 

Very little has been done with small fruits at the Central Station, because 
of the unfitness of available soil to their growth, and because the insuffi- 
ciency of the water supply would render any attempt at the amelioration 
of the soil for these cultures useless. Adequate and continued moisture of 
the surface soil during the summer season is essential for success with most 
of the small fruits in California. 

Viticulture and Wine-Making. — Of special cultures needing close and 
extensive investigation, viticulture and wine-making are most prominent. 
Between three hundred and four hundred varieties of grapes have been 
introduced into the State, and planted quite indiscriminately, with little 
regard to climatic adaptation. Moreover, the processes of wine-making 
most appropriate to the special conditions of the climate and the grapes 
produced under its influence, are but very little understood, the members 
of each nationality being inclined to adhere to the practice of their own 
country, and thus producing, from the same materials, wines of the most 
diverse kinds and values. This miscellaneous and hap-hazard practice 
has tended to the production of a large bulk of unclassifiable and ill-made 
wines, the throwing of which upon the market has cast unmerited dis- 
credit upon California wines as such. 

So soon as its means permitted, the station began the investigation of 
the character of the grapes produced in the various portions of the State 
where the industry has taken hold, in order to determine, by analysis as 
well as by experimental wine-making, the peculiarities impressed upon 
each grape variety in each climatic region. At first it was attempted to 
reach the information desired by the analysis of wines obtained from the 
several regions; but it was soon found that this was misleading, on account 
of the varied and indefinite modes of wine-making, and that the wine of 
each variety would have to be made in the laboratory itself in order to 
gain definite knowledge of its chemical peculiarities at least. Inevitably 
this had to be done on a small scale, since otherwise the numerous varie- 
ties and localities could not be even approximately covered within a life- 
time. While the wines thus produced would not correspond accurately to 
those made on the large scale, yet they would convey an approximate idea 
of their peculiarities and quality, and in small packages would mature 
very quickly. 

Another difficulty was then encountered in the confused nomenclature 
of the grapes sent, that could not be rectified from the fruit alone. Thus, 

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under the name of " Burgundy" or " Pinot," fully eight different varieties 
came to hand. 

It was thus obvious that the establishment of viticultural culture sta- 
tions in the several climatic regions of. the State could alone be relied on 
to supply authentic material and to rectify the confusion of names. 

The financial means for doing this were not at command before the pas- 
sage of the Hatch Act; but by the liberality of private individuals, owners 
of large vineyards, three vine-culture stations were established under an 
arrangement by which the owners undertook to allow the use of a sufficient 
number of stocks for grafting the varieties of chief interest for the locality, 
and to do the ordinary work of cultivation without expense to the institu- 
tion. 

Besides these three special viticultural stations, each of the three gen- 
eral culture stations, of course, has its vine plantation. There is also a 
small collection of vines growing at the Berkeley station, but as grapes do 
not usually mature there, this vineyard has chiefly subserved the purpose 
of experiments in grafting, and the rooting of cuttings of different resistant 
varieties, and to compare their relative immunity from attack; for the 
study of the habits of the phylloxera (which unfortunately was introduced 
at the time of planting), and especially to test the various modes of repress- 
ing its ravages. In the absence of reasonable facilities for doing this work 
in the infested districts themselves, this plot of about eighty vines has been 
maintained until now; but in consequence of permission obtained from the 
governing Board, to use for this purpose a plot of infested vines set apart 
at the State Home for Feeble-Minded Children, in Sonoma Valley, the vine 
plot at the University will be eradicated this year (1890). It is a curious 
fact that the phylloxera has not found its way from this plot to any of the 
other vine plantations on the grounds, either above or below the wind, the 
development of the winged insect having been very rare. 

From the special viticultural stations valuable data concerning the bear- 
ing, time of maturity, and liability to injury of the several varieties under 
the local climatic conditions, best mode of pruning, etc., have already been 
obtained ; some varieties have proved utterly worthless as bearers in their 
locality; others highly valuable from the same point of view. A number 
of varieties grown under different names have been proved to be identical, 
and others grown under the same name to be entirely distinct. Newly 
imported varieties have been propagated for trial and distribution, as the 
Huasco Muscat grape, of Chili, which is now grown in several localities in 
preference to the Alexandria Muscat. A vast amount of important work 
in these several directions remains to be done, when the vines at the several 
stations shall be older. 

For the purpose of pursuing" the investigation of the grape samples 
obtained from the stations or from private vineyards, a small laboratory 
and cellar were early established at Berkeley, by the aid of a legislative 
appropriation, and these were gradually enlarged, until now the entire 
basement and three cellar rooms beneath the station building are occupied 
by this work, besides the laboratory room and office above. Four reports 
on the viticultural work have been issued, dated, respectively, 1881-2, 
1883-4, 1885-6, and a partial one, 1888; the last three separately from the 
general report, on account of their large volume and special nature. The 
results contained in these reports, and those now in progress of elaboration 
for the report of work, 1887-9, cannot readily be summarized, being largely 
a mass of detail pertaining to each grape variety, including twelve hundred 
and one analyses of musts and four hundred and fifty of wines, believed to 



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be the largest connected series of the kind on record. The following points 
may be noted: 

In appropriate soils and climates, the numerous varieties of the European 
grape show their distinctive qualities and differences, in California as well 
as in Europe. The station has studied the differences produced in the 
same grape variety by difference of climate, with certain well marked 
results, such as the following: Some grapes that in the bay climate of 
California produce highly colored wines, will, in the dry and hot climate 
of the San Joaquin Valley, lose that quality to such extent that dry red 
wines cannot be made from them; and they will in general show a marked 
increase in tannin contents, and a decrease in acid. The resulting dry 
wine will therefore be light colored, astringent, and flattish, resembling no 
wine of commerce and adapted to no existing taste. The Carignane grape 
is one example in point. Still others (e. g., Gamay) will retain a deep tint, 
but with lack of acid and increase of tannin will yield an unclassifiable 
wine of no merit, useful only for certain blends. The presence of alkali 
in the soil appears to aggravate these changes in a marked degree. On 
the other hand it has been shown that, contrary to expectation, the foot- 
hills of the Sierra Nevada will not yield lighter wines than the valley, even 
at two thousand feet elevation; the grapes become equally as sweet, but 
have somewhat more color, ferment better than the valley grapes, and 
their wine has better keeping qualities. Both regions are manifestly best 
— and excellently well — adapted to the growing of sherry, port, and raisin 
grapes, while the slopes and valleys of the Coast Range must be looked to 
for wines of the claret, Burgundy, Sauterne, and Rhenish types. That 
ultimately valuable peculiar types, resembling those of southern France, 
northern Italy, Austria, and Hungary, will be established, and appreciated 
as such by the world, there can be no doubt. 

Several series of elaborate experiments on the best methods of ferment- 
ing wines in the climate of California have been made at the station, and 
the results published. It has been shown that the prevailing practice of 
hot fermentations is responsible for a large proportion of defective fermenta- 
tions and wines; and the means for preventing undue rise of temperature, 
of favoring a sound fermentation, and reviving the same when checked, have 
been set forth both by experiments and precept. The subject of wine colors, 
their progressive extraction from the grape skins during fermentation, the 
time of maximum color for each, and the subsequent rate of decrease in the 
wine, has been studied in detail, and important precepts for practice deduced 
therefrom, the subject being one that has heretofore received no systematic 
study even in Europe. It nas thus been conclusively shown that the com- 
mon impression that long maceration of the wine on the pomace increases 
the color is erroneous; that practically nothing is gained in color after the 
fourth day from crushing, and that for a number of reasons an early draw- 
ing-off of the young wine is to be recommended in California. 

The subject of wine-heating, or "pasteurizing," has been experimentally 
studied for some years, and the advantages as well as the weaknesses of 
the process have been investigated, the difficulty of keeping wines grown 
in the hotter portions of the State without fortification being very great. 

The new electro-magnetic process of wine treatment has been studied, so 
far as the resources of the station (which do not include a dynamo and 
power) would permit; and the unexpected effects upon the chemical com- 
position of the wine have been demonstrated. It has also been shown that 
the wine is completely sterilized by proper treatment, and exhibits surprising 
keeping qualities thereafter, far exceeding those of "pasteurized" wines. 
It is the opinion of the Director that this process is destined to play an 

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exceedingly important part in the wine industry of California in the near 
future, if carefully adapted to the several kinds of wine, and not made 
unavailable by the exactions of the patentees. 

The lees of a number of varieties made into wine at the station have been 
determined as to amount and character, and their contents of tartrates of 
potash and lime determined, with a view to the manufacture of cream of 
tartar. 

A large number of wine samples have been sent in for examination, 
whether as to general quality, or the ascertainment of the cause of certain 
faults and of the best remedy, or finally, for the detection of adulterations. 
The latter subject has occasionally occupied much time, especially as 
regards the alleged coloring of wines, and the use of salicylic acid and 
other antiseptics, for preservation. To the honor of the California product 
it should be said that in but a few instances such additions have been 
detected, and these mostly coming from one and the same commercial 
source. 

The study of vine diseases has at various times occupied much time. 
The field work by which the distribution of the phylloxera within the 
State was ascertained was carried out conjointly with the State Viticult- 
ural Commission, and recorded in the report for 1882. Subsequently the 
diseases of vines in the southern part of the State have formed the subject 
of study, and the mysterious disease that to-day baffles the observers detailed 
by the Department of Agriculture and the State Viticultural Commission 
was first investigated by Assistant Morse in 1886, when, apparently, it either 
originated or first took a serious scope. It was then attributed by him to 
the extraordinary meteorological conditions which prevailed in February 
of that year, when thousands, not only of vines but of fruit trees, died, ail 
over the State, apparently from the same cause. It was therefore supposed 
that the trouble would disappear when the damage of that season should 
have been done away with. This expectation has unfortunately not been 
realized; but the question has not been greatly advanced toward its solu- 
tion since. 

Other special investigations in the field have many times been made in 
response to requests from individuals or communities. 

Elaborate investigations were made on the proposed use of finelv divided 
quicksilver as a remedy against the phylloxera. It was found* that the 
presence of a small proportion of mercury in ,the soil would effectually 
prevent the insect from passing through it alive, and that it might thus be 
used as a preventive of invasion by placing the mercurialized earth around 
the stocks. But the diffusion of the vapor through the soil is too slow to 
reach outlying roots within reasonable limits of time, and thus the method 
cannot serve as a remedy where the insect -already exists in the soil. 

Many other alleged remedies have been tried as they came up, but none 
of special merit have been noted. One — the infusion of insecticides into 
the sap — is still on trial. 

The examination of specimens of diseased vines sent in for the determi- 
nation of the disease and possible remedies, has been a steady and prolific 
source of labor. 

The station is equipped with the standard European literature and 
portraiture of the Vtnifera varieties, and possesses a very comprehensive 
collection of California-grown vine cane and leaf, supplemented with seed 
collections of the same. These materials are in constant use, and have 
already served for the correction of the confused local nomenclature in 
many instances. 



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Forestry. 

In accordance with the general plan of culture experimentation, a part 
of the station's work has been to plant and maintain plantations of forest 
trees, and to note carefully the growth and character of all obtainable 
species thereof; to determine their adaptations to different conditions of 
the soil, rainfall, and temperature, to the end that lists can be prepared 
which can be commended to tree planters in different regions of the State. 

Fairly large plantations of forest trees have been made, and a considerable 
number of species have been introduced and studied. The lack of hard- 
wood timber suitable for the manufacture of agricultural implements, 
staves, etc., in California, early led to the trial of the Eastern oaks, hick- 
ories, and other species valued as timber trees. These experiments have 
progressed sufficiently to show, with the data casually obtained from pri- 
vate parties, that the growth of the oaks and hickories is very slow and 
unsatisfactory, and that their introduction ior large-scale timber culture 
is not to be encouraged. On the other hand, we have elicited the some- 
what unexpected fact that the European or " English " oak (Quercus pedun- 
culata) makes a very rapid and satisfactory growth, even under conditions 
of extreme drought, provided the soil be deep, so as to enable it to send its 
tap root down to moisture. It thus seems probable that this oak will be 
the preferred hardwood tree of the future for the Pacific Coast; and the 
station has for years past distributed both acorns and young seedlings to 
parties in various portions of the State, and all reports thus far agree as to 
the satisfactory adaptation of the species. It will, of course, require some 
time to ascertain definitely the quality of the wood produced; but the fact 
that the growing season is nearly twice as long in California as in its native 
countries, would seem to make it probable that the wood has ample time 
to harden. 

Of other European trees the cork oak has been somewhat extensively 
distributed, and does well, promising to supply in the future a most essen- 
tial need for the wine industry. As a shade tree the cork elm ( Ulmus 
suberosa) does remarkably well. 

The black wattle (Acacia decurrens), so valuable both as a rapid pro- 
ducer of tanbark and firewood, has been extensively distributed by the 
station, with very satisfactory results, from Colusa to San Diego County. 
Of other acacias the A. melanoxylon, or blackwood acacia, has been dis- 
tributed to a limited extent in the coast counties, where it does exceedingly 
well, demanding, however, a slightly milder winter climate and better soil 
than the black wattle. Unlike other acacias, it forms a straight pyramidal 
tree, resisting winds well, and reaching large size, say sixty feet or more. 

A large number of species of Eucalyptus is represented on the grounds of 
the station and University. Of these the E. globulus, or blue gum, is thus far 
the most successful here as elsewhere in the Coast Range south of the bay, 
although its merits as a timber tree are not as yet sufficiently appreciated. 
The red gum (E. viminalis) is next in general adaptation. Of other species 
of eucalyptus the noted Jarrah (or Yarrah — E. marginatus) of western 
Australia has been tried on the station grounds for a number of years, and 
also distributed to a limited extent. It has thus been placed beyond doubt 
that large areas, especially in Southern California near the coast, would be 
well suited to the growth of this tree, so valuable for its resistance to the 
teredo. As a general thing it can be said that Australian trees are better 
adapted to the State, especially to the coast section, than any other class 
of exotic timber trees thus far tried. 



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Next in importance to the Australian trees come perhaps the natives of 
the Mediterranean region, t. «., those from south Europe and western Asia. 
The Spanish chestnut is here a more rapid grower than the American 
variety, and the same is true of the Oriental sycamore, as compared with 
the eastern American. From the latter climate, nevertheless, the box 
elder and black walnut have been measurably successful — the latter par- 
ticularly on the black prairie (adobe) soils of the Coast Range. From the 



From the humid climate of Japan, the so called Japanese elm {Planera 
cuspidata) succeeds well on the coast, but, like other Japanese deciduous 
trees, suffers somewhat from our hot and drying north winds. 

Of evergreens the camphor tree of Japan and China is evidently valu- 
able. The growth of trees distributed from the station proves its adapta- 
tion to a large area. It seems to be specially adapted to the redwood region 
of the coast; but in Yuba County, in the Great Valley, one tree has reached 
the height of fifty feet in fourteen years. Its exemption from insect pests 
alone recommends it for general planting, both as a timber and ornamental 
tree. Several ounces of camphor were made at the station laboratory in 
1885, from the leaves of locally grown trees. 

So far none of the Chilian trees tried have proved much of an acquisi- 
tion, their growth being quite slow, although the so called " pepper tree" 
(Schinus molle), from Peru, grows rapidly in dry soil, and in Southern Cali- 
fornia has attained large dimensions. In spite of repeated trials with seed 
of the Quillaya saponaria, or Spanish-bark tree, we nave never succeeded 
in producing a single plant, no doubt because the small seed suffered in 
transit. 

Few species of trees seem as well adapted to the climate, and to resist 
so well the drying winds, as the various species of Morus that have been 
tried here. Especially can this be said of the Morus Japonica, a species 
equally valuable as food for the silkworm as for shade. It far excels the 
Catalpa speciosa. which suffers from dry winds. The mulberries at all the 
stations have grown exceedingly well; at Paso Robles, without irrigation, 
showing no sign of suffering from drought, while at Tulare, with irrigation, 
the growth has been very rapid. Mulberry cuttings of all varieties have 
been called for and distributed for a number of years, to all parts of the 
State. 

There can now be no question that with the English oak, the two acacias 
mentioned above, the camphor tree, and the several eucalypti (all rapid- 
growing trees) , the entire Coast Range of California, so far as it has sufficient 
soil, can be covered with forest if desired; and the same applies to the 
Great Valley. Of trees of slower growth there are, of course, very many 
that could be used. 

Inter-Tropical Plants. — As heretofore stated, the regular meteorological 
observations at the Central Station at Berkeley are now being made by the 
Department of Civil Engineering and Astronomy of the University; those 
at the outlying stations by the foremen in charge. The discussion of 
these observations, from whatever source or locality, in connection with 
the possible success of untried culture plants, forms an important section 
of the station's work. As a result of such discussions, supplemented by 
actual culture experiments, the proposed planting of coffee, cinchona, the 
chocolate tree, and other tropical fruits within the State, has been aban- 
doned as hopeless, while the success of others, predicable upon similarity 
of climate to old world countries, has been predicted and proved. Several 
cinchona trees had been brought nearly to the point of blooming in the 
comparatively moist and equable climate of Berkeley, and it was hoped 




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UNIVERSITY OK CALIFORNIA. 



that seeds from these trees might prove the progenitors of hardy plants; 
but the extreme cold of two years ago killed them to the ground, and des- 
pite great care they could not be saved. Elsewhere their leaves suffered 
so much from the extreme dryness of the air as to render success hopeless. 

Insect Petti and Diseases of Plants and Animals. 

The entomological work of the station began in 1875 with investigation 
into the occurrence of the grape phylloxera in California, and this special 
branch of entomological inquiry has been constantly in hand. At first, 
as shown by the earlier reports, the definite determination of the area 
infested, and the somewhat modified life history of the insect in this State, 
to which is due its comparatively slow progress, were the leading subjects 
of investigation. 

It has thus been shown that the insect hibernates in California in its 
ordinary larval form as well as in that of eggs; that there are seasons in 
which the winged form is abundant, and others in which few or none 
appear; the former being usually the case in years having summer rains. 
Numerous remedies suggested have been tried and found wanting; and 
the conditions under which the use of " deadened " mercury can be used 
as a preventive of attack have been studied. In this connection the rapidity 
of the diffusion of mercurial vapor in soils is still being tested. 

For the last ten years or more the introduction and distribution of stocks 
resistant to the phylloxera, the various methods of grafting the Vinifera 
varieties on these stocks, and other related matters, have received attention. 
The publications of the station on these subjects have been in constant 
demand by vine planters; and the results therein foreshadowed have been 
realized in the success of resistant vines in infested regions. 

In the warfare against scale insects, which became a serious menace to 
California orchard interests about the year 1880, the station has main- 
tained a leading part. Members of its staff have participated in fruit 
growers' conventions, called to urge united work against the pests by the 
enactment of repressive laws and by the prescription of effective insecti- 
cides. The laboratory of the station has also been engaged in the analysis 
of commercial alkalies and soaps offered for insecticidal purposes, warn- 
ing the public against adulterated goods (Bulletin 52), and indicating 
proper combinations of effective substances, and in the case of whale-oil 
soap, furnishing a formula, which has been accepted as a standard by the 
leading local manufacturers (Bulletin 56). More recently the field experi- 
ments by a member of the station staff in rendering the use of insecticide 
gases, and especially of hydrocyanic gas, and in rendering it innocuous to 
Foliage, and in devising a practical method of its application to citrus 
trees (Bulletins 71, 73, and 79), have proved the basis for several important 
insecticidal undertakings, and have attracted wide attention. 

By experiments covering a series of years on the station grounds, the 
resistance of a number of varieties of wheat to the Hessian By has been 
determined, thus placing in the hands of growers in infested regions of 
this State varieties which, besides their fly-proof character, prove measur- 
ably drought-resisting and productive in a higher degree than many of the 
commonly grown varieties. 

By experiments in the Standard Orchard of the station with various 
treatments for the codlin moth, the efficacy in California of the Paris green 
and London purple sprays was demonstrated, and since the publication of 
the results attained (Bulletin 75), the use of these insecticides against the 
apple worm has been widely adopted in this State. An elaborate experi- 

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ment was also made with the band treatment for the codlin moth, which, 
as published in Bulletin 75, was mentioned by the United States Entomol- 
ogist, in bis report for 1887, as "the only attempt with which we are 
familiar to ascertain and tabulate the exact proportion between the worms 
on a tree and those caught by the bands." 

Experiments with gas lime as an effective application for the woolly 
aphis on the roots of apple trees, resulted in the recommendation of a care- 
ful and sparing application (Bulletin 55) — a prescription which has been 
widely used where gas lime is available. 

Fungous Diseases of Plants. — The work of the station in this line has 
been chiefly directed to the prescription and application of effective fungi- 
cides. Extended observation and experimentation has been had with the 
oidium of the vine, and the proper use of sulphur therefor; also with the 
occurrence of the Fusicladium dendriticum on the apple and pear. For 
the repression of the latter a prescription by the station of a sulphide of 
soda and whale-oil soap, used as a spray, has been found widely effective 
in districts liable to the disease. The French copper-lime remedy for the 
downy mildew was first republished in this country by the station (Bulle- 
tin 51, Jan. 15, 1886), and its efficacy against the powdery mildew, the 
peach curl-leaf, and Fusicladium immediately tested, with practically neg- 
ative results. 

Diseases of Domestic Animals. — Attention to this branch of investigation 
has always been in contemplation, and a number of special reports on cases 
submitted for examination have been made. But the consumption of time 
and funds by other lines of work, for which there seemed a louder public 
demand, has prevented a realization of the intention. It is hoped that the 
station may be soon furnished with a competent veterinarian, with equip- 
ment adequate for original investigation and for supplying the popular 
demand for information and advice. A bill looking toward that end was 
introduced at the last session of the Legislature and received some support 
because of the outcropping of certain animal diseases, which threatened 
also the human species; but this support was not sufficient to secure 
enactment. 

Distribution of Seeds and Plants. — Under the exceptional climatic condi- 
tions prevailing at Berkeley, and in view of the great diversity of climates 
in the State, it was obvious that cultural tests made at numerous points 
could alone determine the possible value of new culture plants, in the 
absence of regional culture stations, the aid of intelligent and interested 
persons was at first called in individually. The advantages of this plan 
soon became so apparent that distribution by formal announcement was 
undertaken, the first notice thereof being given in the report for 1880. This 
feature of the station work has constantly extended until, during the dis- 
tribution for 1889, packages containing several kinds of seeds or plants, 
or both, were sent to nine hundred and ninety-four individual applicants, 
residing in all of the counties of the State save two of the small mountain 
counties. The station has adhered from the first to the plan of requiring 
the applicants to pay a small sum for the packing and transmission of the 
material they desire. The receipts from this requirement do not fully cover 
the cost to the station of the distribution; but the requirement is notably 
pood, because it apparently limits the applications to those actually desir- 
ing to give the plants a fair trial and to report results, and relieves the sta- 
tion from useless dealings with those who are disposed to apply for anything 
which can be had gratuitously, without serious contemplation of making 
any good use of the material secured. 



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As a rule, no plants or seeds handled regularly by the trade have been 
included in the distribution, and so soon as any that had formed the sub- 
ject of distribution came into that category it was dropped from the list. 

Seed Tests. — This is another branch of work which has as yet hardly 
passed a beginning. Seed tests have been conducted for the guidance fur- 
nished thereby in our own field and garden work, and wider investigations 
have been made by student assistants, of commercial seeds as sold in 
the San Francisco market. The growing importance of California as a 
seed-producing State suggests the propriety of extending and systematizing 
this effort in the future. 

A considerable collection of seeds has been already accumulated, among 
them a number of those of native plants that appear in the several climatic 
regions of the State as more or less troublesome weeds. The recognition 
of these could not, of course, be derived from any of the published works 
on the subject; and it is intended to supply this need as rapidly as possible 
by the aid of photography. Among the economically important facts ob- 
served in this connection is the occurrence of the seed of the yellow melilot 
(M. officinalis) in the wheats of certain regions, with the result that the 
flour made therefrom obstinately retains a " gingerbread " flavor objection- 
able to consumers. Hence, such wheat is rejected by millers; but at times 
the seed of alfalfa or luzerne is mistaken for that of the melilot, and the 
grain unjustly graded low for milling purposes. It is, therefore, of some 
importance that the differences between the two seeds should be well un- 
derstood. 

Economic and General Botany. — The botanical department is constantly 
receiving specimens of native and foreign plants for identification and 
advice as to their possible uses, involving extended correspondence and in 
some cases not a little laborious research, since the position of California, 
and particularly of San Francisco, as the center of the trans-Pacific, and 
much of the Mexican and South American trade, brings contributions from 
many of the less known floras to its shore. Many very interesting matters 
are thus brought to the doors of the station and engage its attention in 
proportion to their possible usefulness in the future. 

During the year 1889, two hundred and seventy-nine letters were written 
by Professor Greene in response to inquiries coming within his province. 

Correspondence. — A very large and exacting portion of the station's work 
is an extended correspondence in the domain of all the subjects mentioned 
or more or less remotely connected with them, or at times with almost every 
branch of technical science. While this correspondence involves a heavy 
expenditure of time on the part of the Director and chief assistants, from the 
well known disproportion between the facility of asking and of answering 
questions, yet the amount of information thus received and distributed, 
and the public interest excited, makes it worth while, for the present at 
least, to indulge to a reasonable extent the impression of the public that 
the station is a bureau of universal information and reference. With the 

{ >rogressive increase of the station's printed records the answering of many 
etters becomes merely a matter of clerical work in mailing documents; 
yet so varied is the material that is presented from the wide limits of the 
State, that as the remoter districts are settled new questions are constantly 
mooted and require attention and discussion. It is estimated that during 
the past season, aside from the merely perfunctory correspondence involved 
in the distribution of seeds and plants and the mailing of documents, about 
one thousand six hundred and ninety letters have been written in answer 
to questions requiring a more or less elaborate discussion. Many of these 
letters are subsequently published in the local newspapers, and thus wrve 

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for the information of the public at large. It is thought that the time and 
trouble bestowed upon this branch of the work has been largely instru- 
mental in creating a wider appreciation of and interest in the work of the 
station. 

Publications of the Station. — The publications of the station have been 
of a twofold character, viz.: "bulletins," intended to convey to the public 
information of immediate practical or scientific value in a condensed and 
popular form, suitable for publication in the newspapers; and annual (or 
formerly biennial) reports, embracing all matter previously published in 
bulletin form, but more in detail; and also other work that may have been 
done, or discussions that may have become necessary, in the interval since 
the publication of the previous report. 

This plan of publication in a twofold form was formerly followed by the 
New York Station and by several others, but of late appears to have been 
abandoned in favor of the issuance, under the name of bulletins, of final 
reports of work, not to be reprinted in the annual reports. This station 
having had a prolonged experience of the benefits arising from the plan 
originally adopted, does not feel justified in making a change therein; since 
the wider acquaintance with its work resulting from newspaper circulation 
of the results is thought to offset amply the additional expense of printing. 



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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



THE FOOTHILL STATION. 

Location: Five miles north-northeast from Jackson, Amador County. 



General Features of the Foothill Region. — The Sierra Nevada falls off 
steeply on the east, toward the plateau region of the great interior basin; 
but descends with a gentle slope toward California, on the west. The 
" foothill " country forms the base of this slope, constituting a belt ranging 
in width from five to as much as thirty-five miles, east and west, on the 
eastern border of the Great Valley of California. The face of this country 
is, of course, more or less hilly, with narrow valleys; but not usually 
" broken," except in the southern and narrower portions, where agriculture 
is largely confined to the valleys and lower slopes. In the wider portions 
of the belt we often find broad-backed, plateau-like ridges extending con- 
siderable distances and forming large bodies of agricultural land, even at 
elevations ranging from two thousand five hundred to three thousand five 
hundred feet. But the main belt of cultivable lands lies below two thou- 
sand five hundred feet, while the " upper foothills," from the latter altitude 
up to about four thousand feet, are largely rocky and broken, and are chiefly 
occupied by the lumbering and mining industries. 

The climate of the foothill region may be roughly said to be similar, as 
to temperature, to that of the adjacent portion of the Great Valley, up to 
about one thousand five hundred feet in its northern and up to two thou- 
sand, and even more, in its southern parts. Here, as in the valley, snow 
lies in winter only for a few hours, or days, if it falls at all, and the fig and 
citrus fruits flourish; while, within the next thousand of feet above, snow 
may sometimes lie for weeks at a time (hence " snow belt of the foothills''), 
and the culture of citrus and other subtropical fruits is precarious. In 
both belts, however, deciduous fruits succeed finely, and are noted for their 
fine flavor and good shipping qualities. The summers are warm, the tem- 
perature very commonly rising into the nineties in the daytime; but owing 
to the dryness of the air, this temperature is not oppressive, the more as 
the nights are always cool. 

The following table shows meteorological data for points on the Central 
Pacific Railroad where observations have been made for a number of years, 
and partial data for some other points: 



Table ihowing the Rainfall and Average and Extreme Temperature for Summer and Winter in 
the Sierra Foothill* of Central California. From observation of fifteen yean, from 1871 to 
1886, on the Central Pacific Railroad itatiom. 



Location. 


H 

i 
\ 


Balomll— 
Inches. 


Whiter 
Arerage Tem- 
perature. 


Winter 
Extreme Tem- 
perature. 


Summer 
Average Tem- 
perature. 


gammer 
Extreme Tem- 
perature. 


Total for 
Seaeon. 


Iocreue, Ft. 
for 1 Inch. 


Max. 


Mln. 


Mln. 


Mean. 


Max. 


Mln. 


Max. 


Mean. 


Rocklin .... 

Auburn 

Colfax 


249 
1,360 
2,422 

800 
2,500 


19.1 
32.7 
44.8 
33.2 
66.9 


83.1 
} 87.6 

[ 77.0 


66.9 
66.7 
67.7 


283 
28.6 
30.1 


20.0 
18.0 

iao 


46.9 
46.1 
46.2 


104.1 
97.7 
98.4 


59.2 
55.2 
56.1 


114.0 

loao 
loao 


783 
66.8 


Smartsville . 
Nevada City 



































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This table shows remarkably slight differences in regard to temperature 
to the altitude of over two thousand four hundred feet, the climate of Kocklin 
being practically the same as that of the adjacent valley. There is, how- 
ever, a very important difference in respect to rainfall, which, it is seen, 
increases at a rate ranging usually between eighty and ninety feet for an 
increase of one inch in the annual precipitation. The data given in regard 
to Smartsville and Nevada City show a somewhat more rapid increase of 
rainfall in that section of the foothills as we ascend, implying a more lib- 
eral supply of moisture than is found on the ridge traversed by the Central 
Pacific Railroad. 

The increase of rainfall as we ascend is, of course, a modifying factor, 
as are also the variations caused by alternation of hill and valley, and 
diversity of exposure; all of which give rise to innumerable modifications 
of local climate that must be taken into account in determining the adap- 
tation of localities to certain cultures. Thus, it is not uncommon to find 
in deeper valleys, protected against the western winds, flecks of snow and 
a wintry chill, with dormant vegetation, while a thousand feet higher up 
the foliage is fast developing. 

The region is well watered, being crossed by the main drainage of the 
Sierra Nevada; and in the forested portions numerous springs and spring 
creeks are found, with excellent water. These, however, are usually not 
of sufficient volume, in summer, for irrigation purposes; and while the 
cereals and many fruits can be grown without artificial watering on the 
deeper soils, yet the command of irrigation water is very desirable, not only 
to open a wider range of production, but to increase its quantity and (when 
judiciously managed) the quality also. Hence the capital importance of 
the numerous ditches (mostly originally constructed for mining purposes) 
that take their water high up in the mountains and therefore are capable 
of watering the highest hilltops in the " lower foothills." 

The 8ou» of the foothill region are substantially of three kinds, corre- 
sponding to the chief rocks of the Sierra, viz. : those derived from granite 
proper, those formed from the slate " bedrock," and that resulting from the 
disintegration of the "blue trap" or "bastard rock" of the miners, which 
is most generally of diabasic type. The eruptive rocks — mostly volcanic 
tufas— do not usually form important soil areas by themselves, although, 
of course, contributing to the soils of the slopes and valleys to a greater or 
less extent, where they form considerable masses. The three rocks first 
mentioned, and their several modifications, generally alternate in belts 
more or less parallel to the general trend of the mountains; that is. from 
south-southeast to north-northwest. 

Of the three soils mentioned the granite soil, while fairly productive, is 
the lightest and least durable; the trap soil is the most substantial, pro- 
ducing good grain crops, but is often quite shallow and stony, or full of 
cobbles, and correspondingly difficult of cultivation. The slate soil, while 
not as heavy or substantial, on the average, as the trap soil, but like it of 
a deep orange-red tint ("red foothill soil"), is the one most generally 
approved, especially for fruit culture; largely because even when it is shal- 
low, cultivation soon deepens it by the disintegration of the bedrock, into 
which, since it stands steeply on edge, the roots of trees and vines readily 
penetrate, obtaining both moisture and mineral plant food. 

It is a marked peculiarity of this typical red earth of the placer mines, 
that it will assume the functions of a soil at once, even when taken from 
depths of seven to twelve feet. Hence it is that the lands worked over by 
the early miners, where they have not been subsequently overrun by gravel, 



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UNIVERSITY OP CALIFORNIA. 



or denuded of their red soil, soon become covered with the natural vegeta- 
tion of the region. 

Between these three types of soil there lie, of course, many transitions 
and intermixtures, which are frequently preferred to the typical soils them- 
selves. As in all hilly countries, there are in the foothills stony tracts, in 
which the bedrock is either actually at or near the surface, or its fragments 
very abundantly intermixed with the soil and subsoil. In such lands the 
timber (oaks and pine) is either stunted or absent, and the same is true of 
the several kinds of " chaparral." Large, sturdy trees always indicate a 
considerable depth of soil sufficient for all agricultural purposes. 

The entire region is more or less heavily timbered with several species of 
oak and pine; in the higher portions the cedar (Libocedrus decurrens), 
sugar pine, and several species of spruce come in. The nut pine (P. Sabin- 
iana) and the blue oak (Q. Douglasii) are especially characteristic of the 
lower altitudes, say up to one thousand five hundred feet to one thousand 
eight hundred feet; higher up, the yellow pine, sugar pine, black pine (P. 
ponderosa, Lambertiana, Jejfreyi), the two mountain live oaks (Q. Wis- 
lizeni, chrysolepis), and the black oak (Q. Kettoggii) predominate. 
The California buckeye (jEsculus CaHfornica), as well as the madrona 
tree (Arbutus Memiesii), reach from the valley quite up to three thou- 
sand feet. There is usually a more or less dense undergrowth of 
shrubs, chief among which are several species of chaparral (Ceanothus 
integerrimus, cuneatus, decumbens) , the beautiful manzanita (Arctoslaphylos 
manzanita), the toyon (Heteromeles (Photinia) arbutifolia), California 
buckthorn (Frangula CaHfornica), the poison oak (Rhus diversiloba), and 
the chamisal (Adenostoma fasciculatum) . The presence or absence of 
these trees and shrubs, and their mode of development, indicate very 
closely the changes in the quality of the soils. 

Agriculture in the Foothills. — In early times mining was the exclusive 
pursuit in the foothill region, and it is still of preponderating importance 
m the higher altitudes, although the prohibition of hydraulic gravel- 
mining has dealt it a heavy blow. When placer mining ceased to be very 
lucrative, a good many of the old miners took to farming, but mostly in a 
rather desultory way; while others, who had previous experience in farm- 
ing and gardening, made an excellent business of supplying, from " truck " 
gardens established in the valleys, the necessities of the mining popula- 
tions. The high quality of the red foothill soil, and the practicability of cul- 
tivating it to a considerable extent without irrigation, was a comparatively 
late discovery, and was first carried to its ultimate consequences largely on 
account of the inducements offered by the passage of the Central Pacific 
Railroad through one of the choicest portions of the foothill region. It 
was there demonstrated that up to three thousand feet, and even consider- 
ably higher in favorable exposures, the deciduous fruits, including the 
apple, pear, plum, prune, cherry, vine, and the small fruits, are at home, 
and yield fruit of specially high quality. This has been so well recog- 
nized that while in past years the fruit growers of other portions of the 
State have been unable to find a sufficient market for their fruit, the foot- 
hill fruits from the region adjacent to the Central Pacific Railroad, from 
Rocklin up to Colfax and Dutch Flat, have from the outset been steadily 
marketed at good prices, on account of their high flavor and good shipping 
qualities. The adaptation of the lower portions of the belt to the large- 
scale production of semi-tropic fruits — the fig, olive, pomegranate, and the 
citrus tribe — has been fully recognized only within the past eight or ten 
years, although the specimen trees have existed for many years without 
exciting special remark. 

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Besides the various fruits, the cereals, alfalfa, clover, and all the usual 
crops and vegetables of warm temperate climates are being grown in the 
foothills, and succeed admirably whenever properly cultivated. Yet a 
large proportion of the market supplies consumed by the mining popula- 
tion is still brought from the valley; not because of any intrinsic disability 
of the region to produce them, but because the conservative habits and 
imperfect methods of the old miners who have taken to farming, too fre- 
quently fail to produce the good and lucrative results warranted by the 
generous soil and climate. With the infusion of a new population this 
state of things is rapidly changing for the better, and the salubrious 
climate brings many immigrants in search of health. But the limited 
experience thus far had as to the best varieties to be planted, as well as 
the best methods of culture, the use of irrigation, and many other doubt- 
ful points, rendered the early establishment of a culture experiment sta- 
tion for the foothills specially desirable. . 

Occurrence of the Several Soils. 

The rocks from which the several soils of the foothills are derived usually 
occur in more or less irregularly shaped and often discontinuous belts, run- 
ning approximately parallel to the general trend of the mountains, viz.: 
south-southeast to north-northwest; hence, in traveling on east and west 
lines, the several soil regions are usually crossed consecutively, but not 
always in the same order at different points. The cross-sections described 
below will serve to illustrate these facts. 

Soils of the Valley Border. — It is necessary to premise that in the valley 
itself, on the east side of the Sacramento and Feather Rivers, the lands 
are but very partially of a purely alluvial character. Low ridges and 
swales at right angles to the rivers course come in from the foothills, form- 
ing a gently undulating plain with a fall of from fifteen to twenty feet per 
mile, sometimes right up to the river channels. Nearly all these soils of 
the east side have a reddish tinge, showing the admixture of the red foot- 
hill soil, and demonstrating, by the way, that all these lands are well 
drained. In cuts ten to twelve feet deep, made by the sloughs, the reddish 
plains loam is seen to reach to six to ten feet depth, being then underlaid 
by gravelly substrata. The width of this class of profusely fertile valley 
land, east and west, varies considerably, according to the. meanderings of 
the rivers. Near the city of Sacramento, where the main stream meets 
the American River on an eastward turn, but little of this valley soil 
occurs eastward of the crossing, and on the overland (Central Pacific) 
route we soon reach another class of lands, viz.: the 

Gravel Plains or Bedrock Lands, which may be considered as the lowest 
member of the foothills belt, since they are underlaid by a non-alluvial, 
horizontally stratified formation of grayish and whitish clays, that with 
varying width extends from near Chico, Butte County, southward across the 
Mokelumne, and probably at least as far south as the Stanislaus River, and 
at some points ascends several miles into the foothills themselves. The 
nature of the materials of which this formation (doubtless of pliocene age) 
is composed, is well illustrated at Lincoln, Placer County, and at lone, 
Amador County, where brown lignite coal, not very far advanced toward 
the condition of true coal, and rather impure, is mined, together with excel- 
lent, grayish-white potters' clay, which is shipped to potteries all oyer the 
State. Good potters' clay is not, however, the best material for soils and 
subsoils; hence, where it approaches the surface near enough to influence 
vegetation, the land, though not poor, is ill drained, and the soil heavy and 

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



of a tawny yellow; much of the surface is of the " hog-wallow " character,* 
and very gravelly; and during the wet season, and for some time thereafter, 
the surface is dotted with little ponds, forming an intricate network of alow 
streamlets, which keep up the green pasture for sometime later than is the 
case on the alluvial lands. But when these surface waters once evaporate, 
the ground quickly dries up, and where tillage has not been very deep and 
thorough, injury from drought is very likely to happen. Hence a large 
proportion of these lands, however attractive to the eye in their spring 

f;arb, are largely as yet devoted to pasture, and form a comparatively 
ittle settled and mostly treeless belt between the valley and foothill lands 
proper, wherever the impervious clays approach the surface. Fortunately 
this is far from being the case everywhere, since both ancient and modern 
channels in great numbers traverse the belt, forming such fertile regions 
as the lone Valley, and similar ones near Wheatland, Lincoln, and in the 
Mokelumne region. In Sacramento County this soil region is known as 
the " bedrock lands," and has been very successfully used for fruit culture, 
by the aid of the curious expedient described in the report for 1886, pages 
23 to 25, viz.: the use of giant powder cartridges to break up the clayey 
" bedrock " beneath the holes in which trees are to be planted. The more 
general employment of this method, and the ultimate use of underdrains, 
will depend purely upon the increase of the value of fruit lands. 

Only a few of the soils of this region have been closely examined as yet. 
One set of soil, subsoil, and " bedrock " or hardpan from near Florin, Sac- 
ramento County, has formed the subject of Bulletin 44 (reproduced in the 
report for 1886). An abstract of the results and discussion is given below. 
Three other soils belonging to this soil region, or to its border, have been 
analyze'd and are likewise reported in the sequel. 

No. 499. Red loam soil, from land near the railroad track, one and one 
half miles north of Wheatland, Yuba County. Glaringly orange red ; stiff- 
ish, so that the dry lumps cannot be crushed between the fingers. When 
wetted darkens considerably in color and softens quickly; contains consid- 
erable coarse sand and some quartz gravel; becomes quite plastic on knead- 
ing. This is the soil of the undulating lands stretching from the foothills 
several miles into the valley, and but little above the general level of the 
latter; tills easily when taken in the right moisture-condition, but plows 
very cloddy when either too wet or too dry. Chiefly used for pasture and 
wheat growing, and yields, in good years, fifteen to twenty, sometimes as 
much as twenty-five bushels per acre; in poor years eleven to thirteen 
bushels, but never fails; responds very kindly to summer fallowing. Its 
natural vegetation is almost entirely herbaceous, with a few poison oak 
bushes. 

The subsoil of this land is quite stiff, forming hard, vesicular lumps, 
streaked with deeper red than the general mass. 

Bedrock Lands. — Two sets of materials representing these lands were 
received, agreeing substantially with each other, although from localities 
several miles apart, viz.: Mayhew Station, on the Sacramento Valley Rail- 
road, and Florin, on the Central Pacific line. The arrangement of these 
materials is reported as follows: 

1. No. 858. Pale orange surface loam, four to forty-eight inches thick. 

2. No. 949. Stiff brownish adobe, three to twelve inches thick. 

3. No. 950. Brown or whitish hardpan, one to ten inches thick. 



•These " hog-wallows," though presenting the same general appearance of innumerable 
little, low mounds, dotting thickly a more or less level country, that is so familiar in 
Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, are manifestly due to somewhat different causes, which 
will be found discussed elsewhere. 

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4. No. 963. Brown or white coarse sand, depth not known. 

No. 858, the loam forming the soil, and ordinarily the subsoil of the 
region, is apparently identical in the two localities, and is scarcely distin- 
guishable from the soils prevailing («. g., near Wheatland, Yuba County) 
in a corresponding position; it also agrees very nearly in the essentials of 
chemical composition. 

The brown adobe, No. 949, which forms an almost uniform layer over 
the bedrock everywhere, has evidently been formed out of the latter in the 
course of time by the usual process of soil formation, and, as will be seen 
below, the two scarcely differ in composition more than might different 
portions of either from each other. 

The " bedrock " hardpan, No. 950, differs somewhat in aspect in the two 
localities. At Mayhew Station it is a yellowish white, almost chalky, 
uniform mass, covered on top by a blackish, smooth, almost shiny crust 
an eighth of an inch thick, manifestly formed by the deposition of brown 
iron ore (limonite) ; it would, alone, effectually prevent the penetration of 
roots into the hardpan. The latter is quite compact and free from grit 
above, but downward gradually becomes more friable and sandy, and finally 
seems to pass into almost pure, sharp sand, at times of a strong rusty tint, 
but mostly white. Mr. Lubin states that this rock crumbles on exposure 
to the air. 

At Florin the " bedrock " is less compact, of a rusty tint, and instead of 
the hard, shining crust on the surface, it is penetrated in all directions by 
blackish streaks of the iron ore. It seems more nearly ready to form the 
adobe than the material at Mayhew, and is more readily penetrated by 
roots, but in general character is very nearly alike. 

These differences account for some differences in the experience had in 
this bedrock land in regard to the success of orchard trees planted on it. 
It is stated that they flourish for a few years, varying with the depth of 
the soil, but about the time that the roots reach and would need to pene- 
trate the hardpan layer, they cease growing and often finally die. The 
question arises whether this is due simply to the impenetrability of the 
" bedrock," which prevents the roots from gaining access to a sufficient 
supply of moisture and plant food, or whether any injurious ingredients, 
or other conditions, play a part in the failure of the trees. 

No. 1186. Loam sou, from the " gravel plains," northeast from Gait, 
Sacramento County; sent by J. H. Blaiedell, of Stockton, who gives the 
following information regarding it: 

"The top soil is from six to eight inches in depth; then there underlies 
a clay (subsoil), which is about two feet thick. Then comes the hardpan, 
from six inches to a foot thick; underneath that is clay like the sample 
sent, of unknown depth — it has been dug into in sinking wells for a hun- 
dred feet, water being found at that depth; it is said to be moist all the 
way down. The red subsoil also holds moisture well, for parties cultivat- 
ing it say they have never known it to become dry in the driest summer. 
The hardpan sent also was moist when dug (early in November, 1889), 
and was full of grass roots. The average grain product on this land is not 
above seven or eight bushels, although with good cultivation it has, in fav- 
orable seasons, yielded as much as fifteen bushels. Crop failures will occur 
in seasons that are either very wet or very dry, although the yield of straw 
is generally good. Looking at the land after plowing one would say that 
it should yield twenty-five to thirty bushels per acre." 

The surface soil iB a reddish brown loam, showing a great deal of gravel 
(quartz) from hazelnut size down, but very little coarse sand, being rather 
fine and silty. Dry lumps crush with some difficulty; on wetting, their 

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UNIVERSITY OK CALIFORNIA. 



color darkens materially and they soften quickly, becoming quite plastic on 
kneading. 

The subsoil clay, No. 1187, is also very gravelly, lighter colored than the 
surface soil. Dry lumps crush readily, but on wetting darken but a little 
and soften more slowly than the soil, becoming less plastic on kneading 
than the latter; hence to call it a "clay" would seem to be a misnomer. 

The "hardpan," No. 1188, is darker tinted than the subsoil; cannot be 
crushed between the fingers; contains no gravel. On wetting softens easily, 
and becomes very plastic on kneading. It is therefore a clayey material, 
but, as the sample shows, is penetrated by the grain roots. 

No. 193. Loam soil, from Mr. Huffman's wheat farm, five miles north of 
Merced City. A light reddish brown loam; dry lumps crush with some 
difficulty, but when wetted soften quickly, and on kneading become quite 
plastic. No gravel, save smooth, round concretions of bog iron ore, from 
the size of buckshot down; also some coarse sand, consisting mainly of 
rounded quartz grains, with some well-weathered hornblende and a very 
little feldspar. The soil sample was taken to the depth of twelve inches, 
but the subsoil appears to be the same material for at least three feet. 
The surface of this land lies in gentle swells, on which are the character- 
istic "hog-wallow" hillocks, not very deeply impressed, and therefore not 
interfering materially with tillage even in fresh land, and almost disap- 
pearing after a few years' tillage. The wheat product has been from 
twenty-five to thirty-five bushels per acre on fresh land, in good years; but 
the product decreases materially after a few crops are taken off. 



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62 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



A glance over the figures representing the four surface soils in the forego- 
ing table (Nos. 499, 858, 1186, and 193) shows that unlike the soils of the foot- 
hills proper, they contain a very large proportion (about 85 per cent on the 
average) of inert matter, mostly fine quartz sand ; which, of course, depresses 
all the plant-food percentages to a corresponding degree. Were their text- 
ure a loose, sandy one, and the subsoil of easy penetration by the roots, this 
would not necessarily detract from their productiveness, although their 
phosphoric acid supply is unusually low. But being compact and some- 
what difficult of penetration by roots, it follows that unless very thoroughly 
and deeply cultivated, and with favorable seasons, their product of cereal 
grains especially will necessarily be low. The Wheatland soil has the 
advantage of a considerable supply of lime; of the rest, only that of the 
Gait gravel plains may be considered deficient in this respect. At the same 
time, the soil last named has a very respectable supply of potash, while in 
the Wheatland and Florin soils this ingredient is in unusually low supply 
for California. The former has yielded fine crops of grain when fresh, but 
the diminution of the product has caused a search tor better paying cult- 
ures; among these, fruit — particularly table grapes, apricots, and plums — 
would seem to be the most promising. 

As regards the samples representing the " bedrock lands " about Florin 
and Mayhew Stations, it is curious to note, in the above analyses, that, not- 
withstanding the great differences in the appearance of the three materials, 
they do not differ widely in most points of their composition. The promi- 
nent points of difference are that the surface soil contains about 10 per cent 
more of inert matter (fine sand) than the other two, but much less iron, 
and only a very minute amount of phosphoric acid. The latter, however, 
increases very rapidly downward, the adobe containing more than twice as 
much as the top soil, and the " bedrock " again nearly twice as much as 
the adobe, or four times as much as the surface soil. The deficiency of the 
phosphoric acid in the soil is measurably offset by the fact that nearly all 
of it (.016 out of .019) is in an available condition, and hence the deficiency 
has not been much felt in the past; yet it does seem quite important that 
the relatively large supply in the lower depths should, if possible, be rendered 
accessible to the roots of trees. The supply of lime is nearly the same in 
all, and probably adequate, although more would be desirable in the stiff 
adobe. 

It is certain that this desirable downward penetration of tree roots is not 
possible when, as near Mayhew Station, they encounter a hard, polished 
crust covering a very solid hardpan of several feet depth; and while at 
Florin the hard crust is less prominent and the material less solid, yet its 
condition indicates a want of drainage during the wet season, causing the 
formation of iron solutions, injurious to the root tips, exactly as in the 
other locality. It is obvious that the roots cannot go far during the season 
through such a substratum; and the breaking up of the latter by some 
financially practicable method would seem to be the necessary condition 
for the success of orchards. 

Messrs. Weinstock & Lubin have attempted this on a somewhat exten- 
sive scale on their ranch near Mayhew Station, and Messrs. Kroll & Rutter 
at Florin, by blasting with either black or giant powder at the bottom of a 
hole bored with the auger to the depth of six feet, or even more. The 
shattering of the " bedrock " thus produced, at least when giant powder 
No. 2 has been used, seems sufficient to insure the welfare even of pear 
trees. The expense of this operation will, of course, vary, with the nature 
of the land and the number of trees planted per acre, from $30 to twice 
that amount, in case very thorough work is wanted. 

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The kind of explosive to be used with the greatest advantage will nat- 
urally vary from place to place, with the nature of the hard pan, and will 
have to be ascertained by trial, which could best be made before the rains 
set in. But in view of the fact that the substratum of the " bedrock lands " 
is shown to be actually richer in plant food than the surface soil; that 
while in its natural condition it not only obstructs the passage of the roots 
mechanically, but also injures them by the formation of poisonous solu- 
tions in consequence of the stagnation of water, all of which can be 
relieved by the shattering of the substratum by means of judicious blast- 
ing, also giving the roots access to abundant moisture; it would certainly 
seem that in favorable locations, where land is valuable, this mode of ren- 
dering it available for fruit culture deserves most earnest consideration. 
Neither the adobe nor the " bedrock " should be used in the filling up of 
holes after planting, any more than a raw subsoil should be turned on the 
surface in other cases. But with the access of air and water to the shat- 
tered portion, the substrata will gradually go through the processes of soil 
formation ; and their plant food will doubtless become available fast enough 
to insure the welfare and productiveness of an orchard for the usual period. 

The "gravel plains" soil from the Gait neighborhood differs pointedly 
from those of the Florin region in the nature of its substrata, none of which 
are quite as clayey or impervious as in the bedrock lands, although, as it 
appears, a heavy deposit of red clay replaces the sandy strata said to 
underlie the " bedrock " in the latter. No heroic measures are called for 
in the gravel plains to render the substrata penetrable to roots; deep cultiva- 
tion would probably accomplish most of the improvement needed in the 
mechanical condition of the land, and underdrains would relieve all trouble. 
Chemically the gravel plains soil suffers from a deficiency of lime, as well 
as from a low supply of phosphoric acid, though much of the latter is in a 
soluble condition, and with the good supply of potash explains the growing 
of good crops in favorable seasons. Liming would probably be the best 
paying mode of fertilization in these lands at the present time, and the 
turning in of green crops should serve to increase the very small proportion 
of humus. Until this is done small dressings of Chili saltpeter would 
doubtless be beneficial. 

The Merced soil, while of commendable physical qualities, and endowed 
with fair proportions of lime and potash, is conspicuously deficient in phos- 
phoric acid, so as to render it certain that phosphate fertilizers will be the 
first thing needed when the first productiveness is exhausted. Its supply 
of humus is also very low, a defect which should be treated as in the pre- 
ceding case, by green manuring and the use of nitrate of soda when pro- 
duction slackens. 

SECTIONS ACROSS THE FOOTHILLS. 

Butte County Section. — While a number of soils from the valley portion 
of Butte have been examined and reported upon heretofore (see " Report 
of the College of Agriculture for 1882," page 20), the only soils from the 
foothill portion of the county thus far investigated are from the neighbor- 
hood of Oroville, notably from the lands that, at Thermalito Colony and 
elsewhere, have been devoted to the culture of citrus fruits. Two sets of 
soils were received from the neighborhood: one from S. S. Boynton, then 
editor of the Oroville " Register," and the other from Senator A. P. Jones. 

The town of Oroville is situated near the point where Feather River 
emerges from the foothills proper into the plain, with a sharp turn to south- 
ward. On its right, or western, bank the river runs at the foot of a bluff, 
which, opposite Oroville, is from sixty to seventy-five feet above the river 

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



level, but to southward, within two miles, falls to only ten to twenty feet ele- 
vation; a gentle slope to the southwest continues for eight miles. Directly 
to southward of the town there is on the east side a stretch of valley or 
bottom land, forming a basin about three thousand acres in extent, much 
of which has been mined over for gold. This is bordered on the east by a 
bluff twenty to forty feet high. The bluffs on both sides show, in various 
modifications presently to be noticed, the " red foothill soil" seen elsewhere 
in the region. 

The following samples have been examined, and in part analyzed: 

No. 1088. Soil, from the bluff on the west side of Feather River, about 
one half of a mile west from Oroville; sent by S. S. Boynton. The soil- 
forming layer is here from three to ten feet in thickness, overlying gravel. 
The vegetation is usually oak (blue and white) and greasewood (chapar- 
ral?); in places also the nut pine, manzanita, and poison oak. The soil 
(sample taken to the depth of eighteen to twenty inches) is a glaringly 
orange-red loam, of fine texture, very little coarse sand, but some quartz 
gravel from one fourth of an inch upwards, and occasional slate fragments. 
Dry lumps crush with little difficulty between the fingers; when wetted 
they darken considerably (toward red) and soften quickly; on kneading 
become moderately plastic only. 

No. 1109. Soil, ten to twelve inches depth, from the citrus grove of 
Thermalito Colony; sent by Hon. A. F. Jones. Much lighter in color 
than the preceding, of silty (powdery) appearance; dry lumps quite diffi- 
cult to crush, and softening but slowly on wetting; also becoming but 
slightly plastic. Shows little coarse sand, but contains more or less of 
quartz gravel, well rounded. Seems likely to form hard surface crusts. 

No. 1110. Soil, from block 100, Thermalito Colony, taken to ten to 
twelve inches depth; sent by Hon. A. F. Jones. Deep orange red; dry 
lumps hard to crush between fingers, but on wetting soften quickly, color 
darkening considerably; on kneading becomes quite adhesive, showing 
little coarse sand, but some quartz graveL A clay loam, much heavier in 
tillage than No. 1109, but less liable to crust over. 

No. 1111. Soil, from block 112, Thermalito Colony; sent by the same. 
Very similar to No. 1109, but a little darker colored; lumps when dry quite 
hard, soften but slowly when wetted; becomes more plastic than No. 1109, 
but less so than No. 1110, and seems in other respects to stand between 
the two. Like them contains little coarse sand, but more or less of quartz 
gravel. Not analyzed. 

Two samples from the valley or bottom lands of Feather River in this 
region have also been received and examined: 

No. 1089. Bottom toil, from the east bank of Feather River, about two 
miles south from Oroville and one fourth of a mile from the river. Taken 
to the depth of twelve inches, by S. S. Boynton. " The vegetation is nearly 
all oak (white, Q. lobata), but some sycamore and willow occur on the 
lower ground." A dark drab-colored sandy loam of fine texture, with 
much mica and a little gravel, but no coarse sand. On wetting darkens 
considerably and becomes slightly plastic. 

No. 1176. Subsoil, " from high land above floods, near Feather River, 
in the extreme northern part of Sutter County," as stated by the senders, 
Messrs. White, Cooley & Cutts, of Marysville. Although this soil falls 
properly within the limits of the Great Valley, it is placed here for compari- 
son with the preceding, which, although designated as high land, it resem- 
bles closely in its aspect, being probably old alluvium of Feather River. 
The depth of the soil stratum is stated to be six to twelve feet, with a clayey 
hardpan usually underlying. The land originally bore a heavy growth of 

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white and live oak. The soil resembles altogether the previous number, 
though slightly heavier; the subsoil, which was analyzed, is of light, red- 
dish drab tint; a light loam with much mica, little coarse sand, and no 
gravel. On wetting and kneading it becomes fairly plastic, showing more 
clay than the preceding number. 





No. 1109. 

Soil, 10 to 12 
lnchee. Ther- 
mal 1 to Colony, 

near OroylHe. 


No. 1110. 
Soli, 10 to 12 
lnchee. Ther- 
mallto Colony, 
DMT OroTllle. 


No. 1088. 
Upland Soil, 18 
Inches. Near 

Orortlle. 


No. 1089. 
Feather Hirer 
Bottom Soil, 12 
lnche*. Two 
Mllee South of 
OrorUle. 


AO. 117H. 

Subsoil 18 
Inches. North- 
eut Corner of 
8ntter County, 

near Feather 
BiTer. 


Coarse materials >0^""» 


16.15 




38.90 




25.80 




6.00 




1250 




83.85 




81.10 




74.20 




94.00 




87.50 


Analysis of l\ne Earth. 




















Insoluble matter 


70.U1 
8.71 J 


78.82 


51.18 \ 

ias7 


67.55 


65.781 
1236 


78.14 


6631) 
10.94] 


7635 




Soda (Na-O) 

Lime(CaO) 

Magnesia (MgO) 


.42 




.95 




.18 




.52 




.70 


21 




.57 




.22 




57 




.49 


1.42 




.67 




2.04 




2.04 




2.18 


39 




.42 




.46 




2.03 




1.97 


Br. ox. of manganese 






.03 




.04 










(Mn s O«) 


.08 








.04 




.02 


PeroxideofironfFe.O.) 


9.58 




9.90 




6.97 




6.73 




8.01 


Alnmina t Al O * 
Phosphoric aci<f(P,0,) 


5.79 




15.18 




8.72 




7.95 




9 66 


.07 




.05 




.04 




.17 




.10 


Sulphuric acid (80,) .. 


.01 




.01 




.03 




.02 




.03 




















Water and organic mat- 






4.40 


3.31 


3.27 




ter 


3.23 




4.00 


Total 


99.98 




99.63 




100.16 




9959 




10034 


Humus 


.13 




.45 




.42 




35 




.25 


Ash 


.09 




.80 




.42 




.52 




.10 


BoL phos. acid 


.01 




.02 




.02 




.04 




.02 






















Hygroscopic moisture 
(absorbed at 15* C.)._ 


3.15 


6.54 


432 


2.84 


4.86 



It appears from the aspect of these upland soils, as well as from the 
results of the analyses, that there is a great variation within short dis- 
tances. The contrast between Nos. 1110 and 1088 is striking both in the 
matter of potash and lime, while as regards phosphoric acid, both alike are 
low and differ but slightly. No. 1109 stands between the two in respect to 
potash and lime, but much exceeds both in the matter of phosphoric acid, 
of which it has a respectable supply. There can be no doubt that material 
differences will be felt in the several neighborhoods represented by these 
samples in respect to the duration of fertility and the means of restoration 
or fertilization. As the soil No. 1109 seems to be the more generalized 
type, as well as the lightest, and, on the whole, the best, it is well that it 
should have been chosen for the location of a citrus grove. No. 1088 will 
undoubtedly soon be in need of potash fertilizers, and both it and No. 1110 
will call for phosphatic manures when their first production slackens. 
Their character and depth manifestly adapts them better to fruit culture 
than to any other. 

Of the alluvial soils from Feather River, No. 1088 is of high quality 
throughout, its phosphoric acid supply being especially notable, with plenty 
of lime and a good supply of potash. It should, in addition to other crops, 
make a specially good soil for prunes. 

5 * 



66 



UNIVERSITY OP CALIFORNIA. 



No. 1176 falls behind the other only in respect to a lower supply of phos- 
phoric acid, while even richer in potash and lime. As a somewhat heavier 
soil it will resist drought better, than the preceding, whose capacity for 
moisture is somewhat low. Both are " as good as anybody need want." 

No soils from the foothills to the eastward of Oroville have been received 
as yet. 

Section of the Foothills of Yuba and Nevada Counties. — On a cross-section 
from Marysville east to Nevada City the " bedrock lands " belt is not over 
a mile in width, and is quite sharply defined, as rolling sheep pasture land, 
against the rich brown loams of the adjacent valley. 

Immediately to eastward we enter upon a belt of slate soil, not as deeply 
red as it is farther inland, but strongly characterized by the sharp, lancet- 
like edges of the slate that jut out on all steep slopes or breaks of the roll- 
ing country. This appearance of the outer slate belt is very characteristic, 
from the head of the valley at least to Mariposa County, southward of 
which it is frequently hidden beneath the later formation there skirting 
the foothills. The red soil covers the ridges like a blanket, up and down 
the slopes, but is commonly somewhat deeper on one side than on the other, 
deepening as the streams are approached. This is notably the case on the 
border of the Yuba Valley, where that stream emerges into the plain, from 
gently rolling uplands, covered with deep, red loam, and timbered with 
sturdy, compact oaks and nut pine. It would be difficult to find a better 
representation of the lands of the lowest foothills than the ranches near 
Smartsville, and thence southward to Dry Creek, where (near Spenceville) 
we see the same copper-bearing slates as farther south (in Amador), on the 
eastern edge of the outer slate belt. An unusual feature here is the local 
occurrence of a peculiar sandy variety of the slate, which disintegrates 
more slowly than the usual kind and is not readily penetrable by roots, 
and gives rise to inferior lands, with shallow, sandy soils, treeless in their 
natural state, and not well adapted to fruit culture. 

Inland from the slate belt (here from three to four miles wide) the " blue 
trap " appears, alternating with bands of slate lands, but on the whole pre- 
dominant, in its usual form, for several miles on the road from Smartsville 
to Nevada City. The slopes of the ridges (which in the main run parallel 
to the trend of the mountains) are mostly covered with deep, red soil, well 
timbered with oaks and nut pine; but on their brows they sometimes show 
treeless tracts of stony, shallow soil, usually underlaid by a slaty variety 
of the blue rock. Passing on to eastward we find on the waters of Squirrel 
and Indian Springs Creeks a feature somewhat unique in the foothills: a 
broad body of valley lands, collectively designated as the Penn Valley and 
Indian Springs country; bounded on the east by the rocky ridge country, 
within which lies the old mining town of Rough and Ready, and on the 
summit plateau of which, a thousand feet higher than the valley lands in 
question, lie Nevada City and Grass Valley. The Penn Valley region has 
a soil differing from the typical kinds heretofore mentioned, being a brown 
clay loam originating from a granite-like modification of the blue rock, 
traceable into the latter by insensible gradations. The fertility of this 
loam, which covers the gently undulating country to a depth ranging from 
five to twelve feet, is attested by the groves of huge white oaks still occupy- 
ing many knolls, as well as by thirty years' experience in cultivation, 
during which there apparently has been no sensible diminution in produc- 
tion, at least on the bottom lands of Squirrel Creek. The average altitude 
of this region is about one thousand five hundred feet; all deciduous fruits, 
as well as figs, have been produced at Indian Springs, and it is well worth 
while to test the success of the citrus tribe. 

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A rather steep ascent in the course of three miles brings us to the top of 
the broad ridge or plateau on which Nevada City, Grass Valley, and, far- 
ther south, the new colony of Chicago Park, are located, at average elevations 
between two thousand four hundred and two thousand five hundred feet 
Here is distinctly the region of deciduous fruits, especial excellence being 
claimed for the Bartlett pear. Just north of Nevada City a broken country 
with granite soil sets in, commingled with a good deal of the volcanic and 
gravelly materials forming the upper portions of the gravel mine territory; 
while southward and southeastward the red soils of the older slates and 
" bastard rock " alone prevail, forming a deep covering on the rolling pla- 
teau lands. Originally all these lands were covered with heavy pine, cedar, 
and spruce timber; at present the second growth, almost altogether of yel- 
low pine already large enough to serve as mine timbers, covers the uncul- 
tivated lands. The country rises rather gradually to eastward, and some 
fine orchards have been planted at elevations of three thousand feet and 
over. 

Soils of the Yuba-Nevada Section. — The following soils have thus far 
been more specially examined on this cross-section: 

No. 1216. Soil, from the " lone tree tract" near Vineyard's place, in the 
lower foothills southwest of Smartsville, YubaCounty. A cinnamon-colored, 
silty loam, the dry lumps crushing easily between the fingers; on wetting 
darkens slightly, becomes only fairly plastic, and would till shortly after 
a rain. Contains some gravel and coarse sand, but most of the soil is 
quite finely silty. Underlaid at twelve to eighteen inches by a sandy, cal- 
careous shale, standing on edge. 

No. 1226. Soil, from the slopes of the Yuba River, below Smartsville. 
A reddish brown loam, with some coarse sand, but little or no gravel; dry 
lumps crash between fingers with some difficulty; those of the subsoil not 
at all. On wetting it darkens only moderately, and the lumps soften 
quickly, in the subsoil almost instantly; both soil and subsoil become quite 

Slastic on kneading, and doubtless make a tough mud. The locality bor- 
ers on the Yuba River, toward whose valley the red loam steadily thick- 
ens; where the sample was taken it was twelve feet to bedrock. The virgin 
portion of the land is covered with a fine growth of sturdy oaks and some 
nut pine, and in cultivation has given fine crops of all kinds, including 
fruits. 

No. 1218. Soil, from the upland of Penn Valley, at Montgomery's 
place, on Squirrel Creek. A dull, brown loam; the subsoil more reddish; 
dry lumps hard to crush. Darkens considerably on wetting, and when 
kneaded becomes very plastic; cannot be tilled when wet. Shows some 
coarse sand and a little gravel. The subsoil at this point reached to at 
least fifteen feet depth. Bears a growth of white and other oaks, of extra- 
ordinary size and sturdiness, generally together in clumps. 

No. 1206. Bottom soil, from Wagoner's place, on Squirrel Creek, Penn 
Valley. A loam of light drab color; dry lumps barely crush between the 
fingers; becomes much darker on wetting, and shows an abundance of mica 
scales, but becomes only very slightly plastic. Shows a little coarse sand ; 
does not effervesce with acids. The point at which this sample was taken 
is about a mile above Montgomery's place, where the preceding sample was 
taken. The bottom soil there is much darker than at Wagoner's, and has 
borne crops uninterruptedly for over thirty years. 

No. 1207. Red soil, from near Reed's place, four miles south from Nevada 
City. A dark reddish-brown loam, probably representative of most of the 
ridge soils southward of Nevada City and Grass Valley; elevation about 
two thousand five hundred feet; originally covered with a heavy growth 

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



of spruce, pine, cedar, and black oak, at present with a vigorous second 
growth of yellow pine, already large enough for mine timbers. Dry lumps 
of the soil crush readily between the fingers; it darkens much on wetting, 
but becomes only slightly plastic on kneading, and would be readily tilled 
soon after rains. A little coarse sand and occasional rock fragments form 
part of the mass, which continues apparently unchanged to the bedrock, 
at depths varying in this neighborhood from two to eight feet. 

Noa. 861 and 863. Soife, from the neighborhood of Grass Valley, Nevada 
County; sent by Mr. H. H. Hanssen, of Grass Valley, who thus describes 
their characteristics: 

" No. 861 is the predominant soil around Grass Valley, and to the south 
and southeast. It covers all the hills that have a bedrock formation of 
slate or granite. The soil and subsoil layer varies in thickness from one 
to four feet, sometimes with a clayey subsoil, but oftener euch soil as the 
sample lies directly upon the rock. The latter, especially in the case of 
granite, is soft and broken up, and admits roots readily to the depth of 
eight to ten feet. Trees and vines grow in it without irrigation. The natu- 
ral growth is yellow and sugar pine, white, live, and scrub oaks, raanzanita, 
and chaparral. When cultivated in grain and vegetables this soil does 
well for a year or two, after which crops are a failure unless manure is 
used; with the latter it does well." As the town and the mines near it lie 
(as usual) on the dividing lines between contiguous rock formations, the 
soil derived from these varies from hill to hill. Some, underlaid by talcoee 
rocks, bear only stunted chaparral, while next to such knolls there may be 
a vigorous second growth of pine on the dark red soil. 

The soil is a light loam, rather silty than clayey, of a deep red tint; dry 
lumps crush easily between the fingers. When wetted the color darkens 
considerably, and the soil becomes only slightly plastic, showing but a 
small amount of clay. Some angular rock fragments, and gravel up to 
buckshot size, are intermixed. 

" No. 863, taken from the farm of D. Bryan, iB the soil overlying the 
ancient gravel deposits, which are covered by it, sometimes with a lighter 
colored clayey subsoil, to the depth of six to ten feet, when a 'cement' 
formation is struck. It occurs chiefly to northward and eastward from 
Grass Valley; in fact, it covers all the hills under 'which the auriferous 
gravel beds are found. Sometimes the gravel cement comes to, or near 
the surface, when the ground becomes gravelly and barren. Its vegetation 
is of ranker and coarser growth than on the other soil. The normal forest 
consists of spruce, cedar, fir, different kinds of pine, and some black oak." 
The color of this soil is lighter than that of the first one, but apart from a 
smaller proportion of gravel, its physical character is about the same. 



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FOOTHILL STATION. 



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Of the soils in the foregoing table, Jhe first (No. 1216) is distinctly a " sed- 
entary " one, formed by the disintegration of the underlying sandy, calca- 
reous shale, which is a local and exceptional feature of the "outer slate 
belt." Its lack of sufficient depth disqualifies it for fruit culture, and for 
other crops it needs irrigation, as the roots penetrate the shale only with 
difficulty. It would doubtless be gradually deepened by cultivation. Its 
high proportion of lime and fair supply of pnospnoric acid offset in a meas- 
ure its deficiency in potash — the first, doubtless, that will become apparent 
in cultivation. It is shared by the soils of the higher country, around 
Nevada City. 

The soil of the slope lands on the Yuba, below Smartsville, although 
having a smaller percentage of lime, is yet well supplied with that impor- 
tant substance, as well as with potash and phosphoric acid, the more as 
the latter appears to be almost wholly in the easily soluble form. The lat- 
ter point doubtless contributed materially to the remarkable thriftiness 
shown both in the natural vegetation and the crops grown on this soil, 
which undoubtedly constitutes the most ancient alluvium' of the Yuba 
Valley, although now high above the bed of the river. Its high absorpt- 
ive power secures it against serious injury from drought, or hot winds; 
but irrigation will best bring out its productive capacity in this as in other 
regions of the foothills. With its aid, orange trees have attained large 
size on this soil, as well as elsewhere in the Smartsville region, where, in 
one case, a highly productive deciduous orchard is being pulled up in favor 
of more such orange trees as already occupy a part of the ground, and are 
proving extremely profitable. 

Soils quite similar to this extend some distance on either side of the 
Yuba, and, as the record shows, also upstream and on its tributaries. The 
upland soils of Penn and Indian Springs Valleys, while differing in some 
respects from these of the Smartsville region, justify, by their high and con- 
tinued production, the indications of their natural tree growth as well as of 
trees that, planted since the occupation of the country, have grown to 
unusual size and girth. Here, as in the Smartsville region, an unusual 
proportion of the phosphoric acid present is in the easily soluble form; 
potash about the same at both points, but lime one third less, yet in ample 
supply, as is evidenced by the strongly calcareous character of the bottom 
soil of Squirrel Creek (No. 1205), although the sample analyzed does not 
represent the best of the bottom land, and is lower in nearly all other points 
than the adjacent upland soil (No. 1218). The latter has the advantage 
of the Smartsville soil in an unusually high proportion of humus, which 
also becomes manifest in the dark bottom lands adjoining the knoll at 
Montgomery's. The land of the Indian Springs country is practically the 
same as that in Penn Valley, and the same proofs of high productiveness 
and durability exist there. 

Of the three soils from the Nevada City and Grass Valley plateau, two 
(Nos. 1207 and 863) are very much alike and doubtless represent the same 
general soil region, though sampled by different persons and in different 
localities. Potash is low in both, quite deficient in No. 863; lime is unusually 
low for California soils, though not absolutely deficient, and (as shown by 
direct determination) present in the form of lime carbonate to the extent of 
one tenth of the total, or .04 per cent, which is quite as much as soils of 
much higher totals of lime have actually present in active form. As to 
phosphoric acid, it is exceptionally high in No. 1205, and equal to that of 
the Yuba slope soils in the lower country. In the same soils humus is 
exceptionally high, though lower in No. 863 than in No. 1205; and the 



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absorptive power for moisture is surprising, considering that both are to be 
classed as fairly light loams in tillage.* 

The analysis of No. 861 fully justifies its reputation as a soil much in- 
ferior to those represented by Nos. 863 and 1207; for here both potash 
and phosphoric acid are deficient, while lime is in relatively large supply. 
Its phosphates appear, however, to be mainly in the readily soluble form, 
as in the other two soils, so that a deficiency does not appear immediately 
upon being taken into cultivation. It is, however, well known that these 
" cement " soils are much less durable in cultivation than the slate soils, 
and fruit is their best adaptation. 

There can be little doubt that the quick giving-out of these soils under cul- 
tivation, as reported by Mr. Hanssen, is due to the exhaustion of the avail- 
able potash; hence potash fertilizers, such as wood ashes and kainite, are 
indicated for all three; and for the lands represented by No. 861, phosphates 
will be in order at the same time, whenever production languishes. The 
abundance of humus present indicates that nitrogenous fertilizers will not 
be wanted for some time, and lime also would at present be of no advantage. 

Taken as a whole, this Yuba-Nevada section of the foothills is a remark- 
able one for the large proportion of available land it presents, and the high 
quality of the soils in their several adaptations. 

Section along the Central Pacific Railroad; Sacramento to Colfax. — While in 
the section from Marysville to Nevada City, as has been seen, the clay lands 
of the valley border are followed by an outer slate belt several miles wide, 
which, in its turn, is succeeded, inland, by a wide area of " blue trap," 
intervening between it and the older slates and granites that form the 
matrix of the typical soils, we find in Placer County, on the overland route, 
but a very slight representation of the exterior slate belt; but a short dis- 
tance intervening between the clay or " bedrock " lands of the valley border 
and the granite lands of Roseville and Rocklin, and farther south of Fol- 
som. Following the railroad we continue in granite until we pass New- 
castle; we then enter and continue within the typical red foothills with 
slate bedrock until, near Colfax (two thousand five hundred feet elevation), 
the volcanic tufas and lavas on the higher ridges begin to form a large 
ingredient of the soil, and dilute, as it were, the typical material. The 
" blue trap," though not entirely wanting in this cross-section, appears to 
be confined to a narrow, cobble-bearing belt just east of Newcastle; while 
in the town itself granite rocks crop out. But to southward there is a 
tolling upland region, well settled and yielding the fine shipping fruits for 
which this locality, as well as its next neighbor to eastward — Auburn — are 
specially noted. At the latter point the typical slate soil prevails, which 
was shown by one of the earliest analyses made at this station (Report 
1879, p. 21) to be of excellent chemical and mechanical composition, 



•The explanation of the latter point seems to lie in the extraordinary amount of 
alumina shown to have been dissolved by the acid used in the analysis; quite out of pro- 
portion to the silica set free by the same action and shown as soluble in soda carbonate 
solution. For clay (kaolinite) the silica should relate to the alumina as 1: 1.15; whereas 
here the ratio is (in No. 863) as 3 : LI— that is, there is nearly three times as much alumina 
as could be combined with the silica into kaolinite. The extraordinary amount of water 
expelled by ignition (approximately, 16.48 less 2.89— the humus— equaling 13.69 of water, 
of which only about 1.2 can be credited to the clay corresponding to silica, and to the 
ferric hydrate, etc.). There is thus at least 12 per cent of water to be accounted for, which 
would be Just the amount corresponding to the whole of the alumina considered as 
hydrate. There can be no doubt that a very large proportion of it is thus contained in 
the soil, and this accounts for its slight plasticity in comparison with other soils showing 
much less dissolved alumina— t. g., TNo. 1226, from the lower Yuba region, in which only 
&22 of alumina was dissolved under the same conditions. Similar reasoning applies to 
Nos. 1207 and 861, the latter having nearly twice as much alumina as can be combined 
into day with the silica soluble in boiling solution of sodium carbonate. 

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



although, as in all the slate soils, its potash supply is not very high. But 
in the matter of phosphates it exceeds most of the soils of the State, and 
the continued high production on the old lands justifies the analytical fore- 
cast of its durability. The following descriptions and analyses of soils 
from this section will convey an idea of its characteristics: 

No. 766. Qranite soil, from near Pino Station, Central Pacific Railroad, 
Placer County; sent by Mr. E. W. Maslin, of Sacramento, who thus de- 
scribes the general character of the country: 

" There are about eighty square miles of such land lying between Boulder 
Ridge and the North Fork of the American River, and Detween Roseville 
on the south and Auburn Ravine on the north. The ground is gray when 
dry; when damp, brown or reddish. In places the soil is nine to ten teet 
deep; in some places not over one foot. The subsoil also varies in depth 
and character. On the hills the subsoil rests on a red, rotten granite, into 
which the roots of trees and shrubs penetrate. It has been dug with the 
pick to the depth of twenty feet. In the valleys there underlies a gritty 
clay, here called ' cement,' but also penetrable by roots. Water is within 
ten to twelve feet of the surface on the hills in summer. The natural 

! growth is live oak, white oak, Digger and nut pine, chaparral eight to ten 
eet high, abundance of poison oak, and California ' holly ' (red haw, Pho- 
tinia). " 

Specimens of vine canes, the growth of one season, accompanying the 
soil samples, showed a very good length, although planted late in the dry 
season of 1881-82, and never irrigated. 

This hill soil, which seems to be the typical one, is a reddish gray, sandy 
loam, the sand mostly coarse, and consisting largely of granitic debris; it 
should till easily at all times. The subsoil, below the depth of twelve 
inches, is somewhat lighter colored and more sandy. The soils from the 
depressions or valleys seem to differ from the hill land mainly in being 
somewhat heavier and also of a darker tint. 

No. 764. VaUey soil, from near same locality as No. 766. A brownish 
dun-colored , rather sandy loam, darkening materially on wetting, and becom- 
ing but slightly plastic. Contains much coarse granitic debris. Sample 
taken to the depth of twelve inches. 

The subsoil of this land is more reddish and somewhat sandier than the 
surface soil; the sand being decomposed micaceous granite, increasing 
downward. Beneath the subsoil, at depths varying from three to ten feet, 
is a porous, sandy hardpan (" cement "), quite coherent from clayey bind- 
ing material and not readily penetrable by roots. Beneath this comes 
"rotten" granite (sometimes to twenty feet depth), in which the feldspar 
masses are kaolimzed. 

No. 51. Red surface soil, from near Auburn, Placer County, taken twelve 
inches deep; sent by Mr. N. S. Prosser, of Auburn. Original vegetation, 
oak, pine, manzanita, and chaparral. 

This is a fair sample of the red soil of the placer mines, which seems to 
contain a small amount of gold everywhere, and has been washed on a 
small scale ever since the first discovery of gold in California. It is of a 
dark orange color, rather light in tillage, and pulverulent when dry, form- 
ing a very fine reddish dust. It contains throughout numerous fragments 
of slate, more or less decomposed, of all sizes, and is usually underlaid by 
the same, or its debris, at a variable depth, rarely less than several feet, 
unless lying on steep slopes. The soil becomes but slightly plastic on wet- 
ting, and can be worked soon after rains; its color darkens considerably on 
wetting. When dry its lumps are easily crushed between the fingers. 



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No8. 976 and 977. Soil and subsoil, from the neighborhood of Colfax, 
Placer County; sent by Mr. M. Lobner of that place. " The country rock 
in this neighborhood is slate, which is always found to be standing on edge 
or slightly slanting from the perpendicular, and being, as the samples sent 
show, very much decomposed to a considerable depth (rarely hard and 
bluish) ; it is readily penetrable by roots. It lies at depths varying from 
ten to forty inches below the surface, is of a grayish white tint, and is 
directly overlaid by a bright orange subsoil — a clayey loam, mingled more 
or less with fragments of bedrock, the latter decreasing toward the surface, 
until in the brownish red surface soil, which forms a layer averaging about 
six inches in thickness, but very little rock material can be seen. The 
soil is easily tilled, and when well cultivated always shows moisture at a 
depth of from two to four inches during the dry season; hence no irrigation 
is needed. The natural growth is the foothill pine, black oak, and man- 
zanita, with some chaparral, and very generally some tarweed." (The 
latter is in this case the Chamasbatia foliohsa, a member of the rose family, 
which prevails extensively in the central and northern foothills of Cali- 
fornia.) 

The change of the surface soil to the color of the subsoil occurs at from 
four to five inches in depth; but, according to directions, the surface soil 
sample was taken to the depth of six inches. Only a partial analysis of 
this layer was made, the most important material .in connection with cul- 
tivation being manifestly the subsoil. 

The soil and subsoil examined are of a light reddish brown tint, quite 
unlike the slate soil of the Grass Valley neighborhood. Dry lumps crush 
with little difficulty ; on wetting the soil it darkens in color, softens quickly, 
and on kneading becomes only moderately plastic. Both soil and subsoil 
contain a good deal of more or less angular gravel, not fragments of the 
underlying rock, and evidently transported to some extent. The material 
shown in the railroad cut in the town appears to be more nearly related to 
the tuff materials than to the regular slate" bedrock. 

The two granite soils from Pino Station show the usual large amount of 
inert material (granitic sand or debris), which naturally depresses the 
plant-food percentages. The valley soil differs from that of the ridges, as 
might be expected, in somewhat higher percentages of lime — of which 
substance, however, there is enough in both — and of phosphoric acid, of 
which the supply is small in both, and will doubtless be the first deficiency 
to be supplied. Potash is present in adequate amounts, and humus is in 
fair supply, especially in the valley soil, causing its higher absorption of 
moisture as compared with the ridge soil. In both, however, that factor is 
low, hence irrigation would doubtless be very beneficial to the thrifty 
growth of the crops. The somewhat slow progress of vines and trees in 
the granitic soils of the foothills is at many points a matter of popular 
remark and complaint. 

The Auburn soil — a typical slate soil— differs from the granite soils of 
Pino in one very essential respect: it has, even on the ridge land, over five 
times as much phosphoric acid as the soil, and four times as much as the 
subsoil, derived from the granite. In other respects it does not differ 
widely; but its well known high production, both in quantity and quality, 
and its thriftiness, confirm the forecast given by the analysis. Practically 
the same soil prevails near Newcastle, and to the southeast of Penryn — all 
localities noted for the production of fine shipping fruits. 

The soils around Colfax are somewhat variable, since the lower ridges 
have the blue slate bedrock, while the higher ones either consist of, or are 
capped with the so called lava, more properly volcanic tuff, in various 

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



degrees of consolidation. It is probable that the soil and subsoil examined 
(Nos. 976 and 977) represent the latter class, whose predominant growth 
of pine indicates its poverty in lime, as shown in the analysis. The land 
is well supplied with potash, fairly with phosphoric acid, and has a high 
percentage of humus, and retention of moisture. The ease with which 
roots can almost everywhere penetrate to great depths in the subsoil and 
underlying soft bedrock, renders it well adapted to the growth of fruits 
without irrigation. As grain land it would probably not hold out long. 

Soile of Section along the Central Pacific Railroad, in Placer County. 



Ohaniti Soils. 



No. T86. 
HU1 Pine. 



No. 764. 
Valley 8taUon. 



No. 61. 
Slate Soil, 
12 inches. 

Auburn. 



No. 976. 
Soli, 
0 to 6 inches. 
Colfax. 



No. 977. 
8nbeoiL 
6 to 21 incba 
Colfax. 



Coarse mate rials >05°"» 
Fine earth 



Analyaia of Fine Earth. 

Insoluble matter 

Soluble silica 

Potash (K.O) 

Soda (Na.O) 



Lime (OaOl . 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Br. ox. of Manganese 
(Mn,0 4 ) ... 
Peroxide of Iron 

(Fe.O,) 

Alumina (Al.O.) 

Phosphoric acia(P a O t ) 
Sulphuric acid (SO.) .. 
Carbonic acid (CO,) ... 
Water and organic 
matter 



22.40 
77.60 



78.94 ) 
6.281 
.65 
.30 
.76 
1.S8 

.09 

2.30 
6.82 
.03 
.02 



85.22 



22.60 
77.50 



™*}84.87 

.47 
.42 
.99 
.65 

.03 

3.47 
5.71 

.04 

.05 



2.60 



3.58 



Total. 



Humus 

Ash 

Sol. phos. acid 

Silica 

Hygroscopic moisture 
(absorbed atl5"C.).. 



100.07 
.51 



100.28 
.93 



2.14 



2.70 



13.90 
86.10 



► 69.52 

.38 
.07 
.96 
1.09 

30 

12.42 
10.97 
.16 
.01 



5.14 



101.11 

1.14 
1.12 



3.17 



2.10 
.58 
.02 



21.20 
78.80 



67.69),.,. 
8.05 f 76/74 
.49 
.14 

.25 
.53 

.18 

8.85 
13.32 
.06 
.03 



5.41 



99.90 



6.00 



Foothill Section in Amador County. — Approaching from the west the foot- 
hill spurs within which the lone Valley lies, the gravel plains (see above) 
break into rolling land, and the reddish soil stratum becomes thicker ana 
deeper tinted. The lone Valley is an extensive area of agricultural land, 
almost surrounded by hills, traversed by several streams, which have 
deposited the red soil of the foothills, commingled or alternating with that 
of underlying clay formation, upon the valley floor. It is therefore not easy 
to obtain a representative sample for the whole valley, most of whose red- 
dish or chocolate-colored soils are under cultivation and have yielded 
excellent results to its owners; while where the whitish clay enters largely 
into the soil-composition the results of culture are not nearly so satisfactory. 

Eastward of lone the clayey formation that underlies the gravel plains 
and lignite beds ascends into the hilly country proper, and continues, for 
perhaps a mile inland, to form the subtrata of the land; with the usual 
result that the region so occupied is nearly treeless, save that here and there 
a large pine has inserted its roots in vertical cracks accidentally formed. 
The general surface is covered with low, stunted chaparral, chamisal, and 



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some manzanita — all evidently the worse for lack of moisture, the ascent of 
which, together with the penetration of the roots downwards, is cut off by 
the horizontal, impervious beds of clay and claystone. 

How far to the north and south this arid clay upland extends, I have 
not been able to ascertain. Proceeding east there is a notable change in 
the aspect of the landscape so soon as the vertically bedded slate begins to 
appear as the substratum of the soil; trees become abundant and vigorous, 
the chaparral and chamisal reach overhead, and poison oak of rank growth 
is everywhere. The slate of this outer belt (supposed to belong to the Permo- 
iurassic time) is conspicuously softer than that of the interior, and often 
becomes almost a clay shale, so as to form heavy black clay soils or " black 
adobe; " at other points it is a fair roofing slate. 

A sample of the red subsoil of the outer slate belt has been analyzed. 
The samples were sent by Mr. Thomas S. Crafts, of lone, and its analysis 
and discussion is given in connection with those of the station, below. 
Near the eastern edge of this slate belt especially, it is here as elsewhere 
more or less impregnated with copper, which in the form of copper pyrites 
has given rise to extensive mining operations. Everywhere, however, it 
forms a productive soil, but not as deeply colored as are usually the soils 
of the inner and older slate belt. The two are here separated quite widely 
by a plateau area about seven miles wide east and west, on which the 
country rock is the "blue trap" or diabase in several modifications; always 
extremely hard, though often of a definite slaty cleavage or bedding, and 
by its disintegration forming a deep orange-red, clayey soil, the fertility of 
which is abundantly shown both by the natural tree growth and by the 
results of cultivation wherever a sufficient depth of soil exists. For between 
two and three miles on the road from lone to Jackson, this soil is so thickly 
inlaid with cobbles of the blue rock as to render cultivation without removal 
of the rocks impossible; but so good is the soil that the " cobble belt" is 
fast being brought into cultivation, the cobbles being formed into stone 
fences. It appears that when the rocks now on the surface are once removed, 
the soil beneath is comparatively free from them, and of good depth. 

Towards Jackson the dense, almost glassy "blue trap" gradually becomes 
more granular, and at some points seems to form a transition into granite, 
alternating with bands of slate; at the same time the soil becomes deeper 
and less heavy, and at Jackson we reach the "inner " slate belt, near the 
contact of which with the other rocks important mineral lodes are worked. 
Here the soil, underlaid by the hard (supposed paleozoic) slates is of the 
deepest of "red" tints, and corresponds in character with that which, 
farther north, in £1 Dorado and Placer Counties, bears the choicest fruits. 

The granite areas appear to be quite irregularly interspersed among the 
slate, and may in general, where the granite alone forms the soil, be recog- 
nized by their almost exclusive growth of undersized yellow pine. In such 
localities it is not uncommon to find the subsoil formed of granitic debris 
pure and simple, so that in digging one gradually comes down to the solid, 
undecomposed rock. Very desirable soils are formed where the granite 
and blue trap, or the slate, both contribute to the mass, as is often the case 
on the long slopes that characterize most of the ridges of the region, and 
more especially the rolling lands south and southeastward of Jackson, 
toward the Mokelumne River. 

As the soils on this cross-section of the foothills have not as yet been as 
fully investigated as at some other points, the details of the examination 
of the soils of the station tract will be given, in connection with the descrip- 
tion of the latter, below. 



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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



The foothills south of Amador have only been casually observed thus far. 
Those of Calaveras County resemble closely the Amador section just dis- 
cussed, and there, as well as in Tuolumne, are of considerable width and 
capable of growing excellent fruit. In Mariposa the foothills belt narrows 
considerably, and the red soil, near Merced Falls, is of quite a different 
character from that of the counties adjoining to northward, being a heavy 
red clay soil so thickly packed with gravel that it is difficult to penetrate; 
a characteristic that is again found on the extreme north, near Chico, 
Butte County. There, as in Mariposa, the lower foothills do not present 
the gentle slopes of Amador, Placer, and Yuba, but as seen from the valley 
appear rather rugged and rocky; and the valleys rather than the hills them- 
selves have mainly been taken into cultivation. The subjoined analyses 
afford some insight into the nature of these soils: 

No. 190. Red loam soil, from the foothill slopes near La Grange, Tuol- 
umne County. Vegetation, scattered oak timber (mainly "blue" and 
white oaks), with little or no underbrush save some poison oak; also grass 
and flowers. A moderately heavy, glaringly orange-red loam, tilling well 
unless when very wet; but little gravel; not much in cultivation save in 
gardens, in this neighborhood; makes fine vegetables and fruits. Sample 
taken to twelve inches depth. 

No. 68. Valley adobe toil, from near Mount Pleasant, Tuolumne County; 
sent by Mr. J. Taylor, of that place. A black, beavv clay soil, now largely 
covered with mining slum, but originally very productive. Similar soils 
occur in the foothill valleys of Tulare. (See " dry-bog " soils, below.) 

No. 191. Red foothills soil, taken two miles north of Merced Falls, on 
the La Grange road, Merced County; depth, ten inches. A rather heavy 
clay soil, considerably mixed with gravel, brownish red; natural vegetation, 
grass, and scattered "blue" oaks; chiefly pastured at present, but capable 
of producing fifteen to twenty bushels of wheat per acre, in good seasons, 
ana with good tillage. 

No. 196. Red gravelly soil, from rolling land eleven miles north of Mer- 
ced City. Dark brown, rather fine and silty, but more than half of the 
mass is gravel, mostly flattened — slate and quartz — from inch size down. 
Dry lumps hardly crush between the fingers; when wetted it darkens but 
little and softens rather slowly, becoming only fairly plastic on kneading. 
This soil represents a promontory of rolling foothill land, which projects out 
into the valley from near Merced Falls toward Atwater, on the Southern 
Pacific Railroad, gradually flattening out and having on its flanks the light- 
colored loam lands represented by the soil from Huffman's (No. 193 above). 
The surface, even to the hilltops, is deeply scored into " hog-wallow " mounds, 
separated by a maze of little channels filled with gravel or oftentimes with 
cobblestones. The land is treeless and free even from underbrush, but 
bears good sheep pasture in the spring. Little or none of this land is 
under cultivation thus far, doubtless on account of the difficulty of break- 
ing up the gravelly mass. 



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FOOTHILL STATION. 
Soilt of the Southern Foothill*. 



77 





1 

Tuolumne County. 


Ma Biros* 
County. 


Mkbckd Countt. 


No. 190. 
Bed Loom Soil. 
La Orange. 


No. 68. 
Valley Adobe 
Soil. 
Mount Element. 


No. 191. 
Bed Foothill Soil. 
Merced Fall*. 


No. 196. 
Bed, Gravelly 
Soil. Hog-wallow 
Hills, 11 milea 

North of 
Merced City. 












1 " 






AnalytU of Fine Earth. 
Insoluble matter 


67.92 \ _, „„ 

.35 

.13 
1.64 

.72 

.03 
7.88 
9.86 

.09 

.01 


•j 56.61 V 

.19 
.14 
.68 
13.74 
.08 

| 18.43} 

.07 
.01 


.38 
.13 
.85 
.84 
.07 
6.96 
8.81 
.07 
.02 


79.08 l»i 

6.54 r 84 - 62 

.21 

.11 

39 

36 

.03 
8.90 
6.66 

.05 

.01 


Soda (Na-O) 

Lime(CaO) 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Br. ox. of manganese(Mn,0 < )... 

Alumina (Al.O.) 

Phosphoric acid(P,0,) 

Sulphuric acid (SO.) 


Water and organic matter 

Total 

Ash 


3.77 


9.84 


5.06 


4.14 


99.62 

.72 
.46 


99.79 

1.61 
.40 


100.65 

.71 
.47 


100.57 

.76 
.53 












Hygroscopic moisture (absorbed 
at 15* C.) 


| 5.42 




6.11 


5.00 







It will be noted that the two red soils in the preceding table, while dif- 
fering widely as regards the contents of lime, are not far apart in their 
contents of potash and phosphoric acid. Of the two the La Grange soil is 
undoubtedly the better, owing to its higher proportion of lime and Phos- 
phoric acid, and while not rich in potash does not fall far behind the 
average of the Nevada soils in this respect. The supply of humus is satis- 
factory in both. The lime contents of No. 191 are quite low for so heavy a 
soil, b-ut with good cultivation and adequate depth it should do well with 
such fruits as apricots and plums. . 

The adobe soil is quite remarkable for its unusually low contents ot pot- 
ash and a most extraordinary proportion of magnesia, exceeding t ne F e1 ^ 
any soil heretofore analyzed, within my knowledge. It probably is derived 
from some extended exposure of magnesian rocks in the upper portion ot 
the valley. The soil has fair proportions of lime and phosphoric acid, as 
well as a high one of humus; and while the potash holds out should pro- 
duce well, but should have most thorough tillage. . 

The gravelly soil from the "hog-wallow" hills of Merced stands just at 
the limit of deficiency for potash and phosphoric acid in a soil ot its text- 
ure, and while the contents of lime and humus are good, the land does not 
invite settlement until better land shall be more scarce, because ot the 
excessive proportion of gravel and cobbles, which render tillage diincult. 
In time it will doubtless be utilized for fruit; best P^Wy tor wine 
grapes, of which it would yield a high quality. With good tillage, peacnes 
and almonds would doubtless find this a congenial sou. 



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78 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA . 



Location of the Foothill Station. — The selection of a fairly representative 
location for this station was a matter of no little difficulty, in view of the 
wide extent and varied character of the foothill region. It was clearly nec- 
essary to place it somewhere near the geographical center, north and south ; 
not too near the Great Valley; not so high up as to do injustice to the 
lower or " semi-tropic " belt; nor so low as to leave out 01 the scope of 
experiments the " snow belt," with its excellent deciduous fruits. Again, 
it was necessary to avoid as much as possible any local influences that 
would vitiate the general results; and it was desirable to have within the 
station limits at least two of the principal soil varieties of the region, and 
to have command of irrigation water without too great expense in bringing 
it to the land. 

The geographical consideration pointed to the counties of El Dorado and 
Amador, and as pressing and advantageous offers were early received from 
the latter county, through the energetic and intelligent efforts of State 
Senator A. Caminetti, a somewhat extended examination of that county 
and of the various localities offered was made in the spring of 1888 at two 
different times. One of the prominent governing facte elicited here, as 
elsewhere in the region, was that the more tender vegetables and fruits are 
earlier and resist the winter's cold better on the higher plateau lands than 
in the valleys, or even on the valley slopes. This pointed to a plateau site 
at a suitable elevation as best adapted to yielding results of general value 
to the region at large. Many facts pointed to the elevation of one thousand 
eight hundred to two thousand feet as the one where the citrus trees had 
withstood best the severe winter cold of 1887-88; and among the sites 
offered at or near that altitude there was one offering the additional 
advantage of closeness to the Amador ditch and the ready inclosure of the 
two typical soils — granite and slate — within a tract of twenty or thirty 
acres. A suitable tract of the former area was offered by Senator Cami- 
netti on behalf of Hon. John Boggs, of Colusa; but as this tract could not 
include all the desirable representation of the granite soil for duplicate 
experiments, nor the best sites for building, two additional tracts of about 
six acres each were donated, respectively, by Mr. Daniel McKay, on the 
north, and by Messrs. Trabucco and Oneto, on the east, the latter receiving 
some compensation for standing timber. Thus a tract of practically thir- 
ty-six acres, about equally divided between the two chief soil varieties of 
the foothills, was secured in a location as nearly free as possible from local 
influences, being on a ridge level with or a little higher than any near it; 
within five miles of the town of Jackson, the county seat, which itself can 
be reached in two hours from lone, the present railroad terminus, but 
is likely to be reached by rail itself before many years. While it would 
have been desirable to have the station nearer an existing railroad, it would 
not have been easy to combine the advantages realized in the present loca- 
tion at any point where the land would have been likely to be available by- 
donation. While the greater part of the tract lies above the water level 
of the Amador ditch, the fact that the ditch company offered the use of 
the water free of charge, and agreed to the placing of a water power for 
pumping in the ditch where it traverses the tract, relieves the station from 
a current expense representing considerably more than the interest upon 
the cost of the pumping plant; and the liberal offers made by the citizens, 
of pecuniary aid in carrying out the improvements, over and above the 
erection of the buildings, created the additional inducement of the sympa- 
thy and cooperation of the population, an advantage not to be lightly esti- 
mated in work of this kind. 



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FOOTHILL STATION. 



79 



The recommendation of the Director, based upon the above considera- 
tions, that this location be accepted as suitable for the Foothill Station, was 
approved by the Regents at a meeting held in April, 1888; and immediate 
steps were taken to place the establishment on a working basis. 

Surface Conformation, Soils, and Natural Vegetation. — The plat of the 
station tract, given further on, with contour lines for intervals of twenty 
feet,* shows the form and relief of the station grounds. It will be noted 
that it embraces three hills, on the highest of which, one hundred and 
sixty-eight feet above the ditch level, the dwelling house is located. The 
main upland portion has for its center the reservoir hill, one hundred and 
forty feet above the ditch level, on the top of which the slate bedrock crops 
out, into which a reservoir of twenty-five thousand gallons capacity has 
been excavated, from which practically all the available land of the sta- 
tion can be irrigated. A line laid nearly due east and west, along the 
northward slope of the reservoir bill, about twenty feet below the summit, 
divides the red slate soil from the granitic, which occupies the main por- 
tion of the northern slope, and all of the valley land on either side of the 
ditch, or about two fifths of the whole tract. 

The land had been partly cleared of its natural timber for use in char- 
coal burning, but all the species originally there were still represented, and 
the large stumps proved that the trees had been of good dimensions, 
especially on the slate soil. On the southwest slope, where the red soil 
was- sampled for analysis, the following species were noted at the time: 

Yellow, sugar, and nut pine {Pinus ponderosa, Lambertiana, Sabin- 
iana), the two mountain live oaks {Quercus Wislizeni, chrysolepsis), black, 
white, and blue oaks (Q. KeUoggii, lobata, Douglasii), buckeye {ASsculus 
Cali/ornica), buckthorn {Frangula Calif ornica), toyon (Heteromeles or 
Photinia arbutifolia) , manzanita {Arctostaphylos mamanita), madrona 
{Arbutus Memiesii), spiny chaparral {Ceanothus imtegerrimus) , poison oak, 
or rather sumac {Rhus diversuoba). Among the herbaceous growth, the 
Yerba Santa {Eriodictyon glutinosum) , several bunch grasses, the alfilerilla 
{Erodium eieutarium), and several native clovers were conspicuous. 

It will be noted that the above list includes all the trees and shrubs 
mentioned before as characteristic of the foothills at large; so that so far 
as the vegetation can show it, the red soil here was fully representative of' 
the higher class of land, on which alone the poison oak and toyon are 
found in the uplands. 

The natural growth on the granite soil on the north slope and valley land 
adjacent the ditch, differed mainly in the less ample development of the 
trees and shrubs, and the scarcity or absence of the toyon, poison oak, and 
buckthorn; while the manzanita and chaparral, which prefer a sandy soil, 
are very finely developed. 

Description and Analyses of the Soils of the Station Tract. 

No. 111. Slate soil, from the south slope of the central hill, about half- 
way down. Depth taken, twelve inches. An orange-red loam, the lumps 
of which are easily crushed between the fingers when dry, and show con- 
siderable coarse sand; when wetted becomes only moderately adhesive, 
while its color darkens materially. Slate fragments are intermingled more 



•These contonr lines were surveyed, for the main tract, by a volunteer party of stu- 
dents (Messrs. C. E. Holmes and Chas. Claussen, of the class of 1889), under the direction 
of instructor Wm. G. Raymond of the University; for the rest of the tract, by the fore- 
man, Mr. Geo. Hanssen, who has also furnished the drawing from which the plate was 
photographed for printing. 

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80 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



or less all through, much of the sand being comminuted slate. The vege- 
tation on this soil has been enumerated above; it is almost an epitome of 
the growths found in this portion of the foothill region. 

No. 1114. Slate subsoil, from same locality as the above, and representing 
the depth of twelve to twenty-four inches. A loam of a glaringly orange- 
red tint, the lumps of which when dry can barely be crushed between the 
fingers; its color hardly changes in wetting, but it becomes quite adhesive 
when kneaded; like the soil it shows much coarse sand and 6ome slate frag- 
ments. This material reaches here to depths of three to five feet, with 
increasing slate fragments. When vertically bedded slate is reached, which 
is generally much weathered, sometimes the line between it and the red sub- 
soil is very indistinct; the latter is lighter colored near the contact line, 
from incomplete oxidation of the iron. 

No. 1115. Oranite soil, from the lower portion of the north slope of the 
central bill, toward the Amador ditch. A gray or fawn-colored sandy loam, 
full of granitic debris; dry lumps very readily crush between the fingers. 
On wetting the color darkens, showing the presence of humus, but on knead- 
ing only a very slight adhesiveness is developed. There is no obvious 
change below the line of twelve inches, to which depth the sample was 
taken. No obvious admixture of the slate soil from the hilltop is seen, but 
such may nevertheless have occurred to a slight extent. The vegetation 
on this soil is nearly the same in kind as on the slate soil, but the growth 
is less thrifty, and there is specially a smaller proportion of the toyon, 



No. 1116. Granite subsoil, taken to the depth of twelve to twenty-four 
inches. Very similar in color and texture to the surface soil, No. 1115, 
but increasingly composed of granitic debris or sand, becoming coarse as 
we descend, and finally passing at several feet depth into granitic gravel. 

Because of the possible admixture of some slate soil to that of the hill 
slope on the station tract, it was thought best to take another sample for 
examination from the center of a granitic area, viz.: 

No. 1117. Oranite soil, from the Fleming tract, one half of a mile north- 
east from the station, and due west from the waterfall of a small creek 
passing over large granitic bowlders. A coarse, whitish-gray loam, with 
granitic gravel, manifestly derived from the underlying rock, that rapidly 
increases downwards, passing at from three to five feet into pure granitic 
debris overlying weathered rock. Dry lumps of the soil crumble under 
the fingers, showing a large proportion of very coarse sand; on wetting the 
color darkens perceptibly; kneading produces moderate plasticity, so fax 
as the coarse particles permit. The vegetation on this soil, which is almost 
bare of herbaceous growth, is yellow pine, nut pine, blue and mountain 
( Wislizenus) oaks, manzanita, and chaparral; the latter quite large, while 
the tree growth is undersized. 

For convenience of comparison, the red soil from the outer slate belt, 
inland from lone, mentioned above, is inserted here: 

No. 499. Red subsoil, from the foothills near lone; sent by Mr. Thomas 
S. Crafts. The surface soil of the red land, to the depth of twelve to 
thirteen inches, is relatively light, so that dry lumps can be readily 
crushed between the fingers; an easily tilled loam. The subsoil, thirteen 
to twenty-five inches, is a good deal heavier, the lumps not to be crushed 
between the fingers, and quite adhesive when wetted. This subsoil varies 
in thickness: "From a depth ranging from about thirty-three to fifty-five 
inches, the red color changes to a yellowish tint; then, immediately upon 
the bedrock, which lies at variable depths, the color is bluish. The bed- 
rock is slate, traversed by ledges of round, very heavy rock." 




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82 



UNIVERSITY OP CALIFORNIA. 



The prominent feature of the slate soil and the subsoil is the very large 

Sercentage of potash, wherein it competes with the richest soils of the San 
oaquin Valley, although probably the potash is not in as available a form 
as the valley soils. The amount of lime, though not very high in the sur- 
face soil, is abundant in the subsoil. Direct determination shows .04 per 
cent to be in the form of carbonate. 

The percentage of phosphoric acid, as usual in California upland soils, 
is not high, but very largely in the soluble form. The amount of humus 
is rather low, perhaps in consequence of the oxidizing influence of the very 
large amount of finely diffused iron oxide. The moisture absorption is 
that of the most desirable upland loams, increasing in the heavier subsoil. 

The granite soil differs pointedly from the slate soil in its lower propor- 
tion of potash, albeit its percentages are quite satisfactory. But the supply 
of lime is notably lower than in the slate soil, pointing to a relatively lower 
degree of thriftiness from that cause. The total of phosphoric acid is just 
above the limit of deficiency, but, as in the slate soil, appears to be largely 
in the readily soluble form. Contrary to expectation in a soil so largely 
formed of granitic sand, the moisture absorption is quite satisfactory both 
in soil and subsoil, thus redeeming the land from the suspicion of drought- 
iness. 

The purely granitic soil of the Fleming tract differs first of all in a very 
low percentage of potash, and still lower proportions of lime and phosphoric 
acid than are found in the granitic soils of the station; hence the predom- 
inance of pine over other growths. The almost entire absence of herba- 
ceous growth from this soil is probably connected with its excessive 
openness and low moisture absorption, which together forbid the success 
of shallow-rooted plants; a condition which prevails in a striking degree in 
some of the granitic soils of the Sierra Madre, in Los Angeles County. 

Altogether these analyses show good cause for the universal preference 
accorded to the slate soils over those of the granitic character throughout 
the foothills. They also show that, as elsewhere in the State, phosphate 
and nitrogenous fertilizers will be called for in this part of the foothill 
region long before the addition of potash will be needed; and that, while 
on the slate soil the use of lime would probably not pay, the same is not 
true of the granitic soils, which are manifestly benefited by the wash- 
ings of the slate lands. The latter fact doubtless explains the greater 
abundance of lime in the granitic surface soil of the station, as compared 
with the subsoil, for, as a rule, the subsoil is of necessity richer in lime 
than its surface soil, as a result of the natural leaching process; a fact well 
exemplified in the slate soil and subsoil. 

No. 784, the red subsoil from the outer slate belt, off lone, differs remark- 
ably from the subsoil of the station. It has over eight times less potash, 
and only a little over half as much phosphoric acid, but twice as much 
lime. Notwithstanding the latter advantage, it must be considered very 
much inferior to the red soil of the inner slate belt. While it would doubt- 
less yield a few fair crops of grain, it would soon require the help of fertil- 
izers; but it will certainly yield good returns in fruit. The lime apart, it 
is more nearly related to the soils of the " gravel plains." 

Improvements Made on the Station Orounds. — The accompanying plat of 
the station tract will serve to illustrate the plan pursued in the improve- 
ments. 

On the part of the citizens of Amador County, aided to some extent by 
subscriptions from adjacent ones, the following fundamental work has been 
done: A new road has been graded one and a half miles from the county 
road up to the station; the main tract (Boggs' land, twenty-one acres) was 

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Plat of Foothill Experiment Station, Amador County. 

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FOOTHILL 8TATION. 



83 



fenced with a board-and-wire fence, also grubbed and plowed; seven hun- 
dred feet of one and a half-inch water pipe laid to the summit of the central 
hill, one hundred and forty feet above the ditch level, to the irrigation reser- 
voir, and inch pipe thence, eight hundred and twenty feet, to the residence 
hill, which is about twenty-two feet higher than the former. A frame two- 
story dwelling with eight rooms and an observatory turret for meteorologi- 
cal observations (according to plans furnished by the University) has been 
built on the latter hill, commanding a magnificent view among the mount- 
ains and over the Sacramento Valley, as far as Mount Diablo. A spacious 
barn, with wagon shed and tool house adjacent, has been built on conven- 
ient ground about halfway down the slope toward the ditch. 

In addition to these liberal permanent improvements, the station was 
supplied with a good team of horses; and a thoroughbrace road wagon, 
needed to insure safe transportation of the station material to and from 
the towns of Jackson and lone, is now being built," thus completing the 
fulfillment of the liberal promises originally made. In this respect the 
Foothill Station stands first among the three thus far established. 

The improvements made at the expense of the Station Fund are the fol- 
lowing: 

The exterior tracts — the McKay tract of six and one half acres, lying 
across the ditch, and the " Italian's tract " of nearly the same area, east- 
ward of the main tract, and on part of which the dwelling is situated — 
have been fenced with a board-and-wire fence similar to that surrounding 
the main tract, and about seven acres have been cleared in addition to the 
twenty-one acres of the latter, in order both to increase the area, and to 
obtain control of a more purely granitic soil, uninfluenced by the washings 
of the slate hills. 

At the main entrance, on the road connecting with the county road to 
Jackson, has been placed an " Aylward Automatic " gate, easily opened 
without dismounting from horse or vehicle. 

A substantial bridge of sawn timber has replaced the log-and-pole bridge 
that at first was made to span the Amador ditch, so that wagons can cross 
with safety from the main tract to the McKay donation. 

The laying-out of the roads, as shown in the ground plan, has necessi- 
tated a good deal of surveying and grading; some of the side-hill roads 
having to be sustained by rough Btone walls, while others, to prevent wash- 
ing (which is especially bad on the northern or granitic slope), as well as to 
make the curves permanent, have been edged with flat stones set on edge, 
giving them quite an ornamental appearance. Considerable work, includ- 
ing blasting, was also involved in cutting a convenient and permanent 
road up to the residence hill, with such grade as to permit ordinary vehi- 
cles to ascend with some ease to the house front. Around the latter the 
ground has been cleared with due regard to Reaving the natural growth of 
trees and shrubs — among the latter some magnificent manzanita crashes — 
to represent the native vegetation of the region, tastefully disposed so far 
as the inroads formerly made upon them would permit. 

In conformity with the wish of the citizens contributing to the station 
equipment, the dwelling house was placed on the highest point within the 
tract, so as to afford as extended a view as possible. Wnile this object 
has been attained so as to render the station one of the finest accessible 
points of view in the foothills, the dwelling is thus much exposed to the 
violence of 8torms 2 and the lightness of construction that would have 
caused little or no inconvenience in the valley or under the lee of the hill, 
has proved somewhat troublesome in its effects, and has necessitated a 
number of repairs and changes. At the same time, the additional eleva- 

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84 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA . 



tion above the main reservoir has complicated the question of water supply 
for domestic use; for the raising of which special appliances ([pump or 
ram) will have to be provided, and are now under consideration. The 
house, as originally built, had a foundation of wooden planks only, and 
these being of easily decaying pine, it was thought advisable to supple- 
ment them with piers of stone, the material for which was taken from im- 
mediately around the house. The very exposed location of the dwelling, and 
its light construction, rendered this precaution quite essential. In addi- 
tion, to increase its stiffness and to prevent leakage from driving rains, 
to the injury of the ceiling below, it was thought best to lay a floor of planks 
in the attic. The front porch has also been strengthened by braces, so as to 
resist better the heavy strain brought to bear on it by storms from the 
south. The shrinkage, consequent upon the extraordinary changes in the 
moisture-condition of the air that so frequently occur here, will render 
repairs, in tightening joints of windows, doors, etc., necessary for some 
years to come. 

The barn has also been additionally supported, being in part built upon 
" made" ground, which yielded under the influence of the winter rains; it 
has been tightened with battens on the outside, and a partition, forming a 
tool house and carpenter shop, has been put inside. A corral for the horses 
and a lean-to for additional storage has also been lately added. 

For the accommodation of the numerous visitors that frequent the sta- 
tion, a number of benches and other seats have been placed at various 
points in the grounds. 

An outhouse for wood, poultry, etc., has been built a short distance from 
the dwelling, which affords no space for storage. 

The water supply of the station has involved somewhat complex arrange- 
ments and a not inconsiderable expense, and it might be thought that it 
would have been preferable to locate it at some point below the ditch; but 
of the numerous localities examined, none offered the complete exemption 
from local influences and currents, nor the representation of soil varieties, 
that has been attained in the present location; and it is believed that these 
important advantages have been cheaply purchased by the outlay incurred 
for waterworks. 

As the first measure, a reservoir of twenty-five thousand gallons capac- 
ity has been excavated on the central hill, mostly into the slate bed- 
rock, to be lined with cement, or with brick and cement where necessary. 
To raise the necessary water for irrigation to this reservoir was a question 
of greater difficulty than was at first supposed, for although the total fall 
of the Amador ditch within the limits of the station grounds is nearly 
eight feet, experience has shown that the nature of the banks is such that 
only five feet can ordinarily be utilized. After considering the several 
alternatives for motive powers — breast wheel, shovel wheel, and turbine — 
the latter was thought preferable, all things considered. By permission of 
the ditch company a wooden dam was thrown across at the lowest point 
affording a hold in the granite rock, through which the channel has Deen 
cut at this point. A double cross of heavy redwood timbers was cemented 
into sockets excavated in the granite, and the dam made tight with red- 
wood lagging (one and one half-inch), on which are placed three gates — 
one in the bed of the ditch and one for waste when the turbine is in use. 
The twenty-inch iron turbine is placed in a penstock of heavy redwood 
boards, and is provided with a suction pipe; so that of the five feet of head 
actually available, about half and half is pressure and suction. The dam 
was originally constructed with a view to a head of seven feet, but it was 
subsequently found that to use it to this extent endangered the banks of 

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FOOTHILL STATION. 



85 



the ditch above, much of which are " made " ground more or less inhabited 
by gophers; hence the reduction to five feet, which involved a lowering of 
the penstock and turbine. 

The turbine is coupled by means of a belt to a horizontal pump with 
four-inch cylinder and twenty-one-inch stroke. 

The one and one half-inch pipe, seven hundred and fifty feet in length, 
which had been laid from the ditch to the reservoir by the citizens' com- 
mittee, proves too small to permit of pumping the water to a greater height 
than the reservoir, without putting undue strain upon the machinery. It 
is found that with the diminished head, one thousand two hundred gallons 
pr hour can be thrown into the reservoir, which can be filled completely 
in the course of twenty-one hours; thus affording sufficient capacity for all 
irrigation likely to be needed. It is, however, intended to replace the one 
and one half-inch pipe by a larger one, and use the former for distribution 
purposes. It is, nevertheless, probable that even with double the capacity 
of the main pipe, it will not be feasible, in view of the small head available, 
to pump water up to the dwelling. It is therefore proposed to raise the 
needful household supply from the level of the reservoir to the house (about 
twenty-five feet) either by means of a pump at the house, or by a ram to 
be run from the main reservoir, returning the waste water to the ditch 
when not required for irrigation. 

Need of Irrigation. — The question of the extent to which irrigation is 
necessary or desirable in the foothills has been much discussed, and experi- 
mental investigation will be one of the most important functions of the 
Foothill Station. From observations made within the last two years, my 
impression is that neither of the extreme views will be found justified ; and 
that while in the case of deep soils of great intrinsic fertility irrigation 
may not repay its cost, yet in most cases the command of irrigation water 
is of very great importance to foothill farmers, and will be found highly 
profitable in numerous cases, where without it the crops grown would be 
inferior both in quantity and quality. While over-irrigation will in the 
foothills, as elsewhere, produce tasteless, squashy fruit, of poor keeping and 
shipping qualities, yet judicious irrigation '(in the majority of cases in 
actual practice) will undoubtedly increase the size and flavor of the fruit 
without injury to its shipping qualities. 

NOTES ON CULTURE EXPERIMENTS AT THE FOOTHILL STATION* 
By W. O. Kxek, Inspector of Stations. 
Orchard. 

The nature of the land being that of strongly rolling hills, it has been 
the aim to give the various varieties of fruit, as well as other crops, the 
benefit of different exposures. Thus, for example, the apples have been 
given northeasterly exposure, and peaches southeasterly exposure. When- 
ever possible, the various kinds of fruit have been planted both on the 
granitic and the slate formation, to test their adaptability to these, the two 
great prevailing soils of the foothill region. 

Apples. — This region being regarded, and with reason, as well suited for 
the production of apples of good keeping qualities, some eighty-five of the 
best varieties were planted, and the collection will be largely increased this 
year. The growth during the early part of the season of all the apples was 
uniformly good; but severe loss was met with during the latter part of the 
year from various causes; the excessively dry and hot season increasing 

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



the injury caused by deer and other animals, and preparing the way for 
the work of the flat-headed appleborer (Chrysobothris jemorata). Experi- 
ence shows that young trees (especially apples) in this region require very 
careful shading of the trunk; neglect of this resulting in burning of the 
bark and an invitation to the borer. The growth of the apples on the slate 
formation, as a general thing, is better than on the granite. Low training 
of all trees is a necessity in this region and soon gives the trees natural 
protection from sunburn, provided it is carried out logically by building 
the frame-work of the tree from below on the main branches and not allow- 
ing these to become bare. 

Pears. — All the best varieties of pears to be obtained in the State have 
been planted. The growth, as a general thing, has been fair, the number 
of trees lost being comparatively small. The Japanese seedlings have 
done very well. 

Plume and Prunes. — In the main the same varieties were planted at 
this station as at the others. The majority of the plums and prunes are 
on the Myrobalan stock, some varieties being duplicated on peach, and 
some on apricot. From Berkeley an assortment of dormant buds on 
Myrobalan was sent. Of these a good many were lost. Few of the 

S runes were planted on the granitic soil; and it is yet too early to note any 
ifference in the growth on the two kinds of soil, or in the various stocks. 
Here, as at Paso Robles, the Japanese varieties have done well. On the 
whole, the growth of the plum has been very moderate; but few outside of 
dormant buds were lost 

Apricots. — Some twenty-five varieties of apricots were planted, the 
majority being represented both on the Myrobalan plum stock and on 
apricot. The former were dormant buds, of which quite a number were 
lost. The growth of a few trees in nursery, however, indicates that the 
soil has nothing to do with this failure, the growth of the buds which sur- 
vived being very good. Of the apricots on apricot root the growth has been 
moderate, with loss of some varieties. 

Peaches. — A large collection of all the best varieties obtainable in the 
State has been planted. Of those on peach root very few have been lost, 
and the growth for a dry season must be considered good. Many trees, 
however, show much exudation of gum at the root, a trouble from which 
stone fruit trees in the foothills suffer greatly. So far the peaches on 
Myrobalan roots have suffered less; but, being all dormant buds, it is 
premature to draw any conclusion. The gum trouble is more pronounced 
on the granitic soil than on the slate, but sufficiently serious to be worthy 
of thorough investigation as to the true cause and experimentation as to 
preventives. This line of investigation will be commenced this year. On 
the supposition that the tap-root of seedlings by going deeper is more liable 
to suffer from excess of moisture, liable to occur m shallow soil, rooted cut- 
tings of plum stocks will be planted. 
Nectarines. — These behave like the peaches. 

Almonds. — All varieties have grown exceedingly well, and the list will 
be increased with all the promising California seedling varieties possible 
to obtain. As to their profitable production in this section, very few data 
are at hand, and their probable success rests very much upon the power 
the flowers of the different varieties have to resist frost, which is liable to 
occur during the early blooming of the almond. This power of enduring 
quite sharp frosts is a point claimed for many California seedlings, not 
sufficiently tried, however. 

Cherries. — The varieties planted of this fruit embrace all the principal 
sorts cultivated in the State, and many new ones. As a general thing 

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they have done well, the growth being very good, and the loss exceedingly 
small. Some of the best soil was selected for them. 

Quinces. — Some seven varieties of this fruit were planted. The growth 
of all has been good. They were plauted on slate formation only. 

Figs. — As to the general adaptation of the fig to the climate of the foot- 
hills there is no question. But the special points still to be ascertained are 
many. It is very important, for instance, to determine which are the best 
varieties for drying, also whether irrigation or non-irrigation will yield the 
best results. In planting a large collection, we have in view not alone to 
decide these questions, but also that of nomenclature, which is in a very 
confused condition in the State. The forty correctly named varieties are 
planted so that they extend upon both the principal soils, being set as a bor- 
der to an avenue, which encircles the reservoir hill. The growth of most 
of the varieties has been good. 

Walnuts and Pecans. — The growth of these trees has been uniformly 
good; and their foliage has suffered but little from the attack of mites, a 
circumstance worth recording, as the season has been especially favorable 
to the development of these insects. The wood has also ripened well, fit- 
ting it to withstand any degree of cold liable to occur. The deepest and 
best soil has been given to these trees. 

Chestnuts. — Several kinds were planted, some of which died. The 
growth of the surviving ones was moderate. 

Oranges. — The budded varieties planted have been making fair growth, 
while the sour seedlings have established themselves very well, very few 
being lost. These trees suffered considerably until water for irrigation 
was obtained. The place given to the oranges is a spot believed to have 
the mildest temperature in winter. The soil is of average depth. 

Olives. — Believing that the foothills of the Sierra Nevada have advan- 
tages for the olive, both in soil and climate, over many other sections, par- 
ticularly because of the inability of the black scale (Lecanium olese) to gain 
a foothold here, the olive has been given a full representation, both in num- 
ber of varieties and number of trees. An avenue running through the 
whole station grounds, taking in the different shades of soil, has been lined 
with all the varieties obtainable. So far the growth has been the best on 
the slate soil, all varieties being represented on both; but the growth has 
been good on all soils. For vigor the Nevadillo bianco, here as everywhere 
else, excels any other. 

Japanese Persimmons. — The trees planted were all Japanese importations 
of the current year. The growth is fair. 

Miscellaneous Trees. 

Mulberries. — The growth of the different varieties has been uniformly 
good — better and stronger than any other deciduous tree planted. 

Camphor Tree. — The tree shows fair growth, and resists the hot sun well. 

The Kai Apple (Aberia Caffra) seems especially at home, and would 
most likely prove a valuable hedge plant. Its resistance to cold is still 
untried. 

Bamboos. — The Japanese variety (Metake), sent from Berkeley, is look- 
ing well, and will prove hardy. None of the imported roots of Japanese 
Giant bamboo succeeded. The Chinese variety, originally imported from 
Choofoo to Berkeley, is also perfectly at home. Both kinds have received 
several irrigations. 



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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



Vineyard. 



In planting the vineyard at this station, we have aimed to take advan- 
tage of the contour of the ground, by placing varieties demanding a greater 
heat on the warmest slopes, and those better adapted to a cooler climate 
on northeast slopes. Thus, for instance, Riesling and Bordeaux varieties 
have been planted on land with a northeasterly aspect, while sherry and 
port varieties have been planted where they would receive the full benefit 
of the sun. This, together with the duplication on different soils, has 
caused the vineyard to be a little scattered. A number of varieties of 
wild vines, interesting as resistant stocks, have been rooted in nursery, 
and will be planted in vineyard this season. Of eighty-six varieties 
planted, forty were rooted vines. Of seven of these varieties all vines grew, 
while the remainder show a failure in the following proportion: Of eleven 
varieties, less than 3 per cent; sixteen varieties, less than 10 per cent; six 
varieties, less than 20 per cent. 

The other forty-six varieties were planted with cuttings, the loss of which 
varies from 20 to 70 per cent, the average being about 50 per cent. It 
should be noted that these vines were practically unirrigated, the water 
for this purpose not being available before the middle of July. None of 
the vines have grown very much, but have merely established themselves. 



Irrigation having been impossible early in the season, this class of fruits, 



affected. Blackberries and strawberries were lost in large numbers, 
while gooseberries, and especially currants, did reasonably well, 90 per 
cent of each growing and making a fair showing. Water was supplied to 
them about the middle of July. 



The seeds of all the grasses and leguminous forage plants, planted last 
spring, remained dormant until the fall rains of 1889, when many of them 
appeared. Of those starting at this time, and making a fine growth dur- 
ing the succeeding month, the Bromus inermis, Bromw Schraderi, and 
Festuca elatior have made the best showing, Schrader's brome grass espe- 
cially so. 

The various sorghums planted in the spring did only tolerably well, the 
growth being smaller than the same variety planted in Berkeley. Teosinte, 
or Reana luxurians, does not reach any size, and behaves much as it does 
in Berkeley, forming only a low tuft, although very leafy. It shows no 
tendency to bear seed. 



Small Fruits. 




The raspberries were worst 



Forage Plants. 



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THE SOUTHERN COAST RANGE STATION. 

Location: Two miles north-northeast from Paso Robles, San Luis Obispo County. 



The Coast Range Region at Large. — The Coast Range region forms a belt 
varying in width from forty to sixty miles, lying between the Great Valley 
of California and the seacoast. It is traversed by numerous more or less 
disconnected ranges, mostly trending parallel to, or at a small angle with, 
the coast line. From Mendocino County, inclusive, southward to the north- 
ern end of the San Bernardino Range, few points or crests exceed the height 
of four thousand feet, and most of the higher ranges remain between three 
thousand and three thousand five hundred feet. Many of these are very 
rugged and barren, and largely treeless; of the lower ranges, from two 
thousand to two thousand five hundred feet, many are rounded in outline, 
largely forest-clad, deeply covered with soil, and in the moister portion of the 
region susceptible of cultivation to the summits. The higher portions are 
thus far occupied as grazing grounds only, the bulk of the cultivated lands 
lying in the valleys or on the lower slopes and hill lands. 

In conformity to the mountain ranges, the larger valleys also mostly 
trend more or less parallel to the coast; while tbose of smaller streams, 
descending from the outer slope of the Coast Ranges to the sea, generally 
open more nearly at right angles, thus giving free access to the coast 
winds. The latter condition determines very great differences in local and 
even regional climates; and as the California coast extends through nine 
and a half degrees of latitude (coextensive with the Atlantic Coast from 
Boston to Savannah, Georgia), with a rainfall ranging from eighty inches 
down to ten, it may readily be imagined that no one culture station can 
even approximately represent the Coast Range region as a whole. The 
Central Station at Berkeley, although geographically nearly central, north 
and south, really has an exceptional climate, dominated by the cool cur- 
rente and summer fogs that enter through the Golden Gate, and thus 
represents only the immediate seaward slope of the central portion of the 
coast for a few miles inland. It thus becomes necessary to make a choice 
of such portion of the extensive region as seems to stand most in need of 
an experiment station for its immediate future, thus benefiting the largest 
number of agriculturists. 

It has been thought that these conditions would be best fulfilled by the 
establishment of a culture sub-station at some point in the largest valley 
of the southern Coast Range — that of the Salinas River — representing a 
very large area of agricultural land, just being opened by the extension of 
the Southern Pacific Railroad, and but little tried as to its productive 
capabilities. As the needful offers of land and money for station buildings 
were made from the upper Salinas Valley, two personal visits to that 
region were made for the purpose of exploration and final location. The 
following description of the region, for the special benefit of which the 
" Southern Coast Range Station" was established, is based partly upon 
these visits, partly upon data obtained in connection with the census of 
1880, and heretofore published in the reports of that work. (See Vol. 6, 
monograph on " The Physical and Agricultural Features of California.") 

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



The Southern Coast Range region, as here understood (t. e., exclusive of 
the " bay counties" north of the Bay of Monterey), embraces the counties 
of Monterey, San Benito, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, and Ventura, 
with the extreme western portions of Stanislaus, Merced, Fresno, Tulare, 
and Kern that lie westward of the Great Valley. 

The main mountain ranges of this region are, in the northern portion, 
and bordering the San Joaquin Valley on the west, the southern continua- 
tion of the Mount Diablo Range, which loses its identity in the lower, 
spreading ridges of southern San Benito; next to westward the (mostly 
treeless) Gabilan Range, flanking the Salinas Valley on the east; while 
the Santa Lucia Range and its offshoots lie between that valley and the 
coast, with a width of about thirty miles; high hills reaching to or within a 
short distance of the coast, the small coastward streams, being usually accom- 
panied by valleys of greater or less width. The coast mountains are in 
places heavily timbered on their lower slopes and in the canons with Mon- 
terey pine (P. insignis), Monterey cypress (C. macrocarpa) , live oaks (Q. 
agnfolia, Wislizent), blue, white, and black oaks (Q. Douglasii, lobata, Kel- 
loggii), the California buckeye, laurel, etc. Farther southward, toward 
the junction of the Coast Range with the Sierra Nevada, we find a broad 
and extensive region of high mountains — the Sierra San Rafael — in the 
eastern part of Santa Barbara and northern part of Ventura Counties, 
merging on the southeast into the San Bernardino Range. Near the 
coast, in the southern part of Santa Barbara County, there is a small but 
rugged range, the Sierra Santa Inez, from two thousand to three thousand 
feet in height, trending nearly due east, parallel to the coast below Point 
Concepcion. 

Climate. — The climate of the coastward slope of the outer range, and of 
the valleys opening directly upon the coast, is so different from that of the 
region to eastward of the Santa Lucia divide that a special station only 
could represent it. The direct influx of the trade winds imparts a moist- 
ure to the air and insures it a relatively steady temperate thermometric 
record, corresponding to the "bay climate" of the San Francisco region, 
with a rainfall but little lower; the average of fourteen years' observations at 
San Luis Obispo being twenty-one inches, against about twenty-four at San 
Francisco. Passing the crest of the Coast Range to eastward, we are at 
once transported to the dry atmosphere of the interior; but owing to alti- 
tude, the rainfall is greater (about fourteen inches against six) and the 
average temperature lower than in adjacent portions of the Great Valley. 
Hence here, as on the coastward slope, irrigation is not necessary for gen- 
eral field crops, although the command of irrigation water is always desir- 
able. 

Agriculture. — Until recently the western slope of the immediate Coast 
Ranges, and the valleys pertaining thereto, have been the chief agricult- 
ural districts of the region, the interior being given up to stock ranches. 
Carmel Valley, in Monterey County; the San Luis, Arroyo Grande, Santa 
Maria, and other minor valleys of San Luis Obispo County; the Santa 
Maria, Todos Santos, and Santa Inez Valleys, together with coast "vegas" 
of Santa Barbara and Carpenteria, in Santa Barbara County; finally the 
lower valley of the Santa Clara River, and the fertile coast plain of Saticoy 
and San Buenaventura, in Ventura County, have long been noted for their 
choice and abundant products, both of the field, dairy, and orchard, and 
have fed a heavy coastwise trade, to which the country beyond the crest 
of the Coast Range contributed only cattle, horses, and wool. The opening 
of the railroad to the upper Salinas Valley bids fair to change both the 



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nature and the quantity of the products of the interior country, and to 
place it on a level with the coastward slope as an agricultural region. 

Rocks and Soils of the Region. — The greater part of the several ranges 
just mentioned is formed of rocks of the tertiary period, consisting of more 
or less calcareous sandstones, claystones, and clays; sometimes in their 
original, horizontally stratified condition, but oftener folded, faulted, and 
sometimes intricately contorted, and then often associated with various 
crystalline rocks, often granitic, but along the immediate Coast Range very 
generally serpentinous or talcose. 

Of course the soils vary in accordance wjth the rocks from which they 
have been formed; those derived from the tertiary clays and soft claystones 
are predominantly " adobe" or heavy clay soils, mostly brown or blackish, 
and very commonly overlie the very rocks from which they are derived 
( " colluvial " and " sedentary ") ; they are found on the higher lands rather 
than in valleys, and usually appear on the " divides " and ridge lands 
generally, as well as in the higher valleys. On the coast slope the valley 
soils, owing to the more complex nature of the rocks, are predominantly 
loams, more or less heavy or sandy, sometimes ferruginous. In the interior 
region, the valley and mesa soils are almost throughout quite light, often 
gravelly. On the slope toward the San Joaquin Valley, the sand is derived 
from the tertiary strata forming the hills themselves, and is largely quartz- 
ose; while in the Salinas Valley, the soil is predominantly composed of 
granitic debris, derived from the granitic region about the heads of the 
river, being the northwestern end of the granitic mass that forms the San 
Rafael and San Bernardino Ranges. This granite weathers very rapidly, 
and has yielded prodigious masses of granitic sand and gravel, which have 
filled to great depths not only the plains of the upper Salinas, but form a 
very large ingredient of the valley lands down to the Bay of Monterey, 
and are doubtless largely concerned in the high productiveness for which 
that valley is noted in the portions that have been longer under cultiva- 
tion, in northern Monterey. 

It is not intended in this report to give a detailed description of Hie whole 
of the southern Coast Range region, but mainly of that portion repre- 
sented by the station that has been established in the upper Salinas Val- 
ley. It is therefore to the latter that the details hereafter given mainly 
refer. 

The Salinas Valley. — The Salinas Valley divides naturally into an 
"upper" and "lower" portion, differing considerably in climatic as well 
as in soil conditions. 

The lower valley is a club-shaped area, widest at its lower end, extending 
from Monterey Bay southeastward about ninety miles, with a width of 
from twelve to eight miles for the first fifty miles, when (about San Ardo 
Station) it rapidly narrows, thereafter rarely exceeding one mile in width 
and frequently narrowing so that the broad, sandy bed of the river occupies 
the entire valley, while at the same time it rapidly ascends toward the 
point where, near the old Mission San Miguel, at an elevation of six hun- 
dred and sixteen feet, the plains of the upper valley begin. The narrow 
portion is not, however, a canon, but is bordered 'by sloping hills rising 
rather gradually toward the crests of the ranges. The wider portion of 
the lower valley presents a terraced and almost treeless plain, with but a 
few live oaks, and sycamore, willow, and cottonwood along the river itself. 
The alluvial bottom lands here are from a quarter to half a mile wide, 
their soils rather sandy, and are bordered by a bench or second bottom of 
adobe soils, from one to two and a half miles wide. The river flows mostly 
on the west side of the valley, a region of mesa lands lying between it and 

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



the Santa Lucia Range, still farther to westward. On the eastern side of 
the valley the adobe bench lands are again bordered by a sharply defined 
terrace ten to twelve feet higher, rising gently toward the Gabiian Range. 
The surface of this terrace is rather rolling, and its soils are coarse, red, 
and gravelly, affording excellent farming lands. Until within the last 
few years the valley above Salinas City was occupied chiefly as a stock 
range, it being reported that the high winds prevailing through the year 
rendered it unsuitable for farming purposes. Like many of the tales made 
current by the stockmen, this has vanished before a more impartial view of 
the situation ; and the lower valley is being rapidly settled up along the rail- 
road. Its rainfall is rather low, despite its full exposure to the ocean 
winds, being at Soledad only between eight and ten inches. Irrigation 
from the nver is, however, perfectly practicable, if found necessary. 
Scarcely any affluents enter this part of the valley from the west side, the 
waters of the Santa Lucia Range all flowing to seaward. From the Gab- 
ilan" Range quite a number of streams, but mostly of very small volume 
and intermittent flow, come in. 

The Upper Salinas Valley may be said to begin where the larger affluents 
come in from both sides; the Nacimiento being the first to enter, at Brad- 
ley Station, from the west; and a short distance above, the Estrella and 
Huerhuero from the east The Nacimiento has only a narrow valley and 
has in general the character of a mountain stream, as is the case with all 
the western affluents above; while the Estrella, Huerhuero, and their tribu- 
taries share the peculiarity of wide, sandy beds, in which the water is for 
long stretches visible only in time of flood, although easily reached and 
quite abundant in the sand with which their channels are filled. Even in 
the main Salinas this characteristic exists to such extent that considerable 
caution is required in fording at unknown points, although running water 
usually exists in it above the sand, throughout the season. 

The table below gives in summary form the most important meteorologi- 
cal data thus far available for the upper Salinas Valley. It should be 
borne in mind that, as it happens, the years included within these obser- 
vations were, throughout that portion of the State north of the San Ber- 
nardino Range, seasons of exceptionally light rainfall ; while the reverse was 
true of the country lying to southward. Probably the average drawn by 
taking into calculation the extraordinarily heavy rainfall of 1889-90 would 
more nearly represent the true general average of the upper valley: . 



Table showing the Rainfall and Average and Extreme Temperature for Summer and Winter in 
the Upper Salinas Valley. From observations of two years from November, f.886, to Decem- 
ber, 1888, inclusive. 



Location. 


m 

5* 

1 

T 
t 

i 
i 

i 


Balnfall— Inches 


Wintxe Thpihatcrx. 


Scums Tkmpkeaturx. 


— * 
B 8 

il 

i 5 


S 2 

M 

i S 

! ° 


if 

( * 

: g 

! 5* 


1 

s 
t 

a 


> 

N 
!? 


ATerage Min- 
imum 


Extreme Max- 
imum 


> 

i 
r 


Paso Robles 


616 


10.0 
14.2 
11.9 


72.3 
765 
70.8 


23.5 
23.0 
19.8 


17.0 
13.0 
15.0 


476 
48.2 
45.9 


106.3 
104.2 
101.6 


51.0 
51.3 
47.6 


108.0 
108.0 
103.0 


71.2 
71.6 
70.7 



It is of some interest to compare these data with the corresponding ones for 
the Tulare Valley, nearly in the same latitudes. It is thus shown that on 

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SOUTHERN COAST RANGE STATION. 



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the whole the upper Salinas Valley climate is materially cooler, as might 
be expected from its greater elevation and proximity to the coast. The 
extreme winter minima (so important in determining cultural possibili- 
ties) are about 4 degrees lower than the average of the three Tulare Val- 
ley stations (Fresno, Tulare City, and Bakersfield) ; on the other hand, the 
winter maxima average about 3 degrees higher. The winter means differ 
about 2 degrees in favor of the Great Valley. As to the summer, the ex- 
treme maxima are from 5 to 7 degrees lower in the Salinas region, the 
minima fully 10 degrees, the average mean for the summer nearly 12 
degrees. Add to this a rainfall more wan twice as great on an average, and 
(probably) a higher average of moisture in the air, and it becomes easily 
intelligible how the upper Salinas Valley can, for ordinary crops at least, 
do without irrigation; and how persons from the valley, as well as from 
the coast slopes, may be benefited by the climatic change to the Salinas 
plateau. 

Agriculture. — The main crop of the upper valley, since pasturage has been 
largely superseded by agriculture, has thus far been grain; the usual 
first resort in a new region. But the obvious fact that the light, deep 
granitic soils of the Estrella Plains are not best adapted to grain cult- 
ure, even if such use were otherwise profitable, early led to experiments 
in fruit growing; with highly encouraging results when it is considered 
that the pruning of the trees to high standards placed them under the 
grievous disadvantage of being liable to sunburn on the south and south- 
west sides. Some of the older plantings have been badly disfigured and 
injured from this cause; and yet the results have been both good in quality 
and profitable in the local markets. There can be no doubt that with the 
low pruning practiced elsewhere in the State, and here especially indicated 
by the shape of the natural tree growth (which is low and spreading), all 
kinds of deciduous fruits, the olive, the vine, and perhaps the citrus fruits 
as well, will find a congenial home here. Some experience leads to the 
belief that a late crop of Bartlett pears will be likely to prove particularly 
remunerative. In the bottom lands of the Salinas and Huerhuero, alfalfa, 
maize, sorghum, and other forage crops have given excellent results with- 
out irrigation. 

Hydrographic Features of the Upper Salinas Valley. — The main river 
keeps along the foothills of the Santa Lucia Range, on the western border of 
the upper valley, and its extreme heads lie in a broken region to eastward 
of the Santa Margarita Ranch; far short of the heads of the Estrella, 
which reach at least twenty miles farther to the southwest, and should, 
according to geographical usage, constitute it the main river. Its inferior 
water volume has probably prevented the popular acceptance of this view. 
Between the heads of the two streams there intervenes a chiefly granitic 
mountain mass, which may be considered as the most northerly spur of 
the Sierra San Rafael. Emerging from its narrow valley above La Panza, 
San Juan Creek, the main head of the Estrella, still keeps to eastward 
along the foot of a hilly country until it is joined by Cholame Creek, 
which flows from the north around the most southerly spur of the Gabilan 
Range, here designated as the Cholame; then after flowing due west for 
eight miles, it continues northwesterly along the western foot of the Gabilan, 
joining the main Salinas near San Miguel. 

Between the course of the Salinas and that of the Estrella, just de- 
bed, scribes the main body of the "Upper Valley," which from Paso 
Rubles across to the Cholame Range is about ten miles wide, and from 
San Miguel to the foot of the granitic hills to southward, about eighteen 
miles. It is in the main a gently rolling plain — " Estrella Plain " — rising 




94 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



to about one thousand feet altitude in its higher portions, and into which 
several minor watercourses, among which the Huerhuero is the largest 
and best known, have cut narrow valleys, often little exceeding the width 
of the rambling, sandy channel itself. From these the rise to the level of 
the plain or mesa is usually by several well defined terraces or benches, 
showing clearly that at previous periods the water level was much higher, 
and has been lowered by successive breaks in the obstruction intervening 
between the upper and lower valleys. In fact, it is obvious that at one 
time the entire upper valley was practically a lake, during the existence 
of which the deep granitic sand, that forms the main body of the uplands, 
was brought from above and deposited in the bed previously scooped out 
in the deposits of (tertiary) clays, marls, and claystones, that even now 
form the bordering ridge on the east bank of the main Salinas, and which 
jut out here and there into the plain itself at the present time. But, from 
the existence of high bluff banks of clay and 10am along the streams, 
underlying the granitic upland soil, it also appears that before the coming 
down of the flood of granitic sand there was a time when clayey and fine, 
sandy materials were chiefly brought down into the lake bed. 

In the absence of a close examination of the country above, it is not 
possible to designate more precisely the sources of these several materials 
or the cause of the apparently sudden and complete change in the nature 
of the soils formed. What has been said will suffice for an understanding 
of the manner in which the several kinds of land are disposed with respect 
to each other. A cross-section of the country from Templeton and Paso 
Robles, on the Salinas, to the Huerhuero and beyond will illustrate this. 

Templeton is situated on the west bank of the Salinas River, on a bench 
about thirty feet above the flood plain; this bench extends about five miles 
to westward, to the foot of the Coast Range, and has a gravelly loam soil, 
which, under good cultivation, is very productive. Like most of the upper 
valley, it bears a sparse but vigorous growth of white and blue oaks. 

Crossing the river, we find a bluff about sixty feet high, composed below 
of horizontal beds of partly siliceous, partly calcareous claystone, with 
some marl beds containing oyster and other marine shells to show their 
origin; while the higher part of the bluff is composed of a puddingstone 
formed of white siliceous (hornstone) pebbles, similar to those that are 
abundantly found on the surface of the gravelly areas, on the Salinas 
slope, while they are wanting on the Huerhuero side. The soils become 
heavier as we ascend the divide, and on the latter a well defined brown 
adobe prevails, sometimes underlaid by a calcareous hardpah. Descending 
on the east slope toward the Huerhuero, we find on the higher portion of 
the slope the coarse, sandy, granitic soil overlying the adobe; lower down, 
the immediate slopes of the creeks and of the Huerhuero itself are formed 
of a rather sandy, yellowish loam, underlaid by gravel, and this sometimes 
by heavy, blue clay, near the water level. Trees and shrubs seem to grow 
on this loam wherever it is exposed, without reference to its depth below 
the surface of the stratum. 

The town of Paso Robles is located on a bench very like that at Tem- 
pleton, but of much less extent east and west; the town fronting on the 
river and leaning against the Coast Range in the rear, although with 
abundant room to extend up and down the river. Here also the same 
gravelly surface, underlaid by a substantial yellowish loam, is seen, and 
in the river itself we observe the same strata as near Templeton and above, 
viz.: whitish hornstone, overlaid by puddingstone made of similar mate- 
rials, and whitish clays. Ascending the bluff on the east side, we see the 
gravelly slopes with more or less of dark-colored clay that has been washed 

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down from above, and then find ourselves in an undulating country — 
bunch-grass land dotted with oaks — in which the soil is largely adobe nearest • 
the river, but alternates with sandy streaks as we progress eastward, until 
within a mile from the river we reach the regular granitic, sandy lands, 
with here and there hillocks of black or brown adobe land projecting above 
it. These grow fewer to eastward and are finally submerged altogether in 
the sandy mesa, which then continues to the Huerhuero, and beyond to 
the Estrella. 

These hillocks are noteworthy for the luxuriance of their vegetation, aud 
its freshness at the time when the sandy lands are already assuming their 
brown summer garb. The cause of this difference will be discussed below, 
in connection with the soils of the station. 

Crossing the Huerhuero to eastward, we find the granitic sand filling the 
bed and forming terraces on the opposite side, the soils of which appear to 
be the same all the way to the top level of the mesa; nor, in digging down 
in the latter, is any material change observed for six or eight feet; nor does 
any important change seem to occur all the way from the Huerhuero to the 
Estrella, except that the tree growth, which, between the former stream 
and the Salinas is quite abundant, becomes thinner as the Estrella is 
approached. This is ascribed by the inhabitants to a diminishing rainfall 
as we go east, the immediate neighborhood of that stream being credited 
with less than two thirds of the rainfall observed near the Salinas. The 
Cholame Range, beyond the Estrella, is covered with a sparse growth of 
pine on its higher portions. 

The tree growth of the entire region consists of scattered oaks or groups 
of oaks, thickly hung with lichen (Evernia), giving it a park-like and very 
attractive appearance. The ground is usually dotted with bunch grasses 
of various kinds, with much alfilerilla and a great variety of flowers, and 
affords fine pasture. The oaks are almost exclusively of two kinds: the 
white oak on the low land and in the gulches; the blue oak, magnificently 
developed, on the mesa land, whether sandy or adobe. The average density 
of the tree growth was well gauged on the station grounds, where about one 
hundred trees were grubbed out of twenty acres, or an average of five trees 
per acre. 

Other Features of the Upper VaMey Region. — As outlying portions of the 
upper valley, three regions require mention. One is the Cholame Valley, 
drained by the two creeks ("Big" and "Little") of the same name; the 
former heading about thirty-six miles to northward of its junction with the 
Estrella, on the eastern slope of the Gabilan; the latter (a much smaller 
stream) on the western slope of the border range of the San Joaquin Val- 
ley. These valleys comprise considerable bodies of excellent agricultural 
land, also in past times reported to be good for stock grazing only; but 
being now rapidly settled, with excellent results without irrigation. The 
soils are reported as being yellowish loams, without much gravel; there- 
fore entirely different from the mesa soils of the Estrella Plain, but 
probably of the same character as the loam bluffs on the borders of the 
Huerhuero and its tributaries. Probably the Cholame country was too 
high to be overrun by the flood that carried down the granitic sand soils. 

The other outlying area to be mentioned is the Carisa Plain, a valley or 
basin averaging about three hundred feet elevation above the Estrella 
Plain, and of considerable extent— said to be about ten miles wide by sixty 
in length. It lies to eastward across a low ridge from the upper San Juan 
Valley, and is bounded on the east by the western slope of the border 
range of the San Joaquin Valley. The drainage of this basin would natur- 
ally lie toward the north, and form an eastern affluent of the San Juan; 

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UNIVERSITY OP CALIFORNIA. 



bat it seems to have no natural drainage whatever, but instead, in its 
middle portion, a succession of salt marshes and lakes, five miles in length, 
having water only during the rainy season. It is stated that the prevail- 
ing soil of the Carisa Plain is a deep, friable loam, and on the rolling land, 
and part of the plain, a heavy, gray adobe, of course largely infested with 
alkali; but that, while no drinkable water exists on the surface, it forms a 
good sheep pasture in spring, the animals finding the necessary moisture 
in the succulent herbage. In summer it was said to be uninhabitable for 
lack of water, but this statement is denied by the large ranchers and set- 
tlers that have of late established themselves there. 

It would seem amply worth while to make a close examination of this 
region to determine more accurately the nature of its soil, and especially 
the possibility of obtaining water from artesian wells. Its altitude is not 
so great as to render this improbable, considering that it lies considerably 
below the crests of several neighboring ranges. 

The eastern slope of the Santa Lucia, or outer Coast Range, from which 
flow a number of lively permanent streams, such as the San Marcos, Paso 
Robles, and Atascadero Creeks, has along these streams some fine foot- 
hill country and valley lands; not in large bodies, but in the aggregate 
forming a considerable area of farming land of great fertility. As the 
rocks vary greatly from ridge to ridge, the soils of the valleys vary corre- 
spondingly; but perhaps the most common and important soil of the valleys 
is that resulting from the weathering of clay slate, which forms a rather 
heavy and (judging from the tree and shrubby growth upon it) a very 
substantial soil, often bearing enormous old white oaks, together with the 
coast live oak (Q. agrifolia). The results of cultivation and fruit planting 
on Baron von Schroeder's ranch, in the hills just west of Cashin Station, 
nave been excellent, the main difficulty being in occasional late frosts 
where high hills adjoin the valleys. When the country is settled up, many 
pleasant homes will be made in these mountain valleys. 

Location of the Station. — Since from the foregoing observations it appears 
that not only does the granitic soil occupy the largest area in the region, 
but that it is of considerable uniformity over its entire cross-section from 
the Salinas to the Estrella, it seemed proper to locate the station mainly 
with reference to this predominant soil, and in so doing to consider the 
convenience of proximity to the railroad. After examining many possible 
locations it was concluded to accept the offer of Mr. J. V. Webster, of Cres- 
ton (who had taken the most lively interest in the matter), of a tract of 
twenty acres lying about two miles north of Paso Robles, three quarters of 
a mile east from the Salinas River, and about eighty feet above it, on the 
plateau level; on the main road from Paso Robles to the Huerhuero settle- 
ments, and within the region where the adobe knolls project through the 
granitic sand soil, so as to permit of a representation of both kinds of land 
within its limits. 

The tract, as is shown on the plat (page 104), is a parallelogram one 
thousand seven hundred and ten by four hundred and ninety-five feet, the 
latter dimension representing its frontage on the public road, while the 
longer runs due north and south. The forward (southernmost) two thirds 
of the tract is practically level, and represents the typical soil of the plains 
to the eastward; while in the rear third there are two additional soil vari- 
eties, to wit: that of the swales in the sandy lands, and on the northwest 
corner, a triangular, sloping piece of heavy adobe clay land. The latter 
forms the foot of one of the hillocks already mentioned, on the top of which 
there is an extraordinarily luxuriant vegetation lasting far into the sum- 
mer. Ih the northeast corner is included part of a " hog-wallow " area, the 

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soil of which is slightly heavier than that of the front portion, yet not 
materially different. 

Details of the SoiU of the Station. — The sandy loam which occupies the 
larger portion of the experimental tract, and is substantially the same as 
that of the " Estrella Plains" at large, consists, as already stated, mainly 
of granitic sand, intermingled with a larger or smaller proportion (accord- 
ing to location with respect to the adobe hills) of white hornstone and 
claystone debris, most of which are little if at all waterworn. A small 
but somewhat variable proportion of clay serves as a binding material, 
which gives the soil enough consistency to turn a furrow-slice, and to pre- 
vent leachiness. Grains of quartz, feldspar, and hornstone, from one eighth 
to as much as one fourth of an inch diameter, occur in the soil and give 
to the surface, after rains, the appearance of having been strewn with Liv- 
erpool salt; they form the bulk of the " coarse materials " mentioned in 
the analytical statement below. In the finer portions, black or rust-colored 
grains of partly decomposed hornblende are somewhat abundant. 

The tree growth of the tract was almost entirely on the sandy land, for- 
ward of the Bwale, covering about fourteen out of the twenty acres; it con 
sieted almost exclusively of the blue oak, with a few small white oaks; 
and a few of the larger trees of the former kind were allowed to remain in 
order to test their production of acorn mast, it being reported that such 
trees yield a larger amount of hog feed than anything else occupying a 
similar area. Some of these larger trees were five feet in diameter three 
feet above the ground, and many between four and five feet 

Aside from the timber growth, the ground was covered with a good deal 
of bunch grass and alfilerilla (Erodium), with the prevailing flora of the 
region — the several Phacelias, NemophUa, several Qilias, and the blue star- 
grass (Sisyrinchium). 

The turface toil of the front portion (No. 1147), taken to the depth of 
twelve inches, is of a reddish gray, or fawn color, which deepens consider- 
ably on wetting by bringing out the color of the humus present; but it can 
hardly be said to assume any plasticity, and could evidently be safely 
plowed almost at all times. 

Northward of the swale, crossing the station tract diagonally, and at 
about the same level as the front land, there is a piece of sandy land of a 
somewhat heavier quality than the former, and on which grew a few scat- 
tered oaks. Toward the northwest corner of the tract it is underlaid by 
the black adobe soil of the hillside; while toward the northeast corner it 
breaks into a " hog-wallow " or hillocky surface, which is common near 
tbe heads of the swales in the region. It has, of course, received some of 
the washings of the adobe hills to increase its clayey ingredient, and its 
flora differs correspondingly from the front land by the very common occur- 
rence of tbe yellow hound Y s-tongue (Amsinchia lycopmdes, sometimes called 
" tarweed," but incorrectly, as it has no sticky secretion but only hooked 
bristles), which is more particularly at home on the adobe soils. 

The soil of the back land (No. 1126) is a gray, silty one, having a cer- 
tain proportion of coarse sand and gravel up to one fifth of an inch in 
diameter; darkens but little on wetting, and becomes only fairly plastic, 
so that it could always be plowed except when very wet. 

The soil of the swale is more specially described hereafter. 

The chemical analysis of these three soils resulted as follows: 
7* 



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98 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 
Sandy Loam Soils. Experiment Station, near Paso Babies. 



No. 1147. 
12 inches. 
Front Land. 



No. 1126. 
12 InchM 
Book Laod. 



Coarse materials>0^»"» . 
Fine earth 



Analysis of Fine Earth. 

Insoluble matter 

Soluble silica 

Potash (K.O) 

Soda(Na,6) 

Lime(CaO) 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Br. ox. of manganese (Mn,O t ) 

Peroxide of iron (Fe,0,) 

Alumina (Al,0.) 

Phosphoric acid (P.O.) 

Sulphuric acid (SO.) 

Carbonic acid (CO,) 

Water and organic matter 



Total. 



Humus 

Ash 

Sol. phos. acid 

Silica 

Hygroscopic moisture (absorbed at 16* C). 



39.5 
60.5 



.68 
.31 
M 
.37 
.04 
3.83 
1.74 
.07 
.03 



2.19 



100.29 

.66 
.79 

"Y.84* 



20.5 
79.5 



.40 
35 
J2S 
.32 
.03 
1.68 
2.93 
.02 
.05 



1.86 



100.35 

.55 
.86 
.02 

""£56* 



The sandy nature of these soils is well shown in the large proportion of 
inert matter and the low moisture absorption; the latter is so low in the 
front land soil, that but for the great depth at all points it would constitute 
a serious defect, and would necessitate very frequent irrigation. But as 
there is scarcely a noticeable change in the nature of the soil for eight feet 
and more, both moisture and nourishment can be sought by the roots inde- 
pendently of the surface soil. As a matter of fact, however, moisture 
sensible to the hand is always found in this land at a depth of six or eight 
inches, and the roots of the smaller plants are usually found, unhurt by 
drought or heat, much nearer the surface. It thus becomes intelligible 
how this land can be cultivated without irrigation, despite the long, hot, 
and rainless summer. 

Chemically the soil (No. 1147) shows its granitic origin by the abun- 
dance of potash present, with, for California, a relatively small proportion 
of lime, which, however, does not amount to a deficiency in so sandy a 
soil, and still imparts to it the characters of a "calcareous" one. For so 
sandy a soil, again, the supply of phosphoric acid is quite large, especially 
in view of the great depth to which roots can readily go. The supply of 
humus is only fair and might advantageously (to moisture-retention) be 
increased. The soil is therefore a very good one of its kind, and likely to 
be lastingly productive. 

As to the sandy soil of the back land (No. 1126), it will be noted that 
while it contains less of " coarse materials " than that from the front land, 
its inert portion is greater by nearly two per cent than in the latter; 
naturally its percentages of each of the soluble ingredients must be cor- 
respondingly smaller if the two soils are otherwise similar. The reduction 
in the essential ingredients is, however, greater than it should be on this 
ground, as will be seen on comparing the figures for potash and lime; the 
phosphoric acid percentage is extremely low, but as all of it is in the solu- 
ble form, the soil may not show a deficiency in this ingredient for some 

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time. Humus likewise is in small supply; the greater clayeyness of the 
•soil is indicated by the higher figure for alumina, and for moisture absorp- 
tion. Its dead gray tint indicates the relative lack of iron also, as com- 
pared with the soils of the adjacent land. Evidently this soil has derived 
no special benefit from the washings of the rich hilltops above, and thus 
appears to be on the whole of lower quality than the sandy land south of 
the swale. 

Swale Soils. — There is a marked peculiarity about the soils of the swales 
of this region, that — rather than valleys with well denned water channels — 
traverse the sandy mesas of the Estrella Plains. These swales are peculiar 
in their flora as compared with the adjoining higher ground; their spring 
flowers are made up almost entirely of a lew species, densely crowded 
together and drying up rather earlier than is the case on the higher ground. 
These species are the small " star sunflower" (Baeria chrysantha f) , the small 
plantain {Plantago Patagonica), the purple flame flower ((Mhomrpm at- 
tenuate), the small-flowered white forget-me-not (Eritrichium Catiforni- 
cumf), and the cowslip (Dodecatheon). The soil, manifestly formed from 
the finer wash of the slopes, appears to consist very largely of fine silt with 
but little clay; becomes close and very hard-baked in summer, and during 
the rainv season develops the disagreeable peculiarity of " bogginess " to a 
degree that renders roads in or crossed by such swales almost impassable, 
ana causes it to plow "like putty" when at all wet, sticking to the plow- 
share and often refusing to turn a furrow-slice. When well tilled the soil 
appears to produce well, quite equal to the uplands; but in order to get it 
into condition it would seem necessary to unqerdrain it, and this improve- 
ment has accordingly been made in the middle of the swale that crosses 
the experimental plot diagonally from northeast to southwest, by the laying 
of" seven hundred and sixteen feet of three-inch tile. The experience of 
the season of 1889-90 will doubtless demonstrate the result of this experi- 
ment. 

From its position and manifest origin, the swale soil (No. 1148) should 
represent the finer portions and teachings of the upland soils (Nos. 1147 
and 1126); it should therefore contain more lime, magnesia, and alumina, 
and less inert matter; and as a result of its position should have more 
humus, and from that cause, as well as from the higher contents of clay, 
should have a higher hygroscopic power. It will be noted that this is pre- 
cisely what is actually shown by the analysis; and although its contents 
of potash and phosphoric acid are somewhat lower than in the upland soil, 
these ingredients are doubtless more available. But these advantages 
cannot avail unless the land is kept in good tilth ; and as this is difficult to 
do in unfavorable seasons unless the land is underdrained, the outcome of 
cultivation on these swales is thus far on the whole less satisfactory than 
on the higher ground. 

The mechanical analysis of this soil, not made in full detail but only so 
far as necessary to prove its general character, gave the following result: 

Mechanical Analytic. 

Weight of gravel between 1.2™ nnd 0.6"™ . t 15.3 

Pine earth i 84.7 

• 100.0 



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100 



UNIVER8ITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



Mechanical Analytic of Fine Earth. 



Clay 

Sediment of <0.25°"» hydraulic value 
Sediment of 0.2S n ">...x 



S.09 
18.41 



Sediment of 0.5""" 
Sediment of 1.0""» 
Sediment of 2.0 mm 
Sediment of 4.0™"> 
Sediment of 8.0°"» 
Sediment of 16.0» m 
Sediment of 32.0™" 
Sediment of 64.0""= 



} 



1034 
7.84 
8.00 
10.04 
10.69 



22.77 



97.50 



It will thus be seen that this material, although working like a very 
heavy soil when wet, contains but a very small amount of clay, as might 
also be inferred from its still relatively low moisture absorption in presence 
of over one per cent of humus. It should also be noted that the sediments 
which form the greater part are very fine, and do not grade off gradually 
toward the coarser ones, of which there is but little present. In other 
words, these swale soils belong to that class composed, in analogy to putty, 
of a large proportion of fine matter with but a trifling amount of binding 
material (linseed oil or clay) ; hence, both materials " work like putty," 
resisting inertly the tool penetrating it and clogging it as it goes. 

Adobe Soils. — As has been stated, the rear (northwest) corner of the 
tract contains about an acre of heavy, dark-colored, clay soil, in which 
deep sun-cracks are formed during the dry season. This patch of adobe 
land lies at the foot and forms part of one of the oft-mentioned knolls, rising 
about seventy feet above the general level of the tract, some five hundred 
feet to northward of the fence corner, and continued into a short ridge some 
seven hundred feet farther. The entire summit of this ridge is conspicu- 
ous for the luxuriance of its vegetation, which embraces a full assortment 
of the herbaceous plants of the region, closely set and much taller than 
anywhere else. Despite its elevation, moreover, this ridge and others like 
it continue green several weeks farther into the dry season than is the 
case with either the sandy uplands or swales adjacent. The same phe- 
nomenon extends (doubtless with the same geological formation) eastward 
to the Cholame country, according to reliable accounts received. The soil 
on these hilltops is intensely black when moist, but is filled with white 
specks ranging from about the size of ordinary rifle powder to that of 
a hazelnut. The greater part of these white grains is hornstone, rather 
soft, and in angular fragments; the rest is soft carbonate of lime, partly 
in the form of " agaric mineral." Both ingredients are obviously derived 
from the underlying stratified rock, in which the same ingredients alter- 
nate in the shaly-bedded layers. The soil, is evidently a purely " residual " 
one, derived from the disintegration of these rocks, into which the subsoil, 
at several feet depth, forms insensible transitions. In its natural condi- 
tion, filled as it is with a mat of roots, the soil appears like a sandy loam, 
easily tilled, but when wetted it becomes extremely adhesive and its 
color darkens perceptibly; it would manifestly be impossible to plow it in 
that condition. The analysis of this soil resulted as follows: 



No. MS. Black Adobe, from HilUop near Experiment Station Tract. 



Coarse materials>0.5 B » 
Fine earth 



tin 



20.00 
80.00 



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i 



Analysis of Fine Earth. 



Insoluble matter 

Soluble silica ... 

Potash (K.O) 

Soda (Na-O) 

Lime (CaO) 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Br. ex. of manganese (Mn,0 4 ). 

Peroxide of iron (Fe,0„) 

Alumina (A1,0.) 

Phosphoric acia (P.O,) 

Sulphuric acid (80 s ) 

Carbonic acid (CO,) 

Water and organic matter 



56.48 
17.95 
.77 
.64 
5.97 
1.03 
.05 
3.43 
5.99 
.44 
.07 
3.25 
5.25 




Total 



100.27 



Humns 

Ash 

8ol. phos. acid 

Silica 

Hygroscopic moisture (absorbed at 16* C.) 



10.22 



1.25 
.47 
.05 



The most prominent characteristics of this soil are its high contents of 
lime— nearly 6 per cent — and of phosphoric acid; the latter exceeding all 
soils thus far analyzed from the Pacific Coast, and approached by only few 
outside, in the United States. Of this large amount, five hundredths of 
one per cent (being as much as many good soils contain on the whole) is 
in the soluble condition. When at the same time we note the high con- 
tents of potash and of humus, and the large absorption of moisture (more 
than five times that of the sandy upland below), we cease to wonder at the 
luxuriance of the vegetation of these knolls, and the long continuance of 
their verdure in comparison with the other soils of the locality. 

Brown Adobes. — While this hilltop soil is thus one of typical excellence, 
the area occupied by it is quite small as compared with the lighter colored, 
usually brownish or fawn-colored adobe soils that prevail on the lower 
ridges, and often form tracts of considerable extent; as for instance, on the 
dividing ridge between the Salinas River and the Huerhuero, opposite 
Templeton, and continuing northward nearly opposite to Paso nobles. 
The relation of this brown adobe to the profusely fertile hilltops is well 
shown on the experimental tract, where it forms the foot of the ridge, being 
clearly a sedentary soil derived from the predominantly clayey strata that 
underlie the calcareous deposits from which the hilltop soil has been formed . 
In other words, the brown adobe represents a lower geological level, and 
one at which the coherence and tenacity of the material has strongly 
resisted denudation. 

These adobe tracts bear in general the same timber growth of blue oak 
as the granitic soil; the trees are, however, less abundant, and on the whole 
of inferior size. During summer it tends to open in wide sun-cracks where- 
ever not well shaded or tilled; its natural herbaceous growth is character- 
ized by the great prevalence of the yellow forget-me-not, or "tarweed" 
(Ameinckia lycopsotdes) , sometimes (as on the experimental tract) to the 
exclusion of all else, save some clumps of blue star-grass (Swyrinchium). 
It bears the reputation of being a good wheat soil when well cultivated. 
On the flanks of the ridges composed of this soil and its underlying ma- 
terials, the light, granitic soil overlies it The following record and analy- 
ses exhibit its chemical characters: 

No. 1149. Adobe upland toil, from the northwest corner of the experi- 
mental plot A very heavy soil, deeply sun-cracked at the time the sample 
was taken; of a dark brown tint when dry, and cutting with a shiny sur- 



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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



face; almost black when wet, and becoming very tenacious when kneaded. 
Occupies the lower slope of the adjacent ridge for some forty feet upward; 
bears a few blue oaks, and is densely covered with the yellow forget-me- 
not, or tarweed (AmaincMa), very luxuriantly developed. Also, some blue 
star-grass, Brodixa, Plantago Patagonica, Plectritis, and Eritrichium. Sam- 
ple taken to twelve inches depth. 

No. 1150. Adobe upland toil, from the broad dividing ridge between 
the Salinas River and Huerhuero Creek, five miles out from Templeton, 
on the Creston road; C. P. Huntington's land. Fairly timbered with blue 
oak; herbaceous growth nearly as in the preceding number. Appears tc- 
be not quite as heavy as the soil on the exprimental tract; contains some 
white hornstone gravel in its upper portion, and seems to become rather 
heavier downward. Sample taken to the depth of twelve inches. 

The chemical composition of these soils is given in the table following; 
the black hilltop adobe (No. 1123) being placed alongside for comparison: 



Adobe Soil*. 





No. 1123. 
121 lichen. Hilltop, 
Dear Experiment 
Sum ion, 
Paso Boblee. 


No. 1149. 
12 inches. North- 
west corner of Ex- 
periment Station . 


No. 1180. 
12 inchee. Upland, 
Huntington 
Tract. 




20.00 
80.00 

.77 
.64 
5.97 
1.03 
.05 
3.43 
5.99 
.44 
.07 
3.25 
5.25 


13.52 
86.48 

aJJ!} 78.67 

.70 

.18 
1.09 
1.04 

.04 
4.39 
9.16 

.08 

.01 


9.36 
90.64 

L01 
.33 
1.31 
1.26 
.03 
7.22 
6.78 
.09 
.04 


Analysis of Fine Earth. 

Potash (K,0) 

Lime (CaU) 

Br. ox. of manganese (Mn,0 4 ) 

Peroxide of iron (Fe,0,) 

Phosphoric acid ( P,O s ) 

Sulphuric acid (SO.) 


Total 


4.67 


4.50 


100.27 

1.25 
.47 
.05 


100.03 

> .47 
.21 
.03 


99.77 

.58 
.08 
.03 




Ash 




Hygroscopic moisture(absorbed at 15° C.) 


10.22 


11.14 


10.78 



So far as the essential points are concerned, these soils are verf nearly 
alike in composition as well as in other characters, while very unlike the 
black soil of the hilltop (No. 1123). Both are, however, well provided 
with the several ingredients of mineral plant food, and should be pro- 
ductive as well as durable under careful cultivation, which alone will ren- 
der such heavy soils profitable. A larger proportion of lime would be 
desirable, especially in No. 1149, which is the more extreme of the two. 
Both contain much less humus than is desirable in such heavy soil, so- 
that the addition of vegetable matter as well as of lime or marls would 
materially help their thriftiness. But as they stand, there is no reason 
why the production of grains as well as of fruits adapted to heavy soils — 
plums, pears, apricots, apples, etc. — should not be successful. 

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Improvements Thus Far Made on the Station Grounds. 

The tract has been inclosed with a substantial " six-board" fence, of red- 
wood posts, with Oregon pine planks. The latter had been so disposed that 
it was hoped rabbits would be excluded; but experience showed that this 
was not the case, and it became necessary to interpose in each of two lower 
spaces a strand of barbed wire. Unfortunately considerable damage to 
young trees and vine cuttings occurred before this additional protection 
could be given. 

The buildings on the station grounds consist of a dwelling and a barn; 
the cost of the former was defrayed by subscription from citizens, chiefly 
of Creston, Templeton, and Paso Robles. The region being very thinly 
settled, more could not reasonably be expected, hence the barn was erected 
at the expense of the Station Fund. 

The dwelling house is a neat two-story frame cottage, rustic-finished; 
dimensions, about thirty by thirty-eight feet, inclusive of verandas in front 
and rear; it has eight rooms and bath. The front faces south, toward the 
county road and main entrance. Several groups of oaks have been left 
standing around the house and outbuildings, for shade and protection from 
wind. 

The barn is placed near the east line of the tract some distance in the 
rear of the house; is also rustic-finished, sixteen by sixteen feet, with three 
stalls, and hay loft giving room for five tons of (baled) hay. Adjoining 
the stable are wagon and tool sheds, each sixteen by fourteen feet; a space 
sixteen by forty-eight feet is in addition covered by a lean-to roof, forming 
an open shed, affording additional space for storing implements, etc., from 
the weather. 

Between the barn and the house is a dug well about one hundred and 
five feet deep and four feet in diameter (with wooden curbing down to forty 
feet, and brick for seven feet from bottom), which, as a rule, contains about 
five feet of excellent water. It is at present raised by horse-power with a 
deep-well force pump into a redwood tank of three thousand gallons capac- 
ity, raised on a trestle twelve feet high, for the supply of house and stable. 
It is intended to supplement the horse-power, so far as the light winds pre- 
vailing in the region will permit, by a windmill, in order to save the time 
of team and men and obtain a larger supply; since at present the latter is 
too scanty to permit of its free use in such irrigation as is # absolutely need- 
ful. 

As this well is the first one sunk on the plateau near the river, its feat- 
ures and measure of success are of somewhat extended interest. Unfor- 
tunately the record kept by the well-digger is very unsatisfactory as to the 
nature of the materials encountered, but subsequent inspection coupled 
with it leads to the following result: The greater part of the material 

Enetrated was bluish or whitish clay, very plastic; it alternates irregu- 
rly with thin-bedded strata of hornstone, mostly soft but some quite 
hard, and containing, or alternating with, more or less of calcareous mate- 
rials. The water comes in through (mostly whitish) hornstone gravel, 
near the level of the Salinas River bed. It does not appear that any well 
defined fossils were found here, although at some points, as near Cashin 
Station above Templeton, oysters and other fossil shells are quite abun- 
dant in the siliceo-calcareous strata exposed in the streams. Hornstone 
gravel conglomerate crops out prominently on the bluffs of the river oppo- 
site Templeton, and also near Paso Robles, and doubtless represents the 
continuation of those found in the station well. The water is somewhat 
hard (calcareous), but good for all domestic uses. 

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 




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SOUTHERN COAST RANGE STATION. 



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Plan of the Grounds. — The plan adopted in laying out the tract for 
planting will be best seen from the foregoing diagram. 

The space immediately adjacent to the house has been laid out with 
curved roads and walks, and planted with a variety of trees, as well as 
with such plants as, whether in propagation or permanent growth, require 
extra care and watering. Small cultures of all kinds occupy the south- < 
west comer, left in blank on the plat, while between the house and the 



is a plantation of citrus fruits and olives. 

In laying off the vineyard and orchard it was necessary, on account of 
the long rectangular shape of the tract, to extend these likewise, in order 
to cover the variations of soil that to a certain extent occur even in the 
sandy land; and for the same end the several fruits were not planted in 
solid bodies each, but somewhat subdivided, so as to show, as far as pos- 
sible, the influence of soil variations. The heavy soil of the swale (see 
above, description of soils) was divided between pears and plums, as being 
most likely to succeed in it. 

The plot on the northeast corner of the tract, reserved for field cultures, 
embraces a fair representation of the bulk of the lands likely to be used 
for such purposes; a somewhat heavier loam than the land occupied by the 
fruits, yet not of an " adobe " character. 

The subjoined report of Inspector W. G. Klee, based partly on the data 
recorded by the station foreman, Mr. Cruickshank, partly on personal 
observations, supplies the details of the planting as well as a number of 
interesting culture data. 

KOTES ON CULTURE EXPERIMENTS AT THE SOUTHERN COAST RANGE 
STATION DURING 1889. 



Small Grain. — A large variety of cereals, including thirty-three varieties 
of wheat, seventeen of barley, eight of oats, and a few of rye and spelt, 
were planted in small beds on the nursery grounds, it being very much 
too late in the season to attempt anything on a larger scale. The soil here 
is very sandy and becomes quite dry, and, taking in consideration that the 
grains were planted much later than is considered safe for wheat in this 
section, the results were not without value for future comparisons when 
planting will be done at the usual times. The following list and notes 
were furnished by the foreman in charge, Mr. R. D. Cruickshank: 



east fence, under the lee of the oak 




from the prevailing wind, there 



By W. G. Klee, Inspector. 



Report on Grain* and Forage PlanU Grown in 1889. 



When 

Sown. 



When Ripe 
and Cut. 



Growth and Result. 



Wheat. 



Red Sonera 

Russian Red-bearded, Hessian 

fly-proof 

Royal Australian 

Rust-proof Indian wheat 

Whittington's wheat 

White Bannat 

Defiance — 

Gem or April 



Feb. 12.. 



June 24 



Medium. 



Chili 

California (spring) 

Petali 

Palestine 



Feb. 12.. 
Feb. 12.. 
Feb. 13.. 
Feb. 12.. 
Feb. 13.. 
Feb. 12.. 
Feb. 13.. 
Feb. 12.. 
Feb. 12.. 
Feb. 12.. 
Feb. 12.. 




July 6.. 
July 6. 
June 24. 
June 24 



Very well. 

Fairly well. 

Crop good, consideringquality of seed. 
Fair crop. 



.Medium. 

Poor. 

. Medium. 
Fair crop. 
...Failed. 



Poor. 
.Fair. 



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106 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 
Report on Grains and Fobaoi Plants — Continued. 



YaBikty. 



When 
Sown. 



When Ripe 
and Gut. 



Growth and Betnlt. 



Missoyen 

Archer's Prolific 

Pringle'8 Defiance 

Arizona (Indian seed wheat).. 

Volo 

Thuringian 

Tunisian 

Mold's Winter 

Propo 

Greek Atlanti 

Hallefs Pedigree of White Vic- 
toria wheat 

Pringle's Best wheat 

Big White Club 

Yellow Noe 

Qolden Drop 

Blood Red wheat 

Chiddam wheat 

Michigan wheat, mixed 

Rye. 

Saxon 

Excelsior Winter 



Feb. 12.. 
Feb. 12.. 
Feb. 13.. 
Feb. 12.. 
Feb. 12.. 
Feb. 12.. 
Feb. 12.. 
Feb. 12.. 
Feb. 12.. 
Feb. 12.. 



Feb. 12. 
Feb. 12. 
Feb. 12. 
Feb. 12. 
Feb. 12. 
Feb. 12. 
Feb. 12. 
Feb. 12. 



Feb. 12. 
Feb. 12. 



Barley. 

Nepaul 

Berkeley Hybrid 

Early Black 2-rowed barley . . 

Scotch 2-rowed 

Large Naked 2-rowed 

Manchurian 

Himalaya 

Bluish barley — 



Chevalier 

Imperial 

Italian 

Scotch Annate 

Six-rowed 

Carter's Prolific . . . 
Six-rowed Winter 
Black 6-rowed 



Rice or sprat. 



Feb. 12.. 
Feb. 12.. 
Feb. 12.. 
Feb. 12.. 
Feb. 12.. 
Feb. 12.. 
Feb. 13.. 
Feb. 12.. 

Feb. 12.. 
Feb. 12.. 
Feb. 13.. 
Feb. 12.. 
Feb. 12.. 
Feb. 12.. 
Feb. 12.. 
Feb. 12.. 

Feb. 13.. 



Oalt. 



Scotch Hopeton Feb. 13. 

Surprise Feb. 12. 

Qray oats from Houdan Feb. 12. 

Black Tartarian Feb. 12. 

Early August Feb. 12. 

Black oats from Coulomieres.. Feb. 12. 

Early oats from E tarn pes Feb. 12. 

Spelt. 

White Emmer i Feb. 13 

White Silesian Feb. 12 

Qrastes. 



Tall oat grass {Arena elatior) ..• Feb. 13 



Japanese wheat grass (Agropy- 
• m) . 



Feb. 


13 


Feb. 


13 


Feb. 


13 


Feb. 


13 


Feb. 


13.. 



rum Japonicuni) 
Schrader's Brorae grass . 
Chick pea (deer anctinum) . 



Snail clover (Medieago turbina- 1 
ta) Feb. 



July 1.. 
June 24. 
July 1 .. 
June 12. 
July 1- 



First rate ; this and Volo the two best. 

Very well. 

Good. 



Filled very poorly. 

Extra well. 

Failed. 

Failed. 

Did not head out 

.Destroyed by gophers. 
- Ears didnot fill. 



July 6. 



Very few germinated. 

Destroyed by gophers. 

Did not germinate. 

Germinated weakly and died. 

Germinated feebly and failed to head. 

Failed because of poor seed. 

.Grew feebly; destroyed by gophers. 
Germinated, but grew poorly. 



.Never germinated. 
Did fairly well. 



June 12.., Extra good. 

June 12.. Medium. 

June 12.. I.., Medium. 

June 24 Medium. 

June 13 Extra good. 

June 13. . I Very good. 

June 13.. Very well. 

June 13.. [ This did best of all our 

j barley; much admired by visitors. 

June 24..: Only medium. 

June 24.. I Medium. 

July 13.. I Nearly a failure. 

Entire failure. 

| Entire failure. 

1 Poor; plants eaten by gophers. 

I Entire failure. 

July 6... — Showed exceedingly well, but was 

I mostly taken by birds before maturity . 
July 6 Nearly a failure. 



July 6. 
July 1. 
July 6. 
July 6. 
July 6. 
July 6. 
July 6. 



Poor. 

Very good. 

Good. 

Very good. 

Very good. 

.Fair, but was taken by gophers. 
Short, not good. 



13.. 



July 6... | Very poor. 

July 6... I Very poor. 



..Doing well; much eaten by rabbits. 

Grew 

fairly well; looks dry in September. 

Grew well, but is now quite dry. 

8eems to do well. 

Does remarkably well- finer 

crop than I have ever seen in India, 
• although grown there in immense 
I quantities for food for man and beast. 

June 13 .1 Did first rate, and likely to 

i be a very useful addition to pasture. 



June 13. 



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SOUTHERN COAST RANGE STATION. 
Report ok Graius and Foraok Plants— Continued. 



107 



Taswtt. 



When 
Sown. 



When Ripe 
and Cut. 



Growth and Bewlt. 



French lentils 

Tagasaste (Cytinu prolifenu 



Sainfoin 

Teoainte (Kama luxuriant) . 



Feb. 13.. 
Feb. IS.. 
Feb. 13- 



June 13. 



-Did very well. 



June 1 
(flowVd) 



Germinated and 

came on well, but the rabbits have 
eaten it off. It would do welt here. 
Com- 
ing on well, and will' stand drought. 

Will 

do well for this section. Has formed 
dense tufts six to twelve inches high, 
butwithoutwatergrows rather slowly. 



Corn. — All varieties planted have done poorly, the product not being 
vorth mentioning. This is in part due to late planting, but it should be 
noted that this section is not considered good for corn (maize) ; the plant 
succeeds without irrigation only on the moist bottom lands, and nearer the 
coast, where the air is moister. 

Sorghums and Sugar Canes. — This class of plants, which usually suc- 
ceeds where Indian corn, for lack of moisture, cannot, has done propor- 
tionally better, but was evidently also planted too late. The leaves dried 
oa the edges, and, except where receiving artificial watering, they cannot 
be said to have succeeded. 

" Kaffir Corn." — The latter seems to blight in bloom, and produces, even 
with irrigation, a poor head. Another season, with more timely planting 
and better prepared ground, is necessary to settle the adaptability of 
sorghums for the soil and location in question. Mr. J. V. Webster, the 
Patron of the station, living twelve miles east of this place, reports very 
good results with sorghum cane as fodder. Of those tried he finds the 
Early Amber the best. This, however, is on land having water at from 
five to six feet. White Egyptian corn blasts in bloom. Kaffir corn does 
not do well, also blasting, in bloom, and its growth is very short. For 
swine feed Mr. Webster considers the Early Amber cane very profitable. 

Grasses. — Of the grasses mentioned in Mr. Cruickshank's report, I found 
the Japanese wheat grass (Agropyrum Japonicum, Vasey) well started 
after the rains in October, as also Schrader's Brome grass and Sainfoin, 
while the tall oat grass {Avena elatior) had survived only in part. A full 
assortment of the best varieties of grasses and forage plants is now being 
planted at the station, and it is hoped that some of these will prove suit- 
able. Those that survived last year will be planted on a larger scale. I 
find here, as in most places in California, the keenest interest in the sub- 
ject of forage plants. 

Bamboos. — Near the house and tank several bamboos were planted. Of 
some lately imported so called " Giant Bamboo," none grew. However, 
two varieties, transplanted from Berkeley — a Japanese named Metake and 

a Chinese large-growing kind — have succeeded well, with copious watering. 

Orchard. 

There have thus far been planted about four hundred varieties of decid- 
uous fruit trees (including nuts), and a collection of small fruits. 

Training of the -Trees. — The low trunk system has been adopted uni- 
formly for these trees, it having been proved by experience that the climate 
of the larger part of California demands it. Of failures from not following 



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108 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



this system there are ample illustrations in San Luis Obispo County, as 
in every county in the State. The trees were cut off at a uniform height of 
three feet, allowing a space of eighteen inches or less for trunk, and the 
remainder for the formation of a head. 

Apples — Ninety varieties, including crab-apples, have been planted, one 
of each. The collection embraces nearly all the varieties which have been 
found adapted to the various climates of the State; also some new intro- 
ductions from Texas. With few exceptions the growth has been uniformly 
good, especially on the granitic, sandy land, less so on the heavy adobe. 
But one or two have died; no attacks from the flat-headed borer (Chryto- 
boihris) have been noticed. The trees in the whole orchard have been 
shaded with shakes on the south and west sides. 

Cherries. — Thirty-eight varieties were planted; a few duplicated on 
Mahaleb stock, but the rest on Mazzard stock, the kind now almost ex- 
clusively used in this State. The growth of these trees has been very good, 
only a few failures to be recorded; they were planted on well drained land. 

Pears. — The collection embraces sixty-five varieties; besides these some 
seedlings of common and Japanese pear stock were planted for future 
budding. The growth of the pears has been only moderate; but very few 
have been lost, except of the small pear seedlings planted very late (in 
April). The soil in which the pears are growing is heavy. Although 
planted very late, the Japanese pear seedlings have done very well, and 
are promising. 

Plums and Prunes. — The growth of these has been only moderate; of 
most of them poor. Of seventy varieties, yearling trees, one or two of 
each, fifteen have died. This must be chiefly attributed to very badly 
drained soil,* also to late planting. Of the sixty-two dormant buds on 
Myrobalan stock planted, only twenty-two made any growth, although the 
remainder are alive at the root. The chief cause of failure was too late 
planting, as the growth of the buds of the living trees has been pretty fair. 
The Japanese plums have done remarkably well on the whole. It is the 
intention to test the question of stock pretty thoroughly, in regard to prunes 
especially, and the kinds not represented will be planted this season. 

The matter of grafting stock is very important in more than one 
respect. Not alone in regard to the adaptability of certain kinds to soil, 
but also in regard to their probable influence on the scion in time of ripen- 
ing and development of the fruit. I learned on my visit this fall the sin- 
gular fact of the comparatively late ripening of some French prunes near 
Creston, also their tenacity in remaining on the trees. Knowing that the 
same is the case in the upper San Joaquin Valley, I was curious to inves- 
tigate further; and through the kindness of Mr. Cruickshank learned that 
such has been the experience in a number of localities in the county. 
There seems to be a parallel case here in two sections, in many respects 
very unlike. That is, we meet with late ripening plums, prunes, and 
pears both in the unirrigated tablelands of San Luis Obispo and in the 
irrigated or sub-irrigated plains of Tulare and Kern ; while in both places 
peaches, apricots, and grapes, and almost everything else, «eem to follow 
what one might think the natural course — early ripening, stimulated by 
heat. The case is a little difficult to explain, although the explanation 
may be that the high temperature produces a sort of resting period, and 
that its influence is felt chiefly on the fruits from the colder regions, such 
as pears and plums. Whatever the true cause may be, it is of consider- 



* This portion of the grounds has now been drained by laying of tile drains, and it is 
hoped this will obviate future trouble of excess of water. 

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SOUTHERN COAST RANGE STATION. 



109 



able practical importance to fruit growers, especially to, the prune grower; 
and if certain stocks would cause the fruit to mature a little earlier and 
separate easily, so as to allow it to be shaken off, as is the universal prac- 
tice in prune Bections, it certainly would be of advantage by greatly 
reducing the cost of harvesting. 

Peaches. — Some sixty varieties on peach root, with some on plum stock, 
have been planted. The growth of these yearling trees on the first named 
stock has been very satisfactory, the granitic soil suiting them well. The 
dormant buds on Myrobalan have, however, been very unsuccessful. The 
soil in the spot chosen is quite heavy and wet, and as they were planted 
very late it is difficult to say whether the failure is due to soil, late plant- 
ing, or to unsuitable stock. It may be argued with reason that soil of a 
heavy nature is not suitable for the peach, and plenty of soil exists that is; 
but nevertheless, many a farmer and small owner might like to have a 
few peaches and not have any suitable peach soil. There is another and 
more formidable and less known reason why we ought to settle definitely 
which peaches will succeed on plum stock, namely, the appearance a few 
years ago of a peach root borer, closely allied to the peach borer of the 
Eastern States, and which has been very destructive in many sections. 
Using plum stock has been at the East one of the preventives for this pest. 
It is probable, of course, that our peach borer species will eventually spread 
all over the State, although indications are that it will prove very destruc- 
tive only on heavier soils. The greater part of the dormant buds which 
failed will be replaced with yearling trees grown this year in Berkeley. 

Nectarines. — The nectarines, of which ten varieties were planted, started 
well, but have been interfered with by " varmints," causing more than 
natural loss. A like number of nectarines in dormant bud on the Myro- 
balan stock did not fare much better than the peaches on the same stock. 

Almonds. — The almonds, on the whole, have done remarkably well, the 
growth being very good — the strongest of any fruit tree planted. The foli- 
age, also, is remarkably good, showing no sign of being affected by mites 
(red spiders), the natural enemy of this tree. In spite of the majority 
doing well, a few trees have been lost, for what reason I am not quite pre- 
pared to say. There were planted ten varieties, including our best Cali- 
fornia seedlings. 

Apricots. — The collection of apricots, twenty varieties, on apricot root, 
has not been a success. A portion of the trees planted in stiff soil, border- 
ing on the swale, have suffered severely. The young roots were evidently 
killed by the excess of water in the soil, and when the trees started out the 
foliage was blighted by the dry wind and hot sun. Mr. Cruickshank states 
that water stood here for a long time, and adds, that apricots generally do 
well about Paso Robles. The apricots on Myrobalan stock, dormant buds, 
did not succeed, numerically, better than other varieties, only seven out of 
twenty growing into trees. Taking in consideration, however, the late 
planting and the excess of moisture these little trees had to endure, the 
growth of the few surviving ones has been very fair, and will warrant the 
replacement of the dead ones by yearling trees from Berkeley. That the 
Myrobalan plum stock cannot be recommended for the prevailing soil (the 
granitic), at least not for peach and apricot, seems quite clear from the 
results of Mr. Webster, at Creston, who has a number of apricots on this 
stock. These trees have never done well, and are stunted beside other 
apricot trees planted later and on their own root. 

Quinces. — These have made moderate growth with some irrigation. They 
have established themselves in the ground, and will probably get along 

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UNIVERSITY OP CALIFORNIA. 



without water next season. Seven varieties besides the Japanese are on 
hand, all of which are living. 

Walnuts and Pecans. — All the walnuts, including seven varieties of the 
English, two grafted on the California black walnut stock, have lived, 
receiving some irrigation. The growth, however, has been very slow, com- 
pared with that in the humid region on the immediate coast. In this sec- 
tion, as in all others sufficiently removed from the effect of drenching fogs, 
the walnut suffers invariably from the effect of the mites (red or white). 
The damaged leaves fall prematurely, and the tree becomes unhealthy. I 
believe that when this insect is held in check by frequent applications of 
clear water to the leaves, or washing with sulphide solutions, one of the 
difficulties of growing the walnut in the interior will be removed. 

The pecans have almost all lived. 

Filberts. — A number of varieties, six in all, were planted in the partial 
shade of oaks; but, in spite of frequent waterings, but few have lived. The 
air seems too dry for them. On north slopes, in the Coast Range, west of 
the station, the conditions seem more favorable. 

Japanese Persimmons. — Some twelve varieties, imported direct from 
Japan, have, by irrigation, survived the summer, but have made very 
little growth. 

Mulberries. — Mulberries of all kinds have grown well without irrigation; 
in fact, before the rains, were the brightest looking trees on the grounds. 
Their success is very encouraging to silk culture. The collection embraces 
almost all of the cultivated varieties. 

Pomegranates. — A few bushes planted have done very poorly. I think 
the soil was a little too dry for them when planted. 



Gooseberries. — Both American and English varieties were planted. In 
the fore part of the summer they did very well, but later on suffered severely 
from the beat, several dying. On low lands about Paso Bobles, they do 
well. 

Currants. — Most of these suffered severely from the heat, and many died. 

Raspberries. — Some of these bore fruit, but afterwards died. They, like 
many other things, were undoubtedly planted too late. 

Blackberries. — Nearly all of these died; chief cause, late planting, as 
blackberries well established do well here. 

Strawberries. — What was said of blackberries refers equally to this fruit. 
With plentiful irrigation they do well. 



The Camphor Tree planted died during the summer. 

The Strawberry Tree (Arbutus unedo) has made a feeble growth. 

Pawpaw (Assimina triloba). — Two trees of these; both died. 

Black Wattle (Acacia decurrens). — Both trees died, evidently having Buf- 
fered in transit. 

Kai Apple (Aberia Caffra). — Both plants are doing well. 
. Citrus Trees. — In the southeast corner of the tract, near the house, and 
somewhat protected by the buildings and surrounding trees, have been 

Elanted a number of sour orange trees, originally imported from Florida, 
ut grown one year at Riverside, San Bernardino County. These trees 
having come from Riverside without any ball of earth, in the month of 
April, were slow in starting; but the majority of them have leaved out 
quite well during the last months of the season. Being rather tender, it 



Small Fruits. 



Miscellaneous Trees. 




SOUTHERN COAST RANGE STATION. 



Ill 



has been found expedient to shade them with cotton cloth all around. 
These trees have been irrigated liberally. A few budded orange trees 
have also been planted. 

Olives. — Of these some twenty varieties, mostly two-year old trees, grafted 
on the so called Redding Picholine, have been planted along the line of 
the east fence. They have been placed about thirty-two feet apart, to give 
ample room for future growth. They have done fairly well, ana being now 
thoroughly established, will make a good showing next year. Of their 
adaptability to this section there is little doubt. They have received 
sparing irrigation. 

Vineyard. 

The vineyard, as the map shows, is divided into two parts by an avenue. 
The collection of vines consists of about one hundred varieties of wine, 
raisin, and table grapes, mostly belonging to Vitis vinifera, only a few 
American vines having been planted. About one third were rooted vines, 
most of which have established themselves, some of them making a good 
growth. The other part of the vineyard was planted with cuttings; of 
these the majority started well, but have suffered severely from the attack 
of rabbits; the fence, as stated elsewhere, was not quite close enough. 
The vineyard is planted eight by eight feet, with an avenue of sixteen feet; 
thirty vines of each variety. Of the following list of ninety-six varieties 
the proportion of growing and lost ones stands thus: 

Rooted Vinet. 



12 varieties — .Ho failure. 

10 varieties 3 per cent loss or below. 

8 varieties 10 per cent loss or below. 

3 varieties 16 per cent loss or below. 

1 variety 35 per cent loss. 

Outtingt. 

1 variety None. 

4 varieties 5 per cent loss or below. 

5 varieties - 10 per cent loss or below. 

19 varieties 26 per cent loss or below. 

12 varieties 85 per cent loss or below. 

13 varieties 50 per cent loss or below. 

8 varieties 65 per cent loss or below. 

3 varieties 75 per cent loss or below. 



It will be noted that the percentage of failure of rooted vines compared 
with the cuttings is very small, as might naturally be expected. They 
had, besides, in their favor, earlier planting. The majority of these vines 
were rooted at Mr. Webster's place, at Creston. The cuttings were sent 
from the experiment stations at Cupertino and Mission San Jose. A few 
were procured from elsewhere. It is amongst these the heaviest loss is 
noticeable, as they came much later than the rest. Some injury must be 
attributed to wild animals, such as squirrels, rabbits, and muskrats. 

Qeneral Results. — When taking in consideration the unavoidable delay 
in collecting the large variety of plants, and also the late start in getting 
the grounds in order, the general results must be considered encouraging. 
The ground in the orchard and vineyard has been kept in good cultivation 
all summer, and no irrigation has been used except in cases mentioned. 
The place has a neat and attractive appearance. AH trees and vines have 
been plainly labeled by Mr. Cruickshank, and bear testimony to care and 
forethought in their treatment. 



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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



THE SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY STATION. 

Location: One mile southeast of Tulare City. 



The San Joaquin Valley. — The division of the Great Valley traversed by 
the San Joaquin River constitutes about three fifths of the whole. Its 
area from the southern end to the Calaveras River, a distance of about two 
hundred and forty miles, is about eleven thousand square miles. 

The climate of the San Joaquin Valley stands in marked contrast to 
that of the immediate coast of California, and most markedly with that 
of the bay region contiguous to the Golden Gate. A very light rainfall, 
decreasing from about twelve inches at Stockton, San Joaquin County, to 
about five inches at Bakersfield, Kern County; a very dry atmosphere, 
especially in summer (mostly below 50 per cent of saturation); and a 
summer temperature, which by the thermometer is very high, but which in 
consequence of the dryness of the air is but rarely oppressive, and despite 
of which sunstroke is almost unknown. These constitute the main factors 
of the climate of the interior valley, in which irrigation becomes more and 
more needful as we advance southward, and south of Merced County may 
be said to be indispensable to any safe and rational system of agriculture. 

The subjoined table gives the temperature and rainfall data, as far as 
deducible from the observations made thus far, at three central points in 
the three counties of the Tulare Basin: 



Table showing the Rainfall and Average and Extreme Temperature for Summer and Winter in 
Tulare Valley. From obtervatiom ending June SO, 1888. 



Locality. 


f 
\ 

1 

j 


? 

2, 
© 

I 

p 


Rainfall— Inches 


WlMTXB TKM PKEATURK. 


SUMMItt TKM PEBATURX. 


> 

ii 

if 


> 

: k 

* ? 


Extreme Min-, 


> 

i 

1 


Arerage Max- 
imum 


> 

II 
if 


S? 

S 3 
I s 

: « 

! 5 


>■ 

1 

r 




292 


11 


8.6 


69.5 


31.7 


20.0 


50.7 


107.5 


60.8 


113.0 


83.7 


Tulare 


282 


14 


6.7 


69.2 


29.4 


17.0 


47.1 


106.0 


62.2 


114.0 


83.5 




415 


14 


5.1 


72.9 


29.8 


18.0 


49.1 


107.8 


62.8 


113.0 


86.2 



The absolute extremes given in this table are taken from the observa- 
tions of six years only, including therein the extraordinary minima of the 
winter of 1885-6, unequaled for thirty years, where observations have been 
made for that length of time. The " average minima," deduced from the 
lowest temperatures observed each day during the winter months, convey 
a more correct idea of the usual expectation of winter cold. 

It should be added that the summer nights are usually quite cool as 
compared with the days, on account of the cool air descending from the 
mountains at night; hence, sleep is rarely disturbed by heat, as is so com- 
monly the case in the East. 

The winds in the entire valley are prevalently from the north, very regu- 
larly so during the summer, being simply the trade winds of the coast, 

Digitized by VjOOglC 



RAN JOAQUIN VALLEY STATION. 



113 



entering the valley through the Straits of Carquinez and deflected by the 
mountains, southward into the San Joaquin, and northward into the Sacra- 
mento Valley. The9e up-valley winds are mere breezes, usually springing 
up in the afternoon and materially tempering the heat. Quite different 
are the true north winds, or " northers," which are sometimes experienced 
here as elsewhere in the State, at times blowing with considerable velocity, 
very hot and dry in summer, cold in winter. The rains of winter are 
almost invariably from the south, and naturally of short duration. A 
cloudless sky is, of course, the rule. 

The Tulare and San' Joaquin Basins. — The prominent topographical feat- 
ure of the San Joaquin, as against the Sacramento Valley portion, is the 
lake basin formed in its southern half by a low water-divide which crosses 
the valley in the southern half of Fresno County, and by which the waters 
of Kings River are thrown southward into Tulare Lake. Northward of this 
divide the San Joaquin River enters the valley from its cafion in the Sierra; 
and first crossing it to within a few miles of the opposite slope of the Coast 
Range, turns northward in the trough of the valley, receiving thereafter 
the entire drainage of the Sierra. The southern valley is thus subdivided 
into the southern, or Tulare Basin, and the San Joaquin Basin proper. 

At present, the cross ridge mentioned is intersected at its western end by 
Cole, Steamboat, and other sloughs or channels, through which the surplus 
waters of Tulare Lake or Kings River can find their way to the San Joa- 
quin. Previous to the formation of these outlets, the entire upper valley 
was evidently for some time a shallow lake, of which Kern, Buena Vista, 
and Tulare Lakes, with their bordering tule marshes, are the remnants. 
The main tributaries of this basin, heading in the Sierra itself, are the 
Kern, Kaweah, and Kings Rivers, which carry running water throughout 
the year. Besides these, there are numerous minor watercourses, of more 
or less intermittent character, heading in the foothills and reaching the 
main valley trough only in time of flood, or not at all. Such are Poso, 
White, and. Deer Creeks, and Tule River, which can be relied on for irriga- 
tion only to a limited extent. All the streams are bordered by more or less 
of moist lands, requiring less irrigation than the higher portions of the 
plains. 

Ths streams of the Tulare Basin enter the valley from the Sierra canons 
in remarkably shallow channels, but then cut deeper ways in the plains 
proper, again approaching the general surface as they near the trough, 
which lies quite close to the valley's western edge, near the foot of the Coast 
Range. The streams descending from the latter are of the most intermit- 
tent character; the slopes of the Coast Range being steep, bare of forest, 
and generally very sandy, imparting a corresponding character to the soils 
of the west side. Hence, the Coast Range streams mostly lose themselves 
before they reach the trough, and are, in any case, available for irrigation 
only locally and to a limited extent, unless winter-stored. Nearly the same 
character of the Coast Range slopes and drainage continues in the San 
Joaquin Valley proper to San Joaquin County; while the streams flowing 
from the Sierra, on the contrary, lie there in deeply cut channels for many 
miles out from the mountains, and do not approach the level of the plain 
until shortly before reaching the trough of the San Joaquin River, when 
they take a turn northward. 

The Tulare Basin, with which the station established is more specially 
concerned, is terminated on the south by the amphitheater of the Tejon 
t and Tehachapi Mountains, which rise from the valley with rather a gentle 
slope of good grazing lands, though bare of timber in their lower portions. 
Conforming in shape to the base of the mountains, but separated from the 
0 Digitized by Google 



114 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



latter by a gently sloping plain eight to ten miles Wide, lies the V-shaped 
trough of lowland in which Kern and Buena Vista Lakes form sheets of 
water, at present rapidly decreasing, and disconnected from each other 
by the lowering of the water level in consequence of evaporation. From 
the same cause these waters are sensibly alkaline, and of course increas- 
ingly so as the evaporation progresses, the same characteristic being im- 
parted to the shore lands left by the waters. At the western end of this 
terminal trough, Buena Vista Slough connects (or connected) the lake of 
that name with Tulare Lake. This slough at one point (Cole's Bridge) 
touches the base of a projecting spur of the Coast Range, but below (north- 
ward of) that point is bordered by a broad belt of tule lands reaching to 
the head of Tulare Lake. 

Within the angle of the " V " mentioned above, lies what is known as 
Kern Island, being mainly the delta of Kern River included between ite 
ancient and modern channels, the former of which led directly into the 
eastern end of Kern Lake, while the latter strikes Buena Vista Slough sev- 
. eral miles below the lake of that name. 

Kern River, after leaving its precipitous canon, flows mostly between 
gravelly bluffs, one hundred to two hundred feet high, for eighteen miles 
before reaching the valley proper. From this point there diverge a num- 
ber of channels, seeking an outlet into the lakes; the distance from its 
present main outlet to the canon mouth being about forty miles. From 
about five miles below the canon the river bed is composed of shifting 

S[Uicksands, varying in width from one hundred and fifty to eight hundred 
eet; the banks are low, sandy, and unstable, and the land slopes rapidly 
away from them, offering great facilities for irrigation; hence there is no 
other river in the State from which so many canals and ditches have been 
made to divert the water; their excessive multiplication having given rise 
to great waste. The higher lands bordering the eastern foothills, as well 
as the higher parts of the plains farther out into the valley, have not been 
irrigated thus far, the water being exhausted by the claims made for the 
lower lands. Winter storage alone could supply this deficiency. As a 
whole the lands of the Kern River Valley are highly productive sandy 
loams, in which, despite the greater or less prevalence of alkali, both field 
and fruit crops reach great perfection. 

The heads of Poso Creek and Tule River extend but a short distance back 
into the Sierra, and hence the waters, even of the latter, are usually swal- 
lowed up in its sandy bed and tule swamps before reaching far out into 
the plain. An old channel, forking off to the north toward Elk Bayou of 
the Kaweah, is bordered by a belt of" black land " (see below) . Tule River 
supplies important irrigation works in the neighborhood of Porterville, 
lying within the "red lands" hereinafter described. 

The Kaweah River, like the Kern, forms an extensive delta between the 
foothills and the valley trough, to which indeed it has at present no def- 
inite main channel. It begins to spread out immediately upon leaving its 
rocky canon, within the foothills, and loses a considerable portion of its 
waters in the beds of sand, gravel, and light alluvium with which it has 
built up the valley for nine or ten miles from its point of emergence, with 
a width varying from two to three miles, and a fall of sometimes as much 
as thirty feet per mile. On clearing the foothills it spreads out like the 
fingers of the hand, into a maze of creeks and minor channels, to an ex- 
treme width of nearly twenty miles, while the distance to the (present) 
margin of the lake is thirty-six miles. The total fall from the mouth of 
the canon is about three hundred and thirty feet; from the foothills, one 
hundred and ninety feet; near the lake the fall is only about five feet per 
mile. The creeks that carry the water down this great sloping delta plain 



SAN JOAQUIN VALLKY STATION. 



115 



sometimes disappear in beds of sand, and reappear below under another 
name; sometimes are altogether lost in swampy tracts, densely covered 
with a fine growth of white oak and underbrush. The Kaweah delta is 
the one really wooded region in the San Joaquin Valley, the trees attain- 
ing a very large size. Elsewhere in the valley a few scattered oaks are all 
that is usually seen away from the main channels of the streams. A por- 
tion of the lower lands (old alluvium of the Kaweah and its sloughs) can 
be cultivated without irrigation, and in the higher and sandier lands, as 
near Tulare City, the water table is within twelve or fourteen feet of the 
surface, and can therefore be easily made available for irrigation. From 
the several creeks numerous ditches run out, using all the water except in 
time of flood. 

Kings River, both from its location with reference to the adjoining coun- 
try and from the volume and purity of its water, is one of the most impor- 
tant irrigation rivers of the State. Immediately on leaving its canon it 
subdivides into several channels not widely separated; but from a point 
about three miles out it begins to spread and forms a wedge-shaped alluvial 
region, three miles in maximum width and ten miles long, known as the 
" Centerville Bottoms." Below these it reunites and continues in a single, 
deep, tortuous channel, twenty to sixty-five feet below the surface of the 
adjacent plain, for twelve miles (direct line) , when Cole Slough forks off 
to the southwest Ten miles below this point the river again spreads out 
into complex sloughs and channels, traversing an alluvial (delta) region, 
which, from the southeastern limit of the Mussel Slough country, near the 
mouth of Cross Creek to the junction of the North Fork with Steamboat 
Slough, measures about twenty-seven miles across in a. southeast and 
northwest direction, and from northeast to southwest over twenty miles, 
from the divergence of Bums' Slough to the western border of the valley 
trough. On reaching the latter the main channel of the river turns 
squarely southeast, toward Tulare Lake, which its waters may reach or 
not, according to the season, the rainfall, and the greater or less use of 
irrigation water in the upper portion of its course. From the turn of the 
river toward the lake there extends in the opposite direction (northwest), 
for thirty-six miles, a belt of alluvial (mostly " tule ") land, averaging four 
miles in width, which is intersected by numerous more or less definite 
channels, of which Steamboat Slough is the principal one, and it con- 
tinues some eight miles beyond the tule belt, to the northwestward turn 
of the San Joaquin River, into which any surplus is discharged in time of 
flood. Kings River has not a single perennial tributary from the foothills 
to Tulare Lake, a distance of about sixty-two miles. 

Between Kings River and Cross Creek (the northernmost branch of the 
Kaweah), and Tulare Lake on the south, lies the Mussel Slough country, 
long noted for its fertility, and irrigated by many ditches from Kings 
River. The soil of the Mussel Slough country is mainly a light alluvial 
loam of great depth, quite distinct from the soils of the higher plains, and 
doubtless represents an ancient delta of Kings River, formed before the 
latter had any direct communication with the San Joaquin, but flowed 
farther south, directly into Tulare Lake. 

A very large proportion of the water of Kings River is now diverted from 
the upper portion of its course toward the plains of Fresno, lying from fifty 
to sixty feet higher than the Mussel Slough plains, and differing materi- 
ally in their soil characters from the latter, as well as from the higher plains 
of the San Joaquin Valley at large. 

Soils of the San Joaquin Valley.— The higher plains have very uniformly, 
from Kem County to Stanislaus, a very sandy loam soil, of great depth, 
and almost everywhere made up of granitic debris instea4 g a£ e quartz grains ; 



116 



UNIVKRBITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



hence continually increasing their store of mineral plant food by the 
weathering of the minerals present, a process which in so porous a mate- 
rial, subject, in its natural condition, to free access of air during the greater 
part of the season, was evidently very rapid, and as a consequence has 
developed unusually large amounts of the soluble products, which often 
appear in an inconvenient abundance in the guise of " alkali." But little 
trouble arises from this cause in the high-lying, sandy tracts, where irri- 
gation or the natural rainfall carries the soluble salts annually into the 
country drainage; but in the low-lying and less pervious soils of swales 
and valley troughs, which are at the same time intrinsically the richest 
in available mineral plant food, the accumulation frequently causes con- 
siderable trouble and difficulty. There is on the whole, however, but little 
of the heavier class of clay or adobe soils to be found in the San Joaquin 
Valley; what is currently so designated would in other regions sometimes 
be hardly classed as a clay loam. A narrow belt of dark-colored clay or 
adobe land extends from the neighborhood of Merced City toward Stock- 
ton, where, northward of French Camp Slough and especially westward to 
the Coast Range, really heavy adobe or prairie soils prevail very largely. 
To southward of the line of San Joaquin County adobe soils are found only 
in the river trough, and the soils of the west side are prevalently sandy, aU 
the way to the Tejon Mountains. 

Soils of the Tvlare Valley. — The variety of soils occurring in the valley 
and their relations to each other can be best illustrated by detailed cross- 
sections from the Coast Range to the foothills of the Sierra. 

A section near Bakersfield, across the Kern delta or " island," does not 
present a great variety. The slopes of the Coast Range across Buena 
Vista Slough are quite sandy, full of loose fossil shells, and at some points 
show the blooming out of alkali salts. The surface is covered with grease- 
wood bushes, and but little grass, more probably because of lack of moist- 
ure than want of strength in the soil, judging by the luxuriant growth of 
the grease wood. 

The soil of the valley of Buena Vista Slough ia a fine clayey sediment 
of blackish tint, and although not very stiff, is here called " adobe," by 
comparison with the prevailing sandy soils. Its luxuriant vegetation 
leaves no doubt of its high productiveness; but the valley is quite narrow, 
with a gentle slope up to the level of the plains on the east. Here the 
upland soil bordering the valley and for some miles inland is quite light, 
a rather fine sand almost exclusively overgrown with salt or alkali grass, 
and showing the presence of "black alkali" wherever water has evap- 
orated; it is, however, said to produce forty bushels of corn per acre with- 
out difficulty, at first. 

The analysis of this soil gave the following result: 

Coarse materials>0.5 mnl None. 



Fine earth 



All. 



Analyst* of Fine Earth. 



Insoluble matter 

Soluble silica 

Potash (K.O) 

Soda (Na,0) 

Lime (CaO) 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Br. oz. of manganese (MnjOt) 

Peroxide of iron (Fe,O s ) 

Alumina (Al s O.) 

Phosphoric acid (P,0,) 

Sulphuric acid (SO,) 

Carbonic acid (CO,) 

Water and organic matter 



87.06 
1.98 
.49 
.35 
1.20 
1.07 
.03 
5.82 
.17 
.08 
.13 




Total 



Digitized by 



SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY STATION. 117 

Hamus - 17 

Ash I 20 

Sol. phos. acid 01 

Silica 

Hygroscopic moisture (absorbed at 15° C.) 2.16 



The characteristics of this soil, as compared with others of the region, 
are the low contents of alumina and humus, in which respect the soil 
stands alone thus far in this State. It has practically no clay in its com- 
position; its humus has been dissolved out currently as formed, by the 
"black alkali;" and its sand, as inspection shows, is not of the granitic 
character seen elsewhere, but consists mainly of quartz grains only. Its 
retentiveness of moisture is very low, and is maintained as it is largely 
bv the presence of alkali salts. Nevertheless', it shows by analysis respect- 
able percentages of potash, lime, and phosphoric acid ; and it is probable 
that if the black alkali were neutralized by means of plaster so as to per- 
mit of the retention of humus when formed by the plowing-in of green 
crops, it could be cultivated profitably. 

To eastward of the "salt-grass belt" (about two miles wide) the land 
continues to rise and the soil becomes more coarsely sandy, while alkali 
grass becomes more rare, and sweet grasses, alfilerilla, and the rest of the 
usual growth of the plains appear. At the Belleview Ranch, twelve miles 
toward Bakersfield, the prevailing soil is still that of the higher plains, 
consisting mainly of granitic sand, forming a sandy loam at the surface 
and lower down growing coarser and less clayey, showing plainly the rock 
materials of which it is composed. The great productiveness of this soil 
under irrigation has been amply shown by experience; its composition 
is doubtless similar to that of Tulare, hereinafter discussed. 

Eastward from Belleview Ranch, toward Bakersfield, the alluvial soils 
of the Kern River delta soon begin; dark-colored, more or less sandy, but 
very substantial and productive loams, which are best seen farther to 
southward on the Livermore Ranch, as the characteristic soils of Kern 
Island. To the southeast of Bakersfield is the "weed patch" of Kern 
River, an old alluvial area into which water now flows only in time of 
flood, and the extreme richness of whose soil is indicated by the phenom- 
enal growth of weeds wherever the land is left to itself. The soil of the 
" weed patch " is said to be similar to the " adobe " seen on Buena Vista 
Slough; while the soil of the border, and dry bed, of Kern Lake is a highly 
calcareous, silty mass, rather light in weight when dry, and perhaps more 
of the nature of a marl than a soil proper, being largely made up of the 
debris of shells. It is chemically, doubtless, similar to the soils of the 
Tulare Lake border. 

Crossing Kern River and the railroad, we again come upon the coarser 
sandy or granitic soils of the higher plains, and within a few miles begin 
to ascend the foothill slopes. Here these show none of the red soil so 
characteristic elsewhere, nor is the proverbial " bedrock " or foothill slate 
to be seen; the country rock, horizontally bedded, is a whitish, chalky- 
looking sand- or clay-stone, not very highly calcareous, and alternates with 
beds of a dark-colored clay, bearing more or less gypsum in the form of 
" isinglass," or selenite crystals. Some miles above these clays give rise 
to a very important surface deposit of impure gypsum, well adapted to 
agricultural uses, which is described elsewhere. It seems quite likely that 
the neutralization of the " black alkali " by the teachings of the gypseous 
hills has had something to do with the extraordinary luxuriance of plant 
growth in the " weed patch." 

Tulare City Section.— The section across the valley in the latitude of 
Tulare City includes a portion of the delta of the Kaweah River, as that 

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118 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



near Bakersfield does Kern Island. Here a sloping plain, sixteen to 
twenty miles wide, intervenes between the northern half of Tulare Lake 
and the Coast Range, the foot of which was, however, washed by the 
southwestern corner of the lake when high. The soils of this west-side 
plain are described as being very sandy, but productive when irrigated, 
for which purpose the watercourses of the Coast Range are unfortunately 
altogether inadequate. 

East of the lake, we successively traverse, in traveling toward the Sierra 
foothills, the following belts of land: 

1. Lake-border lands, similar to those now laid bare in the recession of 
Tulare Lake; width, about twelve miles; treeless. 

2. Black lands, ancient lake alluvium; width, about ten miles; mostly 
treeless. 

3. Sandy " plains " lands, alternating with bands or islands of " salt- 
grass" land; width, east and west through Tulare City, about seven miles; 
all more or less wooded (with white oak), some densely so. 

4. Another belt of "black land," precisely similar to that west from 
Tulare City, forming, along Elk Bayou, a belt two to three miles wide. 

5. Between the present and ancient channels of Elk Bayou or Outside 
Creek, an island (about one and a half miles across and four and a half 
miles long) of alkali land covered with salt bushes. 

6. Between the old channel and the foothills, a belt of "red lands," with 
a soil similar to and derived from the foothills, and forming a sloping 
plain; width, eight to ten miles; practically treeless. 

These several belts are described in detail below: 

The lands of the immediate' lake-border are quite peculiar, varying, of 
course, from place to place, according as they were made under the lee of 
a tongue of land or on exposed beaches. In the latter case they are 
largely made up of sand and more or less of shell debris, often quite 
coarse, while in sheltered places they are moderately clayey and usually 
rather dark-tinted, but always visibly calcareous. The dark tint charac- 
terizes likewise a wide belt of land surrounding the lake, doubtless indi- 
cating its height at some former period. The rapid recession of the lake 
during late years having laid bare a good deal of its former bottom, a 
comparison of the older and newer deposits is easily made. The latter 
are usually of bluish-gray or whitish tint, often showing specks or frag- 
ments of shells, also bits of wood, tule, and other organic remains. The 
more clayey varieties exhibit the tendency to bake quite hard on the sur- 
face in the dry season, while remaining soft and almost "boggy" beneath 
that crust; hence they are sometimes designated as "dry bog" soils, a 
term which, however, more properly belongs to another class, presently to 
be noticed. 

The following tables show the composition of two of these lake shore 
soils, one of which (No. 77, of the heavier type) has also been subjected 
to mechanical analysis (see reports for 1879, page 27, and report for 1888-89, 
on "Waters and Water Supply," page 49). Alongside are placed also the 
analyses of four other soils, representing the older deposits of the lake on 
its southern border, westward of Delano Station. 

No. 1181. A dark gray soil, feeling somewhat chalky when dry, and 
crushing between the fingers; shows glistening iridescent scales of shell 
debris, and also larger fragments of fresh water mussels (Cyclas, Anodonta, 
Unio), and some blackened remnants of wood and of rushes. On wetting 
the mass darkens considerably, and on kneading becomes fairly plastic; 
with acid effervesces strongly; with test paper shows strong alkalinity. 



Digitized by Google 



SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY STATION. 



119 



From a point twenty miles west from Pixlev, Tulare County; sent by G. 
A. Smith. 

.No. 77. This specimen was taken from the reclaimed " swamp and over- 
flowed " land, on the east side of Tulare Lake, in 1878; inclosed by a levee, 
and lying below the high-water mark of the lake; eighteen months before 
it was all under water, but at the time of taking the sample the water was 
half a mile from the levee. The first vegetation that started after it was 
laid dry was "'wild parsley," followed later by wire grass, salt grass, and 
tule. The surface at the time showed but little indication of alkali. 
"Grain, however, ' burns up ' when hot weather comes, even though the 
ground be moist Garden vegetables look well until blooming time, and 
then die." 

When sampling the soil at the time stated, it was found to be baked 
quite hard for the first six inches; from that line down to twenty inches, 
to which depth it was taken, it was " boggy and soft." The soil as received 
is a somewhat bluish-gray, clayey sediment, containing a good deal of 
small gravel and shell debris intermixed. Its reaction is alkaline, though 
not sharply so. 

No. 891 is from the higher land on Section 23, Township 25 south, Range 
23 east, southeast from Tulare Lake, in Kern County; a region whose sur- 
face conformation shows clearly that at one (prehistoric) time it formed part 
of the bed of the lake, from the south end of which it is now eighteen miles 
distant It is a fawn-colored loam, of fine texture, easily tilled. A large 
Artesian well is on the same section. 

No. 893 is from low ground on Section 31, same range and township. 
When dry it is a pale bluish-gray clay, cleaving in angular fragments; 
very smooth, plastic, and adhesive when wetted; evidently a lagoon deposit 
formed in quiet back-water. 

In both cases the material is apparently the same for three or four feet 
downward. The samples were sent by Mr. George A. Raymond. 

No. 900. Soil, from Section 15, Township 25 south, Range 23 east, near 
the border of the lake alluvium. Taken to six inches depth, from land 
that is just outside of the valley of Poso Creek; very mellow on top, but 
quite damp and coherent at the depth of six inches. A light gray soil, 
dry lumps not readily crushed between the fingers; when wetted it softens 
easily and becomes very plastic. Color becomes more yellowish with 
increase of depth, with more coarse sand. The subsoil at twelve inches 
cuts like adobe and contains more coarse sand. 

No. 908. Subsoil, from the depth of twelve inches, Section 15, Township 
25 south, Range 23 east. More coarsely sandy than its surface soil in the 
same locality ; on drying became covered with a saline efflorescence; becomes 
barely adhesive on wetting. Contains shells of Planorbis, and iridescent 
scales of bivalve shells. 

No. 122 J,. Soil, from Section 1 1 , Township 26 south, Range 23 east, Kern 
County. A light gray, silty mass, when dry forming lumps not easily 
crushed between the fingers, and becoming moderately plastic on wetting, 
without deepening much in color. Evidently a deposit from low ground; 
without visible shell debris or lime concretions, but effervescing quite 
strongly with acid. Sent by Hon. John S. Hittell. 



Digitized by Google 



120 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



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122 



UNIVERSITY OK CALIFORNIA. 



It will be observed that the deposits of the immediate lake shore of the 

}>resent time are very rich in lime, containing between 6 and 7 per cent; a 
arge proportion of this exists in the shape of minute shell fragments. 
From 3 to 4 per cent of magnesia is also present. No. 1181 shows an 
extraordinary amount of the alkalies (potash and soda), and, as might be 
expected, a part of these is in the water-soluble form of " alkali salts" to 
the extent of 2.83 per cent, the composition of which is given in the table 
below that of the soil. It will be noted that nearly one fourth of the soil- 
extract consists of vegetable matter dissolved in the carbonate of soda. 
The sender states that a ten-acre patch of wheat was sown on this soil in 
September, and about half a "stand" came up and was at the time (De- 
cember, 1889) eighteen inches high. Whether it will progress to maturity 
in the presence of so much alkali is extremely doubtful. 

No. 77 evidently contained a much smaller surplus of alkali salts, and 
yet, according to the report made, would grow nothing, probably on account 
o'f its recent emergence from the lake. Both soils contain (for California) 
extraordinary supplies of phosphoric acid, as well as of potash and lime, 
and if properly reclaimed and cultivated should be profusely fertile. 

Nos. 891, 893, 900, and 903 belong to the region just outside of 
what is commonly recognized as lake alluvium, in the artesian belt of 
northern Kern County, on lower Peso Creek, and its bayous. These soils 
differ from the recent lake deposits in a very much smaller proportion of 
lime, at least near the surface; their phosphoric acid percentage is also 
materially less; they are strikingly deficient in humus, especially as com- 
pared with the " black lands " that occupy a corresponding position on the 
northeastern lake border. The latter deficiency is doubtless due to leach- 
ing by the carbonated alkali solutions, which even now circulate in the 
soils, and whose effect must, in cultivating them, be currently neutralized 
by the use of land plaster. But apart from this last named deficiency, 
which can easily be remedied, these soils will compare favorably, so far as 
their reserve of mineral plant food goes, with the best in the State now 
undtfr cultivation; both potash and phosphoric acid contents being far 
above the average, and doubtless very largely in available form. 

The subsoil, No. 903, differs markedly from the three soils in its larger 
proportion of lime and much smaller amount of potash. It may be that 
it represents an ancient shell bed, such as must of necessity be looked for 
in this region, rather than the normal subsoil. 

No. 1224, while derived from a locality considerably higher up on Poso 
Creek, still has the same general character as the other ancient lake- 
border soils, save that it is as rich in phosphates as are the present lake- 
shore soils; while the analysis of its "soluble alkali " shows that a part of 
these phosphates, as well as a goodly amount of potash salts, circulate 
freely in the soil water, and are of course highly available to plant growth. 
The promise of productiveness in this soil is certainly very high. 

Black Lands. — From these soils of the immediate lake border there is a 
gradual transition to the " black lands " mentioned above as forming a 
belt eastward of the lake. Similar black soils also accompany a number 
of the several creeks, or rather "bayous" of the Kawean, particularly 
those of the southern part of the delta — Elk Bayou and its branches, Out- 
side Creek, and Tulare River as well. Some of these black lands are nat- 
urally sufficiently moist for the culture of vines and fruit trees, but the 
higher-lying portions require irrigation. 

The black-lands belt of the lake border extends to within two miles of 
Tulare City, a distance of about twenty miles in a direct line from the 
lake shore of 1883, of which about half is manifestly lake alluvium proper. 
Southward the black-lands belt is said to reach to and b a little beyond 



SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY STATION. 



123 



Tule River; while the southern border-landB are of the character described 
above as " ancient alluvium " of the lake. To northward the black lands 
shade off into the sandy loams of the Mussel Slough country, the delta of 
Kings River at a time when its waters passed direct through Burris, Mus- 
sel, and other sloughs into the lake. 

The soil of the black lands (No. 1167) is blackish gray, darkening a 
good deal on wetting; it is essentially a fine silt with but little coarse sand, 
and an abundance of small, glistening mica scales. Dry lumps crush 
with some difficulty between the fingers, and on wetting become fairly 
plastic, so as not to be tillable when wet. It has the reputation of being 
exceedingly productive, and as artesian water is readily obtained in its 
lakeward portions, its settlement is rapidly progressing. After being once 
established, fruit 'trees seem to do well with little or no irrigation. The 
analysis of a sample of this soil, taken on the land of Paige & Morton, oa 
Section 8, Township 20 south, Range 24 east, from the surface to the depth 
of twelve inches, is given below. 

Mussel Slough Sous. — It is of interest to compare with this ancient allu- 
vial soil that of the Mussel Slough region, referred to above, the remark- 
able productiveness of which is well known, and which forms a portion of 
the older delta of Kings River, directly adjacent to the black-lands belt 
on the north. The sample was taken near Grangeville, Tulare County, 
and may be considered representative of that and of the Hanford region. 

The soil (No. 579) is a fine sandy loam, of a dark drab color, glisten- 
ing with mica scales. Dry lumps crush easily between the fingers; on 
wetting the color deepens but little, and on kneading the mass becomes 
but slightly plastic, so that land is readily tillable soon after a rain. 
Nearly the whole of it will pass through the standard sieve. 



No. 879. 
Soil, 12 inches. 
Mussel Slough 
Region, near 
Grangerille. 



Coarse materiala> 0.5°"" . 
Fine earth 



Analytit of Fine Earth. 

Insoluble matter 

Soluble silica 

Potash (K.O) 

Soda (Na.O) 

Lime(CaO) 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Br. oi. of manganese (Mn,0 4 ) 

Peroxide of iron (Fe,0,) 

Alumina (A1,0.) 

Phosphoric acid ( P,0, ) 

Sulphuric acid (80.) 

Carbonic acid (CO,) 

Water and organic matter 



none, 
all. 



[82.74 

.70 

.29 
1.25 
L58 

.02 
4.03 
6.58 

.07 

.02 



No. 1167. 
Soil, 12 inchea. 
"Black Land*." 



10.6 
89.4 



6243 1 79 42 

16.99 r 8 -" 

1.09 

.77 
1.46 
1.44 

.06 
4.98 
6.87 

.12 

.02 



3.05 



4.36 



Total 



Humus 

Ash 

8oL phos. acid 

Silica 

Hygroscopic moisture (absorbed at 15* C). 



100.33 

.64 
.58 



3.89 



10059 

1.33 
.36 
.01 



5.38 



According to the analysis, the black-lands soil contains considerably less 
lime and magnesia than the lake alluvium; also less of potash and phos- 

Digitized by Google 



124 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



phoric acid. All these, however, are present in fully adequate proportions 
for a thrifty and durable soil, and the proportion of humus is large. 

The much larger proportion of insoluble matter, most of which is quartz 
sand (as shown by the small proportion of "soluble silica"), the much 
smaller proportions of potash, phosphoric acid, and humus, and the lower 
moisture absorption, at once distinguish the Mussel Slough soils from the 
black lands, although the common character of abundant mica scales 
seems also to indicate a common origin, while the mode of formation was 
doubtless different. Probably the black- lands represent the slack-water 
deposits of the old Kings River delta. 

The great depth and perviousness of the Mussel Slough soil, however, com- 
pensate for the lower percentages of plant food, since roots can penetrate 
to great depths in it. Forty-five bushels of wheat have been a common crop 
on them when fresh, and they are not quickly exhausted. Being very per- 
vious they are easily irrigated by percolation from ditches; their only 
drawback is the rise of (mostly " white ") alkali, that follows careless irri- 
gation and culture. 

The Sandy Belt ; Plains SoiU. — Eastward of the black lands, on which 
the natural tree growth was either light or absent, we find, first, a low ridge 
of sandy land, from two to three miles wide, and bearing nearly north and 
south, originally rather densely wooded, especially near the numerous 
channels that cross it. Tulare City lies near the eastern edge of this sandy 
. belt, the soils of which correspond to those- of the higher plains, and in dry 
seasons show strikingly the course of ancient channels, now scarcely 
impressed upon the surface, but filled with a coarse sand, which as a sub- 
soil fails to bring up the moisture from beneath as readily as does the more 
compact subsoil existing away from these channels. Hence grain will 
suffer from drought first on these ancient creek beds, and appear stunted 
and yellow, while on the adjacent land it is still green and growing lustily; 
thus outlining very accurately and strikingly the drainage channels "of 
ancient times. 

StUt-Grass Land. — On lower ground within this sandy belt there appear 
some alkali spots, which increase to eastward and ultimately run together 
into a tract of " salt-grass" land, about two miles wide, showing the pres- 
ence of alkali more or less, but rarely to such extent as to offer any serious 
impediment to cultivation. The soil of this land is of considerably finer 
texture than that of the Tulare City ridge. As we advance eastward another 
sandy ridge is crossed, about four miles wide, the soil being quite similar 
to that near Tulare City, and well settled and cultivated. The following 
analyses illustrate the composition of these soils: 

No. 1159. Sandy soil, from the experiment station tract near Tulare 
City. Of a buff tint, quite sandy, not assuming any plasticity on wetting 
and kneading, and capable of tillage at all times. Originally timbered 
with scattering but large white oaks. Sample taken to the depth of twelve 
inches; at eighteen to twenty inches the color changes slightly towards 
yellowish, but texture continues unchanged; at thirty-six to forty inches 
there underlies a more compact material or hardpan, fairly coherent and 
of somewhat finer texture, preventing leachiness. Effervesces with acid. 

No. 1167. " Salt-grass " soil, from " Oakland Colony " tract, near Tu- 
lare City. This is a fair sample of "salt-grass" land, forming a slight 
depression below the level of the sandy soil (No. 1159), and here and there 
showing a slight efflorescence of alkali salts. Most of this land is not 
timbered, and its natural vegetation is mainly "salt grass" (Brizopyrum) 
and the small star sunflower (Baeria chrysostoma). This soil is of finer 
texture than that of the sandy ridges, into which it shows many grades of 
transition; is of light gray tint; becomes slightly plastic on wetting and 



SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY STATION. 



125 



kneading; at eighteen to twenty inches is underlaid by a more or less com- 
pact, fine-grained salty subsoil, the dry lumps of which can just be crushed 
between the fingers, and effervesce freely with acids. 

No. 116S. Subsoil, from Mr. Burnett's land, three and a half miles 
south from Tulare City. This land, while outside of the alluvial belt of 
Elk Bayou, lies considerably lower than the Tulare ridge; the soil resem- 
bles that of the " Oakland Colony " tract, and the subsoils of the two 
appear identical; hence its analysis is placed alongside of No. 1157, of 
whose subsoil it is doubtless representative. 

No. 586. Plains soil, taken midway between Outside Creek and the 
Sierra foothills, east of Visalia (about Section 35, Township 18 south, Range 
26 east). Taken to the depth of twelve inches, there being no visible 
change for three feet; of a dun color, quite light and sandy, but produces 
well when irrigated, although it has not been as freely settled as the lands 
nearer the creeks. The land is quite level, treeless, and despite a rather 
unpromising appearance, bears a luxuriant growth of wild flowers, testify- 
ing of its productive capacity. 



Sandy Plaint, Tulare County. 





No. 1159. 
Soil, 12 Inches 
KxperimentSta- 

ttOD, 

Tulare City. 


No. 1187. 
Soil, 12 Inches. 
Oakland Colon;, 
Tulare City. 


No. 1163. 
Subsoil, 18 to 22 
inches. Bur- 
netts Land. 


No. 686. 
Soil, 12 Inches. 
Bast of Outride 
Creek, northeast 
from Farmers- 
Tills. 


Analysis of Fine Earth. 

8olable silica 

8oda(Na,0) 

Lime (Cab) 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Br. ox. of manganese (Mn,0 4 )... 

Phosphoric acid (P.O.) 

Sulphuric acid (80.) 


1.96 
98.04 

6.60 f 79 58 
1.20 

.52 
1.86 
1.81 

.08 
6.86 
5.66 

.10 

.03 


3.00 
97.00 

151 

.61 
1.70 
1.96 

.05 
5.80 
10.11 

.14 

.02 


none, 
all. 

am}™ 9 

1.24 

.87 
3.06 
2.71 

.04 
7.85 
8.58 

.09 

.05 
1.23 
3.73 


20.30 
79.70 

IS}™ 

L22 
.15 

1.17 * 
1.75 

.03 
5.67 
7.80 

.10 

.01 


Water and organic matter 

4 Total 


"£54 


4.66 


455 


100.24 

.37 
.32 


99.90 

1.11 
.11 

.03 


99.54 


99.51 

1.14 

53 


Ash 
















Hygroscopic moisture (absorbed 
at 15* C.) 


2.71 


4.82 


8.04 


4.62 



It will be observed that despite their sandy nature, these " plains " soils 
do not differ widely from some of those of the older alluvium of Tulare 
lake, notably from that of the " black lands." All are rich in potash, 
and contain adequate supplies of lime and phosphoric acid. The salt-grass 
soil, lying lower than the others, is noticeably richer in most respects, and 
its alkali will not hurt it. The soil of the station is remarkably poor in 
humus on the spot sampled, but doubtless this is not the case throughout, 
judging from the appearance of the land. Its high percentage of soda tells 
of the vicinity of alkali spots, while the soil No. 586, lying in a particularly 
well drained region, shows only the ordinary ratio found in upland soils. 



126 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



In any case, the great depth to which roots can penetrate in these soils, 
together with the demonstrably large supply of water-soluble plant food, 
will render them both thrifty and durable. So far as can be judged from 
similarity of appearance and mineralogical composition, these soils {espe- 
cially Nos. 586 and 1159) are fairly representative of the higher portion of 
the sandy plains generally from Kern to Stanislaus County. 

In this connection the composition of the alkali crust, forming during 
the dry season on the low spots in the northwest corner of the experiment 
station tract, should be considered, and is given in the table below: 



Composition of 
the Soluble 
Alkali Id 100 
Parti. 



Potassium sulphate 

Sodium sulphate 

Sodium chloride - 

Sodium phosphate 

Sodium nitrate. 

Sodium carbonate 

Ammonium carbonate 
Organic matter 

Total 



3J5 
20.91 
12.21 
*1.87 

ua40 

27.02 
1 1.27 
17.07 



100.00 



It will be seen that this is a very complex mixture of salts, and that while 
with its 27 per cent of sodium carbonate it must count as a very " black " 
alkali, its contents of fertilizing ingredients are rather extraordinary, both 
in their nature and amount. They include not only potash and phosphoric 
acid in very notable proportions, but an amount of nitrogen compounds 
sufficient to impart to the material a considerable commercial value, could 
it be obtained in large quantities, viz. : $8 72 per ton. That nitrates should 
be formed in considerable proportion is not surprising in a climate like that . 
of Tulare, since more than 10 per cent of nitrate have been found in alkali 
as far north as Merced Falls (see appendix to the report for 1886, on 
"Alkali, Irrigation, and Drainage, in their mutual relations," page 13). 
But the presence of ammonium carbonate is unexpected, and while possibly 
accidental in this case (possibly from animal droppings at a former time), 
it reminds one forcibly of the ammoniacal stench prevalent on some of the 
" black alkali " tracts of eastern Washington, during the heat of summer. 
It may be the legitimate and general result of the action of alkali carbon- 
ates on the humus of the soil. 

, While, then, it may be necessary to restrain the excess of alkali in these 
soils by appropriate means, it would certainly be undesirable to waste, by' 
hasty washing-out, the precious ingredients here gratuitously furnished the 
farmer by nature, and relieving him for a long time to come of any care 
for a supply of fertilizers. The first need will be the neutralization of the 
carbonate of soda by means of gypsum, which will at the same time fix the 
phosphoric acid, and will in most cases render cultivation feasible without 
leaching the soil. 

Elk Bayou Lands. — Passing this tract we strike the black-lands belt 
which borders Outside Creek, or Elk Bayou, itself about three miles wide, 
and well timbered near the stream. This soil is undistinguishable from 
the black soil of the Tulare Lake border, twelve miles to westward, indi- 
cating that both have been formed from the same lake body, which evi- 



* 1.12 per cent phosphoric acid, 
t 2.09 per cent nitrogen. 

J .37 per cent nitrogen; total, 3.06 per cent nitrogen. 



SAN JOAQUIN VALLKY STATION. 



127 



dently at that time extended its arms to within a few miles of the Sierra 
foothills. 

Crossing the bayou channels within the black-lands belt, there occurs a 
notable change. The soil, still apparently in the flood plain of the bayou, 
becomes whitish; alkali spots appear and finally predominate, leaving only 
salt grass and salt bushes to occupy the ground for about a mile and a half. 
The subsoil of this land (which is only a limited area, and not a regular 
belt along the eastern edge of the bayou) is full of black gravel or bog ore, 
showing want of drainage; hence, of course, the accumulation of the alkali 
salts. 

Red Lands of the Valley Border. — On the eastern edge of this alkali tract 
(beyond the old channel of Outside Creek), which shows a "hog-wallow" 
surface, the land rises gently, and the soil assumes a reddish tinge, indica- 
tive of improved drainage; and half a mile farther on we come upon the 
" red lands " proper, which here skirt the foothills with a width of eight to 
ten miles. These lands have a gentle slope of ten to twenty feet per mile 
from the base of the foothills, and appear to be underlaid at a depth of 
twelve to fifteen feet by water-bearing gravel. The soil is a reddish, more or 
less sandy loam, changing little in its aspect for several feet, and produces 
excellent grain crops; its adaptation to fruit culture cannot be doubtful. 
This red land extends southward to Tule River (Portersville), and doubtless 
beyond, and also fills the adjacent valleys of the foothills. Northward, it 
seems to be limited by a line running southward of Farmersville (Lewis 
Creek?), where a very sandy plain intervenes between Outside Creek and 
the foothills, south of the Yokol. 

The analysis of samples of soil and subsoil of these lands, taken at a 
point about twelve miles due east from Tulare City, resulted as follows: 

Soil and Subsoil from Red Lands. 



No. 1172. 
Soil, 12 inches. 



No. 1173. 
8nbaoll, 12 to 5 
inchoa. 



Coarse m»terials>OJ>»«'. 
Fine earth 



10.00 
90.00 



Analysis of Fine Earth. 



Insoluble matter 

8olnble silica 

Potash (K.O) 

Soda (Na.O) ..... 

Lime (CaO) 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Br. ox. of manganese (Mn,0 4 ). 

Peroxide of iron (Fe,0,) 

Alumina ( A1,0.) 

Phosphoric acid (P,O s ) 

Sulphuric acid (80,) 

Carbonic acid (CO,) 

Water and organic matter 



.741 

.is; 

.83 
'I? 



79.89 



04 
48 

,69 
.06 
.01 



10.00 
90.00 



68.80) 

n.16 ; 

.78 

.28 
1.18 
1.59 

.08 
7.82 
5.41 

.05 

.01 



79.96 



3.27 



2.74 



Total 



Homos.- 

Asb 

Sol. phos. acid 

Silica 

Hygroscopic moisture (absorbed at 15' C.) . 



99.84 

.52 
.16 
.03 



99.90 



3.88 



4.06 



It is curious to note that, although this soil and subsoil belong to the 
valley-border slope and have no outward resemblance to the valley deposits 
thus far described, yet their composition differs from the latter only in one 
material point, viz.: the low percentage of phosphoric acid, being less than 



128 



UNIVERSITY OP CALIFORNIA. 



half of the average of the valley soils proper. There is also less potash 
present, but the amount found would be considered ample in any ordinary 
upland soil, as would also the proportion of lime. Thus far these lands 
have been chiefly used for grain and have yielded excellent crops, but 
there can be no doubt that, with so small a proportion of phosphoric acid, 
they will soon "give out" under the culture; while fruit culture would 
seem to be their special adaptation, from their friable nature, great depth, 
and good drainage. 

Visalia Section. — A section made east and west through Visalia differs 
little from the one just described, except in the collocation and width of 
the several belts. Being nearly in the center of the Kaweah delta, the 
Visalia district is mostly densely wooded, with a great deal of alluvial 
soil, some of which is of extraordinary native fertility and requires only 
the neutralization of some " black alkali," by the use of plaster, to pro- 
duce double the present crops. An example of the high quality of these 
alluvial soils is given below in the "wire-grass" soil (No. 585), alongside 
of which is placed a soil (No. 573), from the crossing of Cross Creek on 
the Hanford road. 

No. 585. " Wire-grass " soil, from the wooded flats two miles west from 
Visalia ; taken to twelve inches depth. This soil is a dark gray or blackish, 
moderately heavy loam, characterized by a growth of wire grass or small 
tule (Scirpus sp.), and more or less of alkali grass (Brizopyrum) , with 
alfilerilla (Erodium) and a strong growth of oak. In low places there is a 
manifestation of alkali, but not enough to cause injury to crops unless of the 
" black " character. In the higher portions it has proved very productive. 

No. 57S. Bench soil, from the banks of Cross Creek, on the Visalia and 
Hanford road. A sandy loam, grayish-dun in color; dry lumps easily 
crushed between the fingers, falling to pieces when wetted and becoming 
slightly plastic, the color darkening in token of its humus contents. This 
is manifestly not a modern alluvial soil, but was formed on low ground at 
the time the plains were being shaped. 

Soils from Visalia Section. 



No. 673. 
Depth, 8 inches. 
Bench .Soil. Crow 

Creek. 



No. 586. 
Depth, 12 Inches. 
Wire-gran Soil. 
Near ViMlia. 



Coarse materials>0.5 ml ' 1 - 
Fine earth 



Analysis of Fine Earth. 



Insoluble matter 

Soluble silica 

Potash (K.O) 

Soda (Na,0) 

Lime (Cat)) 

Magnesia (MgO). 



Br. ox. of manganese (Mn,0 4 ) 

Peroxide of iron (Pe,O s ) 

Alumina f A1,0.) 

Phosphoric acid (P,0,) 

Sulphuric acid (80.) 

Carbonic acid (CO,) 

Water and organic matter 



Total . 
Huraus. 



1.50 
98.50 



66.081 
3.38] 
1.82 

.44 
4.31 
1.59 

.08 
6.04 
8.69 

.14 

.26 
2.53 
415 



69.46 



Ash 

Sol. phos. acid 

Silica 

Hygroscopic moisture (absorbed at 15° C.) . 



99.51 



1.00 
.74 



8.74 

nigitiToH hy ' 



1459 
85.71 



71.42 

1.22 

.68 
3.04 

.09 

.03 
5.82 
7.14- 

.24 

.66 
2.55 
7.09 



99.98 

1.00 
.84 



SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY STATION. 129 



Soluble Alkali of No. 686—Wire-groM Soil. 





Id 100 Puti SoU. 


In 100 Parte Solu- 
ble Alkali. 




.122 
.024 
.396 
.061 
.010 
.371 


12.53 
2.48 

40.70 
5.19 
LOl 

38.09 












Total 


.974 


100.00 





The prominent characteristic of both these soils is the large proportion 
of lime, wherein they resemble the soils of the lake border (see table, 
page 128) . The large amount of potash, particularly in the Cross Creek soil, 
ana the correspondingly heavy proportion of phosphoric acid in the wire- 
grass land, point in the same direction. The large amount of sulphuric 
acid in both shows the presence of alkaline sulphates; and analysis showed 
that nearly one per cent of the wire-grass soil is extracted by water, the 
composition of which extract (alkali) is given beneath the general analysis. 

It appears from this statement that approximately one tenth of the 
potash and phosphoric acid present are in the water-soluble condition, 
therefore directly available to plants. This (taking the layer of the soil 
analyzed, of twelve inches depth) amounts to about three thousand pounds 
of potash and about eight hundred pounds of phosphoric acid per acre, an 
amount sufficient, alone, to cover the drain of half a century of heavy 
cropping, without drawing on the large reserve of the same ingredients, 
not water-soluble, but nevertheless ultimately available, indicated by the 
general analysis. Practically this soil comes as near to being "inexhaust- 
ible" as any within the knowledge of the writer; and it is a striking 
exemplification of what may be expected of the alkali soils of the San 
Joaquin Valley when once reclaimed by rational treatment. In the pres- 
ent instance the first condition is the use of land plaster, for it is seen that 
of the soluble matters over 40 per cent is carbonate of soda, which can- 
not fail to prove noxious to crops growing on the land; as, in fact, has 
already been experienced. The use of plaster would not only destroy this 
noxious salt, but also fix the phosphoric acid so that it cannot be washed 
into the country drainage. 

It will be observed that the Cross Creek soil, so far as it has been exam- 
ined in the same direction, also shows the presence of a large proportion 
of soluble potash out of its nearly two per cent contained in the total soil. 
Being in a position where it could be reached by rains, it has doubtless lost 
by that process a portion of its soluble plant food, which has passed into 
the lower lands and there awaits the intelligent labors of the farmer. 

A strongly alkaline belt over a mile in width and several miles long 
exists in the neighborhood of Goshen Station on the Southern Pacific Rail- 
road. It was supposed to be irreclaimable, yet judicious cultivation has 
rendered cultivation quite successful, although the needful remedy of 
plastering has not yet been applied. An analysis of the alkali of this tract 
is given below. 

" Dry Bog Soil." — Immediately along and within the foothills there occur, 
from Tulare to Merced County, limited areas of the so called " dry bog," 
characterized by a strong growth of long grass and little else, and difficult 
of cultivation as well as uncertain in production. Examinations as well 

9* 



130 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



as analysis made of this soil in 1881, show it to be essentially a black adobe 
very badly drained, so as to be underlaid, at a varying depth, by a gray 
clay full of black gravel, or bog ore. This subsoil is doubtless essentially 
the same as the surface soil, only changed by maceration and fermenta- 
tion of the vegetable matter with the iron solution formed under the influ- 
ence of stagnant water. The composition of the surface soil is that of a 
. fairly good soil of its kind, and doubtless with good drainage it can be 
made to produce excellent crops, such as have been made occasionally 
where, accidentally, the drainage had been improved. 

An east-and-west section across the valley, laid through Fresno City 
(which may be considered as occupying the summit of the divide between 
Kings and San Joaquin Rivers), would not give a correct idea of the soil 
conformation, because the contact between the soils belonging to the Kings 
River side and the San Joaquin runs east and west also, and forms an 
undulating line running about a mile and a half southward of the town, 
across the valley. The ancient deposits of the Kings River side are repre- 
sented by the white-ash" soils of the Central, Washington, and other 
colonies; while those of the San Joaquin side are reddish sandy loams, 
contrasting pointedly with the white-ash lands. This distinction is said 
to be maintained to a greater or less extent nearly to the trough, or edge 
of the tule belt, to westward; while to eastward of Fresno City Doth kinds 
of land run out, as the foothills are approached, into a border belt of brownish 
clay loam (here also called " adobe ), resembling the soil of the Porterville 
region, and specially developed along the creeks issuing from the foothills. 
Interspersed here and there with all these soils are curious low sandy 
ridges, quite irregularly disposed, popularly known as "sandhills," and 
differing from the reddish loam in the nature of the sand, which is mainly 
quartz. Hence these sandhills are rather an unsubstantial foundation for 
agriculture, will absorb any amount of water without corresponding bene- 
fits, and unlike the other soils are quickly exhausted. One is almost 
tempted to assign to these sandhills a wind-drift origin. 

The magnificent results of irrigation in the Fresno region, transforming 
what seemed an arid waste into a maze of orchards, vineyards, and fields, 
showing the most luxuriant growth of a great variety of products of the 
warm-temperate zone, cannot readily be excelled as a cogent illustration 
of the benefits of irrigation in all its phases. Owing to the porous nature of 
most of its soils, and the fact that certain portions of the region are under- 
laid by a more or less compact and impervious calcareous hardpan, it has 
also served conspicuously, in times past, to illustrate the evils of over- 
irrigation, resulting in the temporary "swamping" of lower-lying lands, 
and the development of " alkali " where it was never known before, and 
need not be hereafter under a rational system of drainage. This calcareous 
hardpan occurs on limited areas here and there, more specially on the 
white-ash lands; it usually forms a layer eight to twelve inches thick, from 
eighteen inches to five feet below the surface; sufficiently coherent to be 
thrown up in sheets of several feet square, but usually crumbling promptly 
on exposure to the rains of a season. Not so while it remains in the sub- 
soil, when it will often prevent the penetration of roots as well as of water. 
So that in order to give the roots of trees and vines free access to the 
moisture and plant-food resources of the subsoil, it becomes necessary to 
shatter the hardpan stratum where they are to grow. Similar hardpan 
areas are also found in some of the best lands on Poso Creek, in Kern 
County, and can be similarly dealt with. This is the more important, as 
the presence of this hardpan will greatly favor the retention near the sur- 
face of any alkali salts that the irrigation water may have brought with it, 




SAN JOAQUIN. VALLEY STATION. 



131 



either as an original constituent or as the result of a leaching-out of the 
subsoil as it rose from below. Hence, the appearance of alkali spots on 
irrigated tracts originally free from the same will often indicate, and out- 
line pretty accurately, the hardpan layer underneath. 

In many respects, therefore, the lands of the Fresno region have a char- 
acter of their own, so that a station located there could not be readily 
made to represent the soil conditions of the valley at large. This excep- 
tional character arises, very naturally, from its location between the exits 
of the two largest rivers of this portion of the Sierra, the Kings and San 
Joaquin, here only about thirty miles apart at the present time, and at former 
periods perhaps approaching even more closely. That a dividing ridge or 
plateau should diner materially in its soil characters from the alluvial 
areas on either side, is also natural. A full discussion of the soils of the 
Fresno region will be given hereafter in connection with the description of 
the viticultural station established there, and the data thus far elicited 
regarding the grapes and wineB, to be published in connection with the 
report on the viticultural work of 1888 and 1889. In the meantime, the 
table below will give some idea of the character and composition of the 
upland soils, and also of the "red adobe," so called, representing the allu- 
vium of the minor streams heading in the foothills. An analysis of a 
" sandhill " soil is also given: 

Fresno Soils. 





No. 670. 
AlluTlml Soil, 12 
lnchee. "Brown 
Adobe," Elsen 
Vineyard. 


No. 704. 
Upland Soil, 12 
Inches. " White 
Aah," Central 
Colony. 


No. 727. 
"Sandhill" Soil, 
12 lnchee. 




20.00 
80.00 

™?}79.49 

.71 

.44 
L77 
2.05 

.04 
3.78 
7.99 

.04 

.07 


18.20 
81.80 

M 
.25 
1.16 
.50 
.03 
3.28 
3.22 
.10 

42 


15.00 
85.00 

.10 
.88 
.99 
.78 
.06 
3.20 
3.13 
.02 
.04 


Analyst* of Fine Earth. 


Soluble silica 


Potash (K.O) 


8oda(Na,0) 


Lime (Cab) 


Magnesia (MgO) 

Peroxide of iron (Fe,0,) 

Alumina (Al.O.) 

Phosphoric acid (P.O,) 

Sulphuric acid (SO,) 


Total 


3.24 


1.79 


1.53 


98.57 


99.37 

.60 
.35 


10054 

.43 
.50 




Ash 








Silica.: 








Hygroscopic moisture (absorbed at 15° C.) 


5.43 


Z22 


1.21 



It will be noted that while the alluvial soil of the foothill stream (Fancher 
Creek) resembles closely the " red lands " of the Porterville region in Tulare 
County, the upland soils differ very materially from any of the soils of the 
Tulare Plains, above described. The much larger proportion of sand de- 

Sreeses the plant-food percentages shown by the analysis, but the great 
epth and perviousness of the FreBno soils, permitting the roots to pene- 
trate deeply, and to reach a substratum which nearly always is richer than 

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



the sandy surface, largely offsets this disadvantage so long as the water 
table is not allowed to rise too near the surface, limiting sharply the descent 
of the roots. This influence was strikingly illustrated in the case of the 
" sandhill " soil, the analysis of which shows it to be extremely poor in 
everything except lime, both potash and phosphoric acid being far below 
the ordinary limit of deficiency, and its moisture absorption the lowest of 
any soil tested. Yet, at a number of points, these sandhills yielded good 
returns for two or three years, until the extension of the irrigation system 
brought the water table within four or five feet of the surface, when they 
" gave out " completely, because the roots were thrown back on a relatively 
small soil-mass for their support. 

In the lower lands of the country to northward of the Fresno plateau, 
on the San Joaquin and Fresno Rivers, as well as on Cottonwood Creek, we 
again find soils of a heavier grade and with large supplies of mineral plant 
food; but the investigation of this portion of the valley has not progressed 
far enough to justify any broader generalizations at this time. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE STATION. 

Location of the Station. — The great importance of the experimental study 
of the alkali question for the San Joaquin Valley, rendered it desirable to 
locate the station within easy reach of localities where its various phases 
and natural features could be studied, while preserving the normal char- 
acter of the plains soils. It therefore seemed expedient to locate it to 
southward of Kings River, yet not within reach of the influence either of 
Tulare Lake, or of Kern River with its peculiar water. Hence the offer made 
by the citizens of Tulare City and County, under the auspices of Tulare 
Grange, appeared to present the most acceptable features, and after a 
detailed examination of numerous localities offered as a site, and of the 
country at large, a twenty-acre tract situated within a mile and a half of 
Tulare City, and offered by Messrs. B. F. Moore and — . Gould, was finally 
accepted, with the promise of a subscription of $3,000 for the erection of 
buildings on the part of the citizens. 

The tract, which is nearly square (eight hundred and seventy-one by 
nine hundred and seventy feet within the inclosure), is practically level, 
the greatest difference in elevation being only two and a half feet; enough 
for convenient irrigation. The soil is quite sandy, but has almost through- 
out, at the depth of twenty-four to thirty inches, a fairly compact subsoil 
of sandy hardpan, which prevents leachiness. The southeast quarter of 
the tract is entirely free from alkali, while a body of strongly alkaline 
soil occupies about one half of the northwest quarter. On the intervening 
land there are some spots of the same impregnated to a greater or less 
degree, such as occur scatteringly elsewhere in the region. The tract has 
borne a few crops of grain heretofore, which failed only on the alkali land 
of the northwest corner. No oaks were growing on it, but a few trees are 
just outside of the inclosure. 

Improvements thus far Made on the Station Grounds. — A substantial 
"six-board " fence (redwood posts with one by six Oregon pine planks) was 
put around the tract in June, 1888. Two gates are provided for, opening 
respectively from the east and north sides; the east gate is an "Aylward 
Automatic," placed in a recess provided for the purpose. A light corral 
for the horses has also beeu put up on the northwest quarter. 

Water Supply. — There being no ditch water regularly available for irri- 
gation, it was determined to utilize, as far as practicable, the abundant 
supply which can be found by boring to a depth ranging from forty-five 

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133 



to sixty feet, and rising to within eleven to thirteen feet of the surface 
(according to the season) all over the Tulare region. A ten-inch well was 
sunk near the middle of the tract to the depth of sixty feet. The materials 
penetrated were reported by the well-borer as follows: 

Profit of Well Bored at the Experiment Station, near Tulare Oily. 



Thicknem. Total Depth. 



Surface water 
Second water 

Third water 



2 feet of black sandy loam 

4 foot of hardpan 

9$ feet of sandy loam, light colored 

5 feet of clay 

4 feet of gravel and sand mixed. .. 

6 feet of hard clay 

14 feet of crumbly hardpan 

11 feet of sand 

4 feet of clay 

4 feet of coarse gravel, to clay 



feet 
[foot 
; feet 
feet 
feet 
6 feet 
14 feet 
11 feet 
4 feet 
4 feet 



24. feet. 

12 feet. 

17 feet. 

21 feet. 

27 feet. 

41 feet 

52 feet 

66 feet 

60 feet 



The well was tubed to fifty-four feet with strong iron pipe, of which the 
lowest twenty feet was perforated; besides which the pipe was subse- 
quently slotted between twenty and thirty feet from the surface, where the 
first water was found. 

Experience has shown that the most abundant and reliable supply of 
water is that found at depths ranging from forty-five to sixty feet, in gravel 
between two beds of clay; and in some of the wells the water level is low- 
ered only a few feet by the most rapid working of a pump delivering seventy 
gallons per minute. It has been observed that at first the loose gravel at 
the bottom sometimes obstructs the flow for a time, so that the maximum 
flow is not immediately established. This proved to be the case in the 
station well, in which the (triple-action suction) pump, with twenty-nine 
feet of three-inch pipe and a two-horse power, sucked some air and delivered, 
after five to seven minutes, only two thirds of the output obtained at first. 
Since then the well has been used to its full capacity for irrigation during 
the season, and its output at this date is about seventy gallons per minute 
with the same pump and power, equivalent to forty-two thousand gallons 
per working day of ten hours. The flow being equivalent to nearly seven 
and eight tenths miner's inches of water (four-inch pressure), it would, if 
continued through the twenty-four hours, be sufficient to irrigate about forty 
acres of land, according to the allowance made at Riverside; showing that 
two such wells ought readily to irrigate twenty acres of orange trees, while 
for fruits needing less water one well may be found sufficient for the same 
area. 

As the well is located near the center, while the highest part is the north- 
east corner, the water is raised high enough by the pump to be run any- 
where through a four-inch pipe (spiral galvanized), which is laid in troughs 
made of one by four-inch pine boards, twenty feet long, and readily con- 
nected at the ends. This mode of distribution was adopted for the present 
in order to avoid the necessity of boring another well at the highest point, 
whence the water could have been conveyed in ditches only with heavy 
loss, by seepage in the sandy soil. During the dry season of 1889, irriga- 
tion by ditch water was resorted to once; but if necessary an additional 
well will be bored in order to remain independent of the ditches. A dem- 
onstration of the amount of land that can be irrigated from one of these 
wells will be of great importance to the Tulare Valley. 

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



In practicing irrigation a basin is made around each tree in such a 
manner that the water does not come into immediate contact with the 
trunk and root-crown; this is necessary to prevent scalding. The basins 
are connected by shallow ditches opened with the plow. So soon as, after- 
wards, the soil has dried sufficiently, the ditches and basins are filled up; 
and this is shortly followed by cultivation to prevent baking or the forma- 
tion of a surface crust. The latter point is of vital importance, both for the 
preservation of moisture and as a preventive of the rise of alkali to the 
surface. 

The nature of the water yielded by the wells is illustrated by the analysis 
given below, of water taken on December 10, 1889. It was intended to take 
a sample for analysis during the dry season, but owing to unforeseen events 
this was not done, and the unusual rains of from October to that date have 
doubtless diluted it somewhat; so that the quality rather than the quantity 
of the mineral ingredients contained in it during the irrigation season is 
indicated by the analysis.* 

Analysis of Water from the Bored Well at the San Joaquin Valley Experiment Station, 

Ttilare Oily. 



Parte In 10,000 
of Water. 



Pauls In 100 of 
Solid Besldue. 



Parte in 100 of 
Soluble Salts. 



Potassium sulphate.. 

Sodium sulphate 

Sodium chloride 

Sodium carbonate 

Lime carbonate 

Magnesium carbonate 

Silica 

Organic matter 

Total 



.0261 
.049 i 
.066 f 
.334 J 
.893 
.258 
.239 
.096 



.475 



1.3 
Z5 
S.4 
17.0 
45.6 
13.1 
12.2 
4.9 



5.5 
103 
135 
703 



1.961 



100.0 



100.0 



Total solid contents, 1.96 parts in 10.000, or 11.5 grains per gallon ; permanently soluble, 
2.8 grains. 

It will be noted that while the total amount of solids found in this water 
is quite small (eleven and one half grains per gallon), and not quite one 
fourth of that amount consists of soluble (alkali) salts, yet the nature of 
these salts is very much more corrosive than is the case in the alkali crust, 
of the spots on the station tract (see above) ; and should the summer flow 
of the well prove considerably stronger in mineral contents, the conclusion 
that gypsum or land plaster should be currently supplied to the lands of 
the Tulare Basin, in order to neutralize the noxious carbonate, will be 
greatly strengthened. Be that as it may, this abundant water supply, so 
readily available to any one at a trifling cost, constitutes an advantage of 
no mean importance, the more as the full supply derivable from the 
Kaweah has long been appropriated, and no other large available source of 
irrigation water is near at hand. The amount of soluble " alkali " in this 
well water is less than that carried by Kern River, where it issues from the 
Sierra, and it can therefore be used without stint, and without fear of any 
material increase of alkali in the soils irrigated. 

•Made by Mr. Walter L. Beckh, special student in the agricultural laboratory. 



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SAN JOAQUIN VAIXBY STATION. 



135 




CSTS 



PEARS 



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BUILDING 
SPOT 



PLUMS 
PRUNES 



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9 f. SIMMS 

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STRONC 
MKAU 



PEACHES 



WKITi 



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'PtCAHS— WALNUTS 





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PASTURE 

, '--PL7U(TS\ 

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VINES 
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mull! -or mt tffl 



VINES 



-VINES • 

ISOO 




Plat or thb Expsbiment Station Gbocnds, San Joaquin Valley Station. 

Buildings. — One of the buildings intended to be put up by subscription 
among the citizens of Tulare and surrounding country was built in 1888, 
to wit: a barn and tool house, sixteen by forty-eight feet, a light pine frame, 
inclosed with redwood " rustic." The cause of the delay in constructing the 
buildings was the crop failure from drought, which rendered it impossible 
to collect the subscriptions. The station was nevertheless occupied by the 
foreman, Mr. Julius Forcer, in December, 1888, he being furnished a cottage 
(the rent of which was paid by the subscribers to the station fund) situated 
within easy reach of the station tract. While this delay involved some 
inconvenience, it did not prevent the planting of the ground, which was 
done somewhat late in a season that again proved very dry and hot; and 
hence, with incomplete arrangements for irrigation, d^id not prove as suc- 
cessful as could have been desired. The auspicious opening of the season 
of 1889-90, however, with the experience gained in regard to the require- 
ments of the soil, insures, it is hoped, a full stand of trees and vines, and 
successful cultures of annuals during 1890. The favorable outlook has 
also encouraged the subscribers to the building fund to come forward, and 
at this time (end of March) the dwelling house is well advanced, and with 
favorable weather will be pushed to completion rapidly. The plan adopted 
is substantially that of the building at the Foothill Station, heretofore 
described. 

The general plan followed in planting the tract will be apparent from an 
inspection of the plat shown above. The vines have been given the ground 
practically free from alkali, while the rest of the culture plants have been 
distributed, in a measure, in accordance with their known ability to flourish 
in presence of the obnoxious salts. The treatment of the alkali spots that 

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136 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



became visible last season witb a proper dose of plaster will probably 
obviate all trouble, save in the worst spots, near the northwest corner, 
where the special experiments of reclamation will be made. A special 
discussion of this subject is given farther on. 

Details of Plantation,. — The leading consideration in the arrangement of 
the various culture plants on the experimental tract has been the presence 
and absence of alkali. Since, from the natural presumption as well as 
from previous experience had, the quality of wine grapes seems particularly 
sensitive to the presence of alkali, while orchard fruits appear to suffer only 
in so far as actual injury is done to the trees themselves by corrosion of the 
root, crown, or base of the trunk, the higher ground, which is at the same 
time the lighter soil, was first assigned to the vineyard plantation, after 
which the orchard and field cultures were assigned such locations as seemed 
most suitable to them or the general purposes of the station. In this as in 
the other stations, the unavoidable delays in the preparation for planting 
have interfered with the full success of the plantings in 1888-9, the more as 
of the three, the Tulare station is the one requiring the earliest attention. 
The report of Inspector Klee, given below, shows in detail what has been 
accomplished thus far, whether in the way of planting or cultural results. 

NOTES ON PLANTING AND CULTURAL RESULTS AT THE SAN JOAQUIN STATION. 

By Inspector W. G. Klke. 
Orchard. 

In the planting of the orchard we aim to determine the adaptation of 
different kinds of fruit to the soil, especially in reference to alkali. The 
various classes of fruit, such as peaches, nectarines, and apricots, likely 
to succeed better grafted on Myrobalan stock than on their own root in soil 
of alkaline nature, have been fully represented in the spots of such char- 
acter. Except where the result is very evident, I shall forego details in 
this matter, it being too soon for definite conclusions. Some five acres of 
ground are occupied with trees in orchard form. 

Apples. — In planting these the alkaline spots were almost totally avoided, 
soil of this character being considered unfit for apples. The growth of the 
forty varieties planted has been very fair. It was interrupted by a spell 
of very hot weather, during which the foliage of no other fruit suffered 
severely. It is of interest to note that certain varieties imported from Texas, 
such as Loy, Shannon, Shirley, and Bledsoe, together with the Russian 
varieties, Alexander and the Astrachans; our California seedlings — Skin- 
ner's Seedling, Cook's, or Sonoma Seedling — all more or less characterized 
by a comparatively thick and large leaf, withstood the hot sun much better 
than others. 

Pears. — Only a few of these failed, but the growth has been short. The 
collection embraces most of the valuable varieties known in the State, some 
sixty in all. One of the reasons for their poor growth is the prevalence of 
the white mite* on the foliage; also the cutting of the leaves by the leaf- 
cutting bee (Megachile), both of which insects are native and abounding 
in this section. The trees having established themselves this year, wifl 
undoubtedly grow well next year; but a timely application of a sulphur 
wash will be needed to ward off the attack of mites, while the constant 
cultivation during this season will reduce the leaf-cutting bee to a minimum. 

* Apparently a close relation of the " red spider " ( Tctranychut telariut), but not specific- 
ally identified. 

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BAN JOAQUIN VALLEY STATION. 



137 



Peaches. — Some sixty varieties were planted on peach root, a portion of 
which were duplicated on Myrobalan plum stock. The growth of the 
peaches, especially after the hottest spell, has been fair; the failures being 



Ten varieties of Nectarines were planted, with same results as the 
peaches. 

Plums and Prrmes. — A collection of some seventy-five varieties of plums 
and prunes was planted. The majority of these were on Myrobalan stock, 
either yearling trees or dormant buds; some few duplicated on peach 
and apricot. The growth of the yearling trees has been fair, but they also 
suffered from the mites. The plum stock on the whole shows itself better 
adapted to slightly alkaline ground than the peach. 

Apricots.— Of these, twenty varieties on apricot root were planted; the 
majority duplicated on Myrobalan roots. Considerable failure occurred 
amongst these. 

Almonds have grown pretty well, although suffering from mites. Ten 
varieties are represented in the collection, all on almond stock. 

Cherries. — Only a limited number of cherries were planted — nine varieties 
in all. The outlook for them does not seem very encouraging so far, but 
it is premature to draw definite conclusions as to their adaptability. 

Figs. — An avenue of thirty-six varieties runs through the center of the 
grounds, dividing the orchard from the vineyard. Their growth has been 
uniformly good, the climate evidently agreeing with them. There may 
be, however, danger to the tender growth from untimely frost. No irriga- 
tion was given after the middle of August, as they were still growing very 
vigorously at that time. 

Olives. — A row of olives, including eighteen varieties, is planted on the 
east side. On this line both figs and olives touch on a wash of sand (a 
formation quite frequent here) and on the gray colored soil of the plain. 
Having suffered from the attack of grasshoppers, the olives have merely 
succeeded in establishing themselves. 

Oranges. — Of these only a few varieties of budded trees were planted, 
the hardiest being chosen. So far they have done very well, the Japanese 
dwarfs included. Of the sour stock from Florida, quite a number were 
planted, none of them having had any ball of earth on their roots when 
received. They have, in spite of this omission, grown well, almost without 
exception. It is the intention to bud these trees later if they prove hardy. 

Orange culture in this section of the county is still in an experimental 
stage, it being necessary to learn by actual trial what varieties will prove 
hardy. Further east in the foothills of this county citrus culture is becom- 
ing established, and judging from what was seen in that section the outlook 
appears very encouraging. The region in question, of which Porterville is 
the best known locality, passed remarkably well through the cold spell of 
1887-88, when much damage was done in many parts of the State. The 
dry summer heat of this region insures the same bright fruit which has 
made other sections, sufficiently removed from the moist sea air, famous. 
With this they combine early ripening and a high degree of sweetness. 

Walnuts. — All varieties of walnuts suffer much from the heat, being 
almost defoliated, a notable exception to this being the Santa Barbara 
soft-shell seedlings, originally raised at Berkeley from seeds obtained from 
Joseph Sexton, of Goleta. The primary cause of the injury to the leaves 
seems here also to have been the mite. The conclusion in this direction 
was strengthened by the condition of several walnut trees in gardens in 
Tulare City, where they had been sprinkled together with the lawn. All 




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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



these trees were remarkably healthy, and the leaves bright and fresh. 
Moisture is the enemy of the mite. 
The Pecan nuts suffered equally with the walnuts. 

Miscellaneous Trees. 

Camphor Tree. — This tree has stood the heat well, and is making a fair 
growth, as is also the Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo); but the leaves are 
smaller than when grown nearer the coast. 

The Kai Apple (Aberia Caffra) seems well adapted to the climate. 

Mulberries. — No class of trees has done better, the growth, favored by 
frequent irrigation, being very good. The collection includes the chief 
varieties used as food for the silkworm, and also those cultivated for their 
fruit. 

Vineyard. 

The portion of the station grounds allotted for vineyard purposes em- 
braces the southeast quarter, and will, when fully planted, have some 
three thousand vines of a hundred varieties, of which sixty-eight were 

Slanted in 1889. Of these, less than half were rooted vines, which have 
one fairly well; failure being in proportions as given below: 



5 per cent or less 7 varieties. 

10 per cent or less 2 varieties. 

20 per cent or less 6 varieties. 

30 per cent or less 4 varieties. 

86 per cent or less 3 varieties. 

60 per cent or less 1 variety. 



Of three varieties no failures are reported. Of the cuttings, the loss has 
been quite heavy; in every case over 50 per cent, and in many 90 per cent. 
The failure is partly attributable to the lateness of planting, partly to the 
slightly alkaline character of the soil, that is unfavorable to rooting. 

Grains. 

The various varieties were sown too late for so unfavorable and trying a 
season as the last proved in this section. There was, however, a great dif- 
ference in the resistance of the various varieties to the drought. The fol- 
lowing yielded fertile seed, although most of it badly shriveled. It may be 
of interest to compare these with the varieties reported from the other 
stations: 

Wheats. — Whittington, Royal, Australian, Pringle's Best, Sonora, Red 
Russian, Big White Club, Indian Rustproof, Arizona Indian, Yellow Noe, 
Michigan Mixed, Archer's Prolific, California Spring, Petali, Missoyen, 
Chile, White Banate, Thuringian, Pringle's Defiance, Egyptian, Volo, 
Palestine. 

Barleys. — Earliest Black, Bluish, Manchurian, Italian, Himalaya. 

Grasses and Forage Plants. 

As it was too late for the planting of grasses in 1889, it was deferred to 
the present season, when all the varieties likely to succeed were planted. 
Under this head must be mentioned several species of salt-bushes adapted 
to alkaline and saline soils, which in Australia support a vast amount of 
cattle. Only a few of each kind were planted in alkaline soil, but have 
all grown well; especially a low, leafy species of Kochia, with red blos- 
soms, seems well adapted to the climate. On the strength of their appar- 

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SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY STATION. 



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ent adaptability, patches sufficiently large for a feeding teBt will be planted 
in strongly alkaline soil. 

Indian Corn. — At the time of my visit in August the leaves on all the 
corn were dried to a crisp, and the ears only developed imperfectly. In 
this respect the station planting shared the fate of all the corn in this 
region planted on dry land, which is usually not devoted to Indian corn. 
In moist land corn was not materially affected by the heat. 

Sorghums and Sugar Canes. — Of these several kinds were planted and 
irrigated freely, but did not flourish until the weather grew cooler in Sep- 
tember. The portion of the beds touching on alkali ground only produced 
a very short growth in comparison with the rest. 

Bamboos. — Two varieties of this class of plants — Chinese and Japanese — 
have grown well and seem well suited to the location. It is the intention 
to increase this collection largely. 

ALKALI, ALKALI SOILS, THEIR VALUE AND RECLAMATION. 

The frequency with which alkali soils have been referred to in the pre- 
ceding pages, renders it proper that, in order to avoid a misunderstanding 
of their practical import, a summary presentation of the subject should 
be given here. The very name of " alkali " conveys to persons whose only 
acquaintance with it dates from a dusty trip across the Humboldt Basin 



those who cannot do better should venture into alkali-infested districts. 
To those so impressed it may be needful to mention that, as a rule, the 
presence of alkali gives evidence of superabundance of mineral plant food 
in the soil; and that when the excess of saline matters is removed, or ren- 
dered innocuous by appropriate processes, such soils are commonly among 
the most productive and durable to be found in the world. 

The fact, amply verified both in California and elsewhere, that repeated 
surface irrigation tends to bring more of the alkali salts to the surface, to 
the injury of vegetation, especially when any considerable proportion of 
carbonate of soda accompanies the more common ingredients (Glauber's 
and common salt), renders the problem of dealing successfully with alkali 
one of first importance. It has therefore been under investigation at the 
Central Experiment Station at Berkeley from the outset, but more especi- 
ally since, in 1880, the investigations connected with the Tenth Census of 
the United States have afforded a more extended opportunity for the obser- 
vation of the broad facts. As these have been set forth at length in former 
publications, it will suffice to introduce below a summary statement lately 
made in the form of a bulletin (No. 83), in response to inquiries too numer- 
ous to be answered and discussed individually. It should be added that the 
difficulty is not so much with trees and vines once well established, but with 
the rooting of cuttings, the planting of young trees and vines having most 
of their roots near the surface, and with the sprouting of seeds sown super- 
ficially, like grain or alfalfa. The latter, especially, is not at all sensitive 
to alkali when once established; but its seed rots in the ground with the 
greatest ease when even a small proportion of " black " alkali or carbonate 
of soda is present; while, when sown with plaster, which neutralizes the 
carbonate, the difficulty frequently vanishes altogether. The question is 
undoubtedly a burning one for the Tulare Valley at large; and hence the 
reclamation of alkali land was among the first things to be considered in 
the location of a station intended for the benefit of that region. 




unmitigated evil, and that only 



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UNIVERSITY OK CALIFORNIA. 



The Rise of the Alkali in the San Joaquin Valley. 

(Bulletin No. 83.) 



The rapid increase of population and settlements in the San Joaquin 
Valley, and the frequency with which inquiries relative to the nature and 
treatment of " alkali " come to this station from that section, as well as from 
other portions of the State, render it expedient to give a summary state- 
ment of the main points in the form of a bulletin. A more elaborate treatise 
on the same subject, originally published in the report for 1880, has been 
reprinted and can still be sent to those desiring more detailed information. 

It is well known that, like all regions having a deficient rainfall and 
requiring irrigation for successful agriculture, the San Joaquin Valley has 
(particularly in its upper portions) tracts of land afflicted more or less with 
"alkali;" that is, showing, during the dry season, a "blooming-out" of 
soluble salts on the surface of the ground. This phenomenon is the direct 
and inevitable result of a scanty rainfall in all regions having a naturally 
productive soil, from which the mineral matters required for the nutrition 
of plants are being continually set free by the natural processes included 
under the general term of weathering; a decomposition of the minerals con- 
tained in the soil, among the products of which are always the soluble salts 
of the alkalies (potash and soda). The potash salts are, by a peculiar 
chemical action, mostly retained in the soil and form an important part of 
the mineral food of plants; while the soda (or sodium) salts, upon which 
the soil exerts but a very slight retentive action, are, in climates having an 
abundant rainfall, washed currently into the country drainage and thence 
into the ocean, whose briny waters testify of the long-maintained accumu- 
lative process. 

Where the rainfall is scanty, and especially where the showers falling 
at any one time are so light as to wet the soil only to the depth of a few 
feet, this current washing-out cannot occur, and the sodium salts neces- 
sarily accumulate in the soil, together with those of potash, lime, and mag- 
nesia, which are, in the ordinary course of events, wholly or in great part 
retained by the soil. As a consequence, each time that the soil moisture 
evaporates between showers it carries with it to the surface, in solution, 
whatever of soluble alkali salts may have accumulated within the depth 
to which it penetrated, to be again washed down by the next shower, to 
such depths as its amount may justify. This process is, in the natural 
course of- events, indefinitely repeated with one and the same quantity of 
alkali salts, diminished only to the extent to which some heavier shower 
may wash part of the surface accumulation to the lower ground. Hence, 
the latter will, as a rule, show a larger proportion of alkali on this account 
alone; in addition, being naturally richer in the fine and easily decompos- 
able mineral powder carried down and deposited by the streams, the low 
ground will tend to develop proportionally more alkali than the higher 
land; and thus we often find such lands, and even the river bottoms, 
heavily incrusted, when the adjacent uplands are practically free from 
alkali. But it must not be forgotten that this very fact testifies of the 
great intrinsic richness of the soil in mineral plant food, and of the highly 
profitable results sure to follow the effectual reclamation of these low-lying 
alkali tracts. 

The alkali salts vary in composition, but usually consist of three princi- 
pal ingredients, whose relative proportions vary materially in different 
regions, and cause corresponding differences in the effects on vegetation, 
whether natural or cultivated. These three ingredients are, in the usual 
order of their abundance, common salt (sodium chloride), Glauber's salt 




SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY STATION. 



141 



(sodium sulphate), and salsoda (sodium carbonate). The latter is some- 
times present in predominant quantity, and then gives rise to what is popu- 
larly known as " black alkali," from the fact that the sodium carbonate 
forms with the humus of the soil a dark-colored solution, which, on evapo- 
ration in mud puddles, leaves black rings on the soil surface. The dis- 
tinction between the " black alkali " and the " white," consisting mainly of 
the bland and relatively innocuous Glauber's and common salt, is impor- 
tant, for the effect of carbonate of soda upon vegetation is many times more 
injurious than that of the former, not only because of its direct corroding 
effects upon the root-crown when it accumulates near the surface, but also 
because, as already stated, it dissolves out of the soil that highly important 
ingredient, humus or vegetable mold, and, moreover, renders clayey soils 
almost completely untillable. The latter effect is well seen in the low-lying 
alkali spots, where (even in the sandy lands) the soil, in which the clay 
accumulates, is so obstinately caked together as to render it extremely diffi- 
cult to put in the plow, and comes up in heavy intractable clods most diffi- 
cult to break up. The latter difficulty does not exist in the case of the 
" white " alkali soils; they till kindly ? and the only trouble lies in the accu- 
mulation of the salts at the surface, in consequence of evaporation, to such 
extent as to injure the surface roots and root-crown. Carbonate of soda or 
" black " alkali is converted into the " white " (t. «., Glauber's salt) by 
dressings of gypsum or land plaster, and the relief thus afforded is in very 
many cases all that is needed to insure profitable cultivation. 

It is only in exceptionally bad cases that enough of any of these soluble 
salts to injure the deeper roots exists in the depths of the soil, or within 
more than one inch of the surface. This surface accumulation is obvious 
enough to the eye during the dry season; it is well illustrated by the exami- 
nation of the soluble contents of a soil from Fresno County, given first in 
the table on page 146. It will be seen that at the surface the alkali contents 
were nearly four times as great as at any point below. 

Aside from the three most prevalent ingredients of the alkali crusts, 
there are always present a number of others, some of which are of funda- 
mental importance to plant life, and of which their mere presence in the 
soluble form proves that the soil contains, in a more or less insoluble shape 
but still accessible to the use of plants, all that it can retain of these useful 
ingredients. Such are particularly the salts of potash, and soluble phos- 
phates, both of which are very commonly found in the alkali salts from 
the heavier soils of the San Joaquin Valley; while saltpeter in the form of 
both potassium and sodium nitrates is common, especially in the " black " 
alkali districts, and represents a surplus of the most expensive of the fertil- 
izers which the farmer finds it necessary to supply to his soils in order to 
maintain their productiveness. While it is true that these nitrates are not 
retained by the soil but may pass away with the drainage, their presence 
testifies of the intensity of the nitrifying process in the soil under the con- 
ditions of the local climate. 

Thus, while the presence of an excess of alkali salts is an evil, requiring 
to be abated, yet the above facts, as well as the results of actual trial, prove 
that alkali soils are eminently worthy of attention and corrective treatment 
because of their great intrinsic resources in plant food. 

The most obvious mode of correcting the condition of alkali soils gen- 
erally is, clearly, to supplement by artificial means the natural deficiency 
of drainage through the soil, resulting from the scanty rainfall. For, if we 
once leach out the surplus salts that have accumulated for ages, it will take 
ages to bring about the same condition of things, and we shall practically 
have put an end to the " alkali " difficulty. 

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UNIVERSITY OK CALIFORNIA. 



But this leaching-out cannot be done by putting water on the surface of 
the land, unless at the same time its removal after passing through the soil 
is provided for. For it is manifest that if the alkali solution descends no 
farther than the subsoil and remains there, ready to re-ascend so soon as 
evaporation at the surface calls for it, we shall have done no good. In fact, 
the inutility of this mode of procedure has been so thoroughly tested in 
practice, both in California and in India, as to have shown that it is the 
reverse of useful and increases instead of diminishing the evil; because 
the soluble salts thereafter ascend from greater depths than the annual 
rainfall could have reached, and their sum total is thus materially in- 
creased. This is the simple explanation of what is known in the Great ' 
Valley as the " rise of the alkali," which is observed in all lands subjected 
to surface irrigation for some length of time, creating increasing incon- 
venience and alarm as time progresses. 

While under the natural conditions existing in California there is no 
real cause for alarm so far as the ultimate repression of the alkali plague is 
concerned, and while in the majority of cases judicious cultivation (with 
the use of gypsum when called for) is capable of preventing any serious 
damage to crops, yet the present inconvenience and loss resulting from 
the rise and rapid extension of the alkali-area are sufficient to call for strong 
measures toward the abatement of the evil. The first condition of such 
abatement is a general understanding of the nature and causes of the 
trouble, the more as in many cases the improvement cannot be brought 
about without such concerted action (and perhaps even the exercise of the 
right of condemnation and eminent domain) as is required in the case of 
irrigation works. 

Underdrainage is the general and absolute corrective of alkali. To flood 
the land until underdraws laid reasonable distances apart shall have run 
for some time will end the trouble, not only for the time being, but for 
centuries; provided only that solid beds of the alkali salts do not underlie, 
as unfortunately seems to be the case in some of the lower lands of the upper 
Tulare Basin. How to deal with that state of things need not now be dis- 
cussed, as it is the rare exception. 

In the porous soils of the Fresno neighborhood, where until quite lately 
alkali was unknown, its rise has clearly been brought about by the rise of 
the water table, resulting from the establishment of high-lying ditches; 
and its abatement can be brought about by the same means that have been 
used for lowering the water itself that threatened to swamp the very plains 
that fifteen years ago showed no moisture at the depth of forty or more 
feet, but where a few years ago water was within two or three feet of the 
surface, drowning out both vines and trees. The establishment of drain- 
age ditches has put an end to this danger wherever it has been properly 
carried out, and with it the alkali trouble can also be terminated by thor- 
ough flooding of the surface until the ditches shall have carried away the 
teachings into the country drainage. 

There is, however, in certain regions one difficulty in the way of the suc- 
cess of this operation, namely, the existence of a bed or layer of calcareous 
hardpan, equally impervious to roots and water. Farmers have already 
learned that where this hardpan underlies the subsoil at a few feet depth, 
trees and vines will not flourish unless it is broken through, so as to enable 
the roots to pass beneath. This " knocking the bottom out" of the holes 
in which trees are to be planted has already become a well understood 
operation in the hardpan neighborhoods, the crowbar, or even a charge of 
powder, being called into requisition. It is noticeable that in such locali- 
ties the alkali plague comes soonest, and is most persistent, being the 




SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY STATION. 



143 



natural result of the retention of the alkaline water above the hardpan 
layer, and its re-ascent, with all its salts, so soon as evaporation sets in. 
The hardpan areas are generally basin-shaped; with the rise of the irriga- 
tion water, the latter, with the salts it has leached out of the substrata of 
the soil, will come in around the edges or through the cracks of the hard- 
pan mass, and, remaining there despite of drains, wjll bring an increasing 
amount of alkali to the surface each successive year, until spots of a few 
square yards grow into many acres, and finally become a serious menace to 
the welfare of the trees and vines. 

The obvious remedy in such cases is to make the drainage ditches deep 
enough to cut through the hardpan, and to knock so many holes into the 
latter as to facilitate drainage to the necessary extent 

It may be objected that this is too costly; and probably there are cases 
in which this will be so. It then behooves the owner to consider the choice 
between a change of location, and the adoption of other crops and repres- 
sion of the alkali by careful cultivation ana the use of gypsum, as set forth 
in the pamphlet on the subject heretofore published by this department. 
But the time is not far distant when in California, as well as in Illinois and 
in the East generally, the laying of underdrains will be considered an 
excellent investment on any land as valuable as all irrigated land is likely 
to be; and when that day comes, "alkali" will be at an end on irrigated 
lands in this State. 

In tabular form are given the results of a number of examinations of 
alkali soils made within the present year, as well as some of earlier date 
and heretofore published, which illustrate well the variability of the com- 
position of the soluble salts within short distances. Thus, within the ten- 
acre limits of Miss Austin's place in Central Colony, Fresno, we have two 
samples of quite different composition; one (No. 1) of the "white," the 
other of the " black " type, viz. : consisting chiefly of carbonate of soda. 
In the next three columns we find the alkali of the "white" type, while 
again, that from the Emigrant Ditch is very " black," and is almost free 
from Glauber's salt. In Tulare County carbonate of soda is quite gen- 
erally present in large proportion, doubtless in consequence of the more 
general prevalence of heavy soils rich in vegetable matter, which promotes 
the formation of the carbonate. Yet while (according to former observa- 
tions not recorded here) this is true of the alkali of the Mussel Slough 
country nearest the streams, the alkali around Hanford is (or was in 1880) 
almost exclusively of the " white " type. While the water of Tulare Lake, 
as shown in a former bulletin, is rich in the carbonate, extensive tracts 
south of the lake, and which were doubtless covered by its waters at a 
time not very remote (Smyrna neighborhood, in Townships 25 and 26, 
Range 23), prove to contain mere traces of that substance in their alkali, 
and do not require the use of gypsum. (See table, pages 146-148.) 

It is interesting to compare with each other, respectively, the composi- 
tion of surface alkali and well water at the experiment station, and on 
the other hand, the alkali of Tulare Lake water, with that of its ancient 
and modern alluvium; also, the two groups with each other. In all, the 
amount of potash salts remains within the units, running from 3.25 to 6.30 
per cent. In contrast to this, the sodium carbonate is extremely variable, 
running from 20 to over 70 per cent. This is readily explained on the 
basis of the observations recorded in the " Report on Waters and Water 
Supply," issued by this station some time ago (see pages 51 to 57 of that 
publication). It is there shown that the other sodium salts, notably the 
sulphate and chloride, are subject to continual changes under the joint 
influence of lime carbonate and carbonic acid in varying proportions and 

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



under varying temperatures; and it is readily intelligible that in the 
depths of an alluvial deposit the preponderance of carbonic acid should, 
as in the case of the station well water, give rise to a corresponding pre- 
ponderance of sodium carbonate, while gypsum is deposited. Hence the 
importance, if not necessity, of a liberal use of gypsum where such waters 
are employed in irrigation, in order that under the influence of surface 
exposure the reverse action may ensue and the noxious carbonate be meas- 
urably transformed into bland sulphate. This reverse action has, as will 
be noted, occurred to a greater or less extent in the surface soils of the 
lake alluvium; while it became complete farther away, in the Smyrna 
artesian belt, Kern County, where, as stated above, the alkali is throughout 
"white." 

It is thus apparent that so far as the efficacy of the use of gypsum against 
alkali is concerned, each region will have to determine for itself whether 
or not its alkali is of the black or white type; and as this can be generally 
readily ascertained by a simple inspection of puddles on alkali ground — 
whether or not tinted by the dissolution of the vegetable mold into an inky 
liquid, leaving black rings on evaporation — no one need be long in doubt 
on that point. Wherever the black tint appears, dressings of land plaster, 
ranging from two hundred to five hundred pounds per acre, will usually 
effect the change from " black " to " white, after one or two irrigations 
followed by cultivation; preventing the killing of seeds in the ground as 
well as the dwindling of seedlings after sprouting, and greatly improving 
the tillage of the heavier soils. Thereafter, the chief measure toward the 
prevention of the rise of the salts to the surface is whatever tends to prevent 
evaporation from the land surface; and therefore particularly the main- 
tenance of deep and thorough tilth, and the avoidance of the formation of 
any surface crusts. These means, together with a proper choice of crops 
and mode of culture, will serve to maintain good production in most cases 
until the radical cure by drainage alongside of irrigation shall be justified 
by the increased value of the land. 

Value of Oypsum (Land Plaster) as a Fertilizer. 

Since the favorable effects of the use of gypsum on soils tainted with 
"black alkali" have become known, farmers, as well as others (more par- 
ticularly those interested in the development of mines of this material), 
have frequently applied for information as to the value of land plaster as 
a general fertilizer. To forestall as much as possible the necessity of con- 
tinuing to answer such queries individually, it is best to present in this 
place a general statement in the premises. 

Since gypsum can supply to the soil only two ingredients taken up by 
plants as nutrients, it cannot have any direct fertilizing effect save in cases 
where one or both of these two ingredients — lime and sulphuric acid — are 
deficient. But of over twelve hundred California soils now in the Univer- 
sity collection, probably not over a dozen would be at present benefited by 
an additional supply of lime; that ingredient being, from climatic causes, 
almost necessarily abundant in the soils of arid climates. As to sulphuric 
acid, it has not been found deficient in any soil examined; and from causes 
parallel to those tending to render lime abundant, it is not likely to be 
required as a fertilizer anywhere in California within a century. Gypsum 
is, therefore, a special fertilizer only, and is not to be compared to such 
fundamental fertilizers as the phosphates, the nitrates, and, in their proper 
place, the potash salts, which serve to replace directly what the crops with- 



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SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY STATION. 



145 



draw from the soil, and thus to maintain its store of plant food. The 
cases in which gypsum is found useful may be classed under four heads: 

1. It is found efficacious in improving the thriftiness of all crops of the 
"leguminous" tribe; that is, peas, beans, vetches, clovers of all kinds, 
alfalfa, etc. The exact cause and mode of action in this case is not fully 
understood; but it is an old and well established fact. At the same time 
it must not be expected that virgin soils already producing maximum 
crops will make the use of plaster pay, in going still higher. Many such 
soils already contain all the gypsum that can be useful, and to add more 
would be " carrying coals to Newcastle." 

2. Among the effects known to be produced by gypsum on many, or per- 
haps most soils, is the setting free, or rendering available, of supplies of potash 
contained in the soil but not in such a form that crops can use it. Probably 
this is one of the causes of its favorable effect on the legume plants. 
But as regards California soils, the great majority are remarkable for their 
high contents of potash, much of which (as the preceding tables and dis- 
cussions show) is in the soluble and therefore fully available form. Hence, 
this particular effect of gypsum is likely to be less useful in California and 
the "arid region" generally than it is in the East, where potash fertilizers 
are highly important, and soils on an average contain one third to one 
fifth as much potash as do ours. 

3. The utility of gypsum on soils afflicted with " black alkali," or car- 
bonate of soda, has already been sufficiently explained. It is doubtless 
the most important use for it in California agriculture, at present and for 
many years to come. 

4. Gypsum is of high utility in the preservation of manure, because it 
absorbs and retains for plant use the carbonate of ammonia so freely given 
off from barnyards, stalls, and manure piles under all ordinary modes of 
management. A box of land plaster should be conveniently to hand in 
every stable for use in the stalls, which it disinfects most effectually with- 
out in any manper interfering with the subsequent use of the manure, as 
ia the case with other disinfectants now in common use, in cities especially. 
It is equally good in other places where offensive exhalations are apt to 
occur, and its free use would do away with a great deal of the unpleasant- 
ness, and some unhealthfulness, now so commonly found about the farm- 
yard and even the dwelling house. 

A cheap supply of gypsum is thus of amply sufficient importance to the 
farmer, here as elsewhere, to render it highly desirable that it should be 
at command as soon and as cheaply as possible. Its present price, with 
freight added, is practically prohibitory of its use in agriculture, save in 
exceptional cases; and it is to be hoped that the abundant deposits of this 
valuable material, lately discovered in the very region where its use is 
most urgent, will not remain unused much longer. If those interested 
knew how greatly the opening up of these mines would benefit them, the 
delay in doing so would be almost incomprehensible in a country as pro- 
gressive as California. 

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APPENDICES. 



1. Soil investigation; its methods and results. 

2. List of trees and shrubs in the University grounds. 

3. List of fruit trees in the station orchards. 

4. List of varieties of grapevines represented at the several stations. 

5. List of miscellaneous plants in the Garden of Economic Plants. 

6. Account of expenditures from the United States Experiment Station 
Fund, for the year ending June 30, 1889. 



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APPENDIX No. i. 



SOIL INVESTIGATION ; ITS METHODS AND RESULTS. 

As the present publication will come into the hands of many who have 
not seen former reports or the papers published by me in regard to the 
investigation of soils, and especially their chemical analysis, it seems 
proper to summarize here, more particularly for perusal by chemists, both 
the methods adopted in this work and the views and facts upon which it 
is based. Such explanation is to some extent rendered necessary by the 
prejudices handed down from the first half of the century, and still 
rehearsed with sweeping assurance in late publications on agricultural 
chemistry. 

The experiment stations are designed, and are constantly called upon, 
to furnish information and advice regarding the best agricultural practice 
within their respective spheres of action, and to resolve existing difficulties 
and questions by experimentation. But as a matter of fact they do not 
possess, and have not now the means or even definite prospects to get 
possession of, the actual facts and conditions surrounding the cases with 
which they will have to deal. They are placed in the position of a physi- 
cian who is expected to prescribe for a patient of whose condition and 
ailments he knows nothing except what public rumor, or the statements 
of persons ignorant of medical science, may have led him to conjecture. 

By what process shall this needful knowledge of climatic and soil condi- 
tions be acquired ? It is difficult to imagine any other means than the gath- 
ering of the facts by competent observers in the field, and their coordination 
on a uniform plan; in other words, by agricultural surveys of the several 
States, where such surveys have not already been made. And this inevit- 
ably involves the systematic and detailed investigation of their soils. 

The neglect with which the examination of soils, in regard to their geo- 
graphical and geological occurrence, and their physical and chemical prop- 
erties, is commonly treated; the calm assurance with which certain things 
are asserted of " soils " at large, as though the word had a more definite 
meaning than that of " rock " or " mineral," is certainly surprising in an age 
in which even the quarryman resorts to the technical expert and chemist in 
order to locate his industry and handle his product. The farmer is com- 
inonly left to deal with his soil as though the disintegration of the rocks 
from which it has been formed had wiped out about all practically impor- 
tant differences and reduced it to a definite something, about which one 
can fearlessly generalize. Because, in the beginnings of agricultural chem- 
istry, incorrect views were put forth, in which the chemical analysis of 
soils was credited with the value of the assay of an ore, and subsequently 
this claim was shown to be untenable, the " child has been thrown out 
with the bath," and chemical soil examination relegated to the supersti- 
tions of the past. With it, moreover, the idea that the agricultural expert 
can render serious and valuable service to the farmer by an examination 
of bis soils in advance of the painful and costly experiences of crop failures 
and mortgages, has also fallen into desuetude; and distinguished authors 
on agricultural science have gone so far as to go into print with the state- 
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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



ment that they" would rather trust to an old farmer for a correct judgment 
of a soil than the best (agricultural?) chemist living." If such a testi- 
monium paupertatis can be seriously put forth, the science of agriculture 
must be wofully behind the rest; and one naturally is led to ask by whose 



So far as chemical soil analysis is concerned, the cause is not far to 
seek; for so soon as experience, and a simple calculation, showed that in 
most cases the differences between a fresh, fertile soil, and the same soil 
exhausted by culture, cannot be directly appreciated by the chemists' 
operations and balance, the usefulness of the analysis of soils long culti- 
vated and fertilized was peremptorily relegated to narrow limits. The 
practical non-existence of virgin soils in western Europe, where nearly all 
the investigations on these subjects had been carried on, rendered their 
examination both difficult, and relatively uninteresting to investigators. 
As naturally those of the older States in this country concluded that soil 
examination was an unfruitful theme to handle, and devoted their atten- 
tion to the analysis of crops and fertilizers alone; the farmer being taught 
ex officio that the only way for him to settle upon the particular fertilizer 
required for his soil, was to try, try again, and keep trying. Perhaps 
this was well enough in its place, although the examination even of 
cultivated soils will usually reveal many practically important points 
which may serve to indicate their needs. But when this doctrine was 
tacitly or expressly extended to virgin soils, there was a clear departure 
from what the record justified; and the urgent demand for some forecast 
of productiveness and durability of lands intended for settlement in the 
newer States and Territories, seemed to demand a corresponding effort to 
obtain such information for the public benefit. It is true that a large' 
mass of data would be required to establish rules for guidance in the inter- 
pretation of physical and chemical analyses of virgin soils; it would be 
necessary to collate them both with the indications of the natural vegeta- 
tion borne by them and with such experience in cultivation as might be 
attainable; but it did seem that if the " old farmer" could, upon the basis 
of his imperfect observation, frequently give good advice in the premises, 
the agricultural chemist, with alt the farmer's and a great many other data 
before him, ought to be able to do a great deal better. But it was also 
necessary that the observer should be an agricultural chemist, not merely 
ex professo, but should posseBB personal practical experience in the field, 
both cultivated and uncultivated, enabling him to translate into practice 
whatever information might be thus obtainable. 

Such, substantially, were the views communicated to the writer by Dr. 
David Dale Owen, then engaged in the geological and agricultural sur- 
veys of Kentucky and Arkansas, in 1855. Dr. Owen did not at that time 
pretend to be able to interpret correctly the results obtained by him in the 
investigation of the soils of these States; but he expressed his conviction 
that with a proper comparison of a sufficient number of data it could and 
would be done, with great benefit to the farming interest; and he recom- 
mended to me the pursuit of similar investigations in the survey of Mis- 
sissippi, then being begun. 

Unfortunately, Dr. Owen's early death prevented him from perfecting 
bis idea; and the numerous analyses made for these surveys under the 
practiced hand of Dr. Robert Peter, remain as yet without a detailed dis- 
cussion and classification. 

The State of Mississippi afforded me exceptional opportunities for soil 
studies, on account of the great and strongly contrasted variety of its soils, 
which happen to be arranged in narrow parallel belts. In crossing these 





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the wide and characteristic differences exhibited by them strongly encour- 
aged the hope of definite results from their systematic investigation; and, 
although the cutting-short of that survey by the civil war first, and after- 
ward by executive interference, withheld from examination a large part 
of the collections made, the results obtained were sufficiently encouraging 
to induce a continuation of these studies elsewhere, and in a wider field. 
The first opportunity was offered in the work of the census of 1880, in 
connection with which representative soils from all the cotton States were 
examined and in part analyzed. The ample confirmation of former im- 
pressions, thus obtained, led to a systematic presentation of the whole 
subject in Volumes V and VI of the Census Report, being the portion 
relating to the production of cotton. 

Since then the examination of the soils collected during the progress of 
the Northern Transcontinental Survey, and of those of California, have so 
added to the mass of facts that any one who chooses to discuss them can 
satisfy himself of the correctness of Dr. Owen's views, and of the fact that 
a properly qualified agricultural chemist can render the most direct and 
important services to the farmer, settler, and immigrant, by forecasting both 
the best adaptation of the lands occupied, the mode of culture, and the 
improvements and fertilizers that will be first needed when (as now inva- 
riably happens) the soil " gives out " under exhaustive culture. This, and 
not mere glittering generalities, is what an agricultural survey deserving 
of the name should supply. Mistakes may be made in consequence (usu- 
ally) of imperfect knowledge or consideration of data; much also still 
remains to be accomplished in the detailed study of a number of typical cases 
in order to settle mooted points. But the practical utility even of what 
has thus far been elicited is so obvious and undeniable, that there remains 
no excuse for the omission of such work from the State and national sur- 
veys. That no greater progress has yet been made must be measurably 
ascribed to the fact that so few have joined in the prosecution of this kind 
of research, and that "art is long, life short." 

The information desired by the intending settler or land purchaser will 
usually include the following points: 

1. Is the land in question capable of yielding profitable crops without 
fertilization, or other expensive improvements; and if so, 

2. How long is it likely to hold out under ordinary (exhaustive) culture 
before it will require fertilization? 

3. When it does "give out," or seriously slackens its production, what 
fertilizer -will it require first? 

4. To what crop is the land, from its (physical and chemical) nature, 
best adapted ? 

It is needless to say that these questions, so vitally interesting to settlers 
or purchasers of land, cannot usually be answered as categorically as can 
be done in the case of a mineral ore. But it is obvious that in order to 
reach even a near approximation, it is absolutely essential that the chem- 
ical as well as the physical nature of the soil be known. 

The mode of investigation pursued by me, under the above points ot 
view, and the results so far as they have taken definite shape, are given in 
the following pages, as concisely as is compatible with the proper presenta- 
tion of the subject. 

While I have preferred to use virgin soils in these investigations wherever 
possible, yet it is clear that cultivation without the use of fertilization from the 
outside — the " exhaustive " cultivation which is the common practice in the 
greater part of the United States as yet — cannot bring about any observable 

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changes in the soils; this, in fact, is considered so well proven that it has 
formed the stock argument against the utility of soil analysis. Without, 
for the present, discussing the exact truth of this allegation, it follows 
from it that the methods of investigation applicable to virgin soils are 
likewise valid for soils cultivated but not fertilized. Thus, soil investiga- 
tion still finds its legitimate field in most of the country lying between 
the Alleghanies and the Pacific Ocean, where the history of each field is 
generally still in the memory of persons living; and thus the most valuable 
direct evidence of the effects of cultivation on natural soils, and of the 
extent to which soil examination can be useful to practice, is within the 
easy reach of our experiment stations. It will be their most grievous fault 
if these advantages, scarcely to be found in any other country in the world, 
are not utilized by them for the advancement of the science as well as the 
practice of agriculture. 

METHODS OF INVESTIGATION. 

Field Survey; Sampling of Soils. — Manifestly, the proper observations 
in the field, and the correct taking of representative samples when such 
are wanted, are matters of the first importance, as forming the basis of the 
whole investigation. There is oftentimes no little difficulty in this pre- 
liminary work; it always requires more judgment than a mere "collector" 
can bring to bear, and oftentimes resident farmers can save the explorer 
a vast amount of trouble by giving such account of the various kinds of 
land in his region as his education or talent for observation may comport. 
Otherwise it will frequently be necessary for the observer to retrace his 
steps in order to verify observations and to obtain representative specimens 
from fairly within the limits of the soil-area crossed by him. Since the 
correct outlining of such areas is among the most important objects to be 
accomplished by an agricultural survey, and a change in the character of 
the natural vegetation is usually the most conspicuous mark of changes 
in soil character; since, moreover, soils are merely modern geological for- 
mations, and may or may not be dependent upon the underlying country 
rock: a knowledge of geology may be considered among the first requisites 
for a qualified field observer of soils; and another, such knowledge of 
botany as will enable him to observe and describe correctly the natural 
vegetation. In settled regions diligent inquiry and observation of the 
results of cultivation are, of course, indispensable. With all this there 
should, almost necessarily, be combined a theoretical and practical knowl- 
edge of agriculture. 

The following directions to field observers, compiled for the field books 
of the Northern Transcontinental Survey, will convey a succinct idea of 
the work required: 

Directions fob Taking Soil Samples and Filling Descriptive Blanks. 

FHrst— Consider what are the (usually two or three) soil varieties which, with their 
intermixtures, make up the cultivable area of the region under examination, and take 
representative, characteristic specimens of these, and of their subsoils, first of all. 

Second — As a rule, and whenever possible, take specimens only from spots that have 
not been cultivated, nor are otherwise likely to have been changed from their original 
condition of "virgin soils;" «. g., not from ground frequently trodden over, such as road- 
sides, cattle-paths, or small pastures, squirrel holes, stumps, or even the foot of trees, or 
spots that have been washed by rains or streams, so as to have experienced a noticeable 
change, and not be a fair representative of their kind. 

Third— Observe and record carefully the normal vegetation, trees, herbs, grass, etc^ of 
the average land; avoid spots showing unusual growth, whether in kind or quality, as 
such are likely to have received some animal manure, or other outside addition. 



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Fourth — Always take specimens from more than one spot judged to be a fair represent- 
ative of the soil intended to be examined, as an additional guarantee of a fair average. 

Fifth— After selecting a proper spot, pull up the plants growing on it, and scrape off the 
surface lightly with a sharp tool, to .remove half decayed vegetable matter not forming 
part of the soil as yet. Dig a vertical hole, like a post-bole, at least twenty inches deep. 
Scrape the sides clean, so as to see at what depth the change of tint occurs, which marks the 
downward limit of the surface soil, and record it Take at least half a bushel of the earth 
above this limit, and on a cloth (not jute-sack, which is too fibrous), or paper, break it up 
and mix thoroughly, and fill with it a bag of strong material, size five by eleven inches, or 
that of an ordinary shot-bag. Before tying it up, place in the part to be tied a folded 
label of strong paper, on which the number and general designation of the sample is 
written in lead pencil. Tie up with hemp twine, to which attach a strong tag bearing 
number, designation, date, and locality, in hard black-lead pencil— not with "copying pen- 
cil." 

This specimen will ordinarily constitute the " soil." Should the change of color occur 
at a less depth than six inches, the fact should be noted, but the specimen taken to that 
depth nevertheless, since it is the least to which rational culture can be supposed to reach . 

In case the difference in the character of a shallow surface soil and its subsoil should 
be unusually great, as may be the case in swamps or other alluvial lands, or in rocky dis- 
tricts, a separate sample of that surface soil should be taken, besides the one to the depth 
of six inches. 

Specimens of salty or "alkali" soils should, as a rule, be taken only toward the end of 
the dry season, when they will contain the maximum amount of the injurious ingredients 
which it may be necessary to neutralize. Samples of such salts as may have effloresced 
on the surface of the ground should also be secured by scraping off the surface, put up in 
well-closed packages of thick paper, and sent with the soil. 

Sixth — Whatever lies beneath the line of change, or below the minimum depth of six 
inches, will constitute the " subsoil." But should the change of color occur at a greater 
depth than twelve inches, the * soil" specimen should nevertheless be taken to the depth 
of twelve inches only, which is the limit of ordinary tillage; then another specimen from 
that depth down to the line of change, and then the subsoil specimen beneath that line. 

The depth down to which the last should be taken will depend on circumstances. It is 
always necessary to know what constitutes the foundation of a soil, down to the depth of 
three feet at least, since the question of drainage, resistance to drought, etc., will depend 
essentially upon the nature of the substratum. ' But in ordinary cases ten or twelve 
inches of subsoil will be sufficient for the purposes of examination in the laboratory. The 
specimen should be taken in other respects precisely like that of the surface soil, while 
that of the material underlying this " subsoil'' maybe taken with less exactness, perhaps 
at some ditch or other easily accessible point, ana should not be broken up like the other 
specimens. 

A specimen of any rock from which the soil is obviously derived, or with which it is 
intimately associated, should accompany the subsoil specimen, and may be inclosed in 
the same t>ag. 

Seventh— All peculiarities of the soil snd subsoil, their condition as to drainage, be- 
havior in the wet and dry conditions so far as observable, or ascertainable by inquiry ; the 
presence or absence of ferruginous spots, concretions, or " black gravel" (bogorel, of w hite 
calcareous concretions (" white gravel "), as distinguished from mechanically rolled gravel : 
of "hardpan." calcareous, siliceous, or ferruginous, at such depths as to influence cultiva- 
tion or the penetration of tap roots : the character of the soil water, whether colored or 
not by acid organic matter — every circumstance, in fact, that can influence or throw light 
upon the agricultural quality or adaptation of the land, should be carefully noted and 
recorded under the proper head. 

The information gathered should, as far as possible, cover all points that would be of inter- 
est to the intending settler, and, while complete, should also be concise. 

The blanks on Sheet 1 should in all cases be filled as far as possible, and where the 
information desired cannot be given, the fact should be stated as "Not ascertainable" or 
" Not known " in the proper place, with reference, if necessary, to explanatory remarks on 
Sheet 2, or on an additional slip, to be pinned to Sheet 2; which should be used in case the 
blank space left should not be sufficient for a full statement of any fact or class of facts. 
In such case write the word "over" at the bottom of the page, to call attention to such 
matter. 

For samples coming from below a surface soil taken, the blanks on the descriptive 
sheets need not, of course, be filled farther than down to " Nature of underlying rock." 
The "designation and numbers of associated samples " should be carefully filled for each 
sample taken, of whatever nature. 

The enumeration of points and subjects in the descriptive blanks are to be considered 
as suggestive rather than as a complete schedule. Each observer will find, in the field, 
numerous points of practical interest not foreseen, but which should nevertheless form 
part of each report. 

Frequent examinations of the soil should be made in traveling through a region, in 
order not to miss points of change, and to obtain an insight into the usual variations of 
character. Both will, as a rule, be indicated by a change in the character of the natural 
vegetation, which should therefore be carefully observed and recorded. The taking of 
representative samples must, from the very nature of the case, very commonly be deferred 
until an opportunity to observe the characters and changes of soil and vegetation has 




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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



been had. Sometimes this will necessitate taming back, in order to find a representative 
locality. To obviate this as much as possible, it will often be advisable to collect soil 
samples not definitely known to be truly representative, and, il afterwards found to be 
unimportant or misleading, to discard them for better samples. 

It is impossible to give any definite measure of the number of samples to be taken on 
any given area. As a rule, the soils of even extensive agricultural subdivisions may be 
reduced to a few chief varieties, and their intermixtures in varying proportions. Under 
ordinary circumstances, it is the former alone that repay the trouble of collection, detailed 
examination, or analysis. Yet. when certain intermixtures form extensive and well- 
characterized areas, they should be sampled at least for inspection and verification. 
Again, where the facilities for transportation are good, samples may with advantage be 
taken more abundantly than where men or animals have to be loaded down with them. 
In the case of large districts supposed to be covered by substantially the same soil, it is 
nevertheless desirable to take several samples, at intervals of several miles, in order to 
substantiate the impression. In case of difficult transportation, it may be desirable to 
diminish the usual quantity of each sample, rather than to be compelled to omit impor- 
tant ones altogether. The weight and inconvenience may also be materially diminished 
by drying each sample as soon as possible after taking, but this should always be done 
with proper precautions against the introduction of accidental impurities, especially in 
case the drying is effected by the camp fire. In the latter case it should only be done in 
closed bags, and even then with precautions against the contact with ashes, salt, etc., and 
should the bag accidentally become charred, the portion nearest to the charred part should 
be rejected when placing the sample into a new bag. 

Wet soil samples should not be packed or shipped in boxes, as the bags may be destroyed 
by mold in transmission, and the samples thus be lost. Should circumstances render it 
necessary to ship or store wet samples, the boxes should be perforated with holes ; in case 
of storage, jute sacks will afford a convenient receptacle, but they should not have con- 
tained anything that if communicated to the soils might give rise to errors. 

If unable at the time to determine the species of the characteristic plants of any soil, 
put specimens into a soil bag and tie in with the tag of the soil sample corresponding. 

Ship soil samples as often as possible, as they are heavy to carry. Transmit by mail the 
descriptive sheets referring to each shipment as made, keeping a copy of each in the field 
book. Mark with a cross in the upper left-hand corner of Sheet 1 any soil sample, the 
examination of which (whether on account of wide prevalence or of especial fertility or 
other advantages) you consider of especial importance. 

Descriptive Blank. 
To be filled by the observer and transmitted by mail. 



Sheet 1. 

Date: 

Number 
Designation of sample: 

Designation and numbers of associated samples: 



18—. 



State or territory: 
County or district: 

l-ocality: £ of i sec. T. R. 

Waters of Creek • River. 

Near 

Depth taken: to inches. 

Record of obss. in taking sample (see instructions): 
Nature of underlying rock: 
Geological horizon of same: 
Depth under surface: 

Does this rock, or any other observed, obviously contribute to the formation of the soil : 
Well water, or water table, at what depth: 
Nature of water: 

Is "alkali" visible on surface, or otherwise known to prevail : 
Forest, "openings," or treeless— trees of what species: 
Surface bare or sod-covered— what grasses or other herbaceous plants: 
What 9hrubs— sagebrush, greasewood, or others : 



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Sheet t. 

Elevation, and general statements regarding surface conformation or " lay " of the land, 
its relation to watercourses, flood-plain, second bottom, mesa, plateau, rolling uplands, 
hills, or mountains; whether steep or gentle slopes, their sides capable or not of cultiva- 
tion, or available as pastures, how high up; soil susceptible or not of gullying or washing 
in the rainy season, and effect of such washing on the low lands. Width of valleys, their 
surface level or sloping. Do streams run in deep channels, and through the season ? 
Have artesian wells been tried; with what success, what depths, and what is the quality 
of water? Has tree planting been tried to any extent? General fitness of land for culti- 
vation or grazing, experience had, present practice and productions. Irrigation, practiced 
or not, readily feasible or not Extent of country considered similar to sample; popular 
designation of country, and of kind of soil. By whom and to what extent is the country 
settled, etc. Prominent peculiarities of seasons, rainfall, local or general winds, tempera- 
tore, etc. 

What other samples representing substantially the same kind of soil and country have 
been taken? Give reference by date and number of soil. Add snch remarks relative to 
differences or coincidences as may be of service in connecting the observations. 

What other kinds of soil occur within the same general region of country? Give ref- 
erence by designation, name, and date. 

It is not to be expected that the information accompanying the soil sam- 
ples will always be as complete or cover all the points called for in the 
above instructions save in the case of experienced observers. The latter 
will have little difficulty in filling such blanks to a satisfactory degree; and 
intelligent farmers will often, using their own language in a brief letter, 
give an equally full account; they do not as a rule take kindly to the filling 
of blanks. 

EXAMINATION IN THE LABORATORY. 

With unlimited time and working force at command, it would be very 
desirable to push the examination of the soil samples into considerable 
detail in many directions. The determination of the water-holding and 
capillary power, the chemical effect of fertilizers, and many other data, 
would, from a theoretical standpoint, be of great interest, and would doubt- 
less in many cases lead to important practical results. But the necessity 
usually existing in public surveys, of restricting the work to the minimum 
necessary for practical purposes, imposes limitations and generally com- 
pels the selection of the most needful only for the general work, both in 
physical and chemical examination. It should, therefore, be distinctly 
understood that in the methods of work hereinafter recorded I have aimed 
essentially to do first what is needful for practical purposes, under the restric- 
tions as to time and means usually imposed in carrying out a public work; 
oftentimes intentionally sacrificing the greatest possible accuracy of demon- 
strations to that consideration, where such accuracy is not essential to the 
attainment of the necessary insight. However unpalatable to the scien- 
tific investigator these restrictions may be, it does not follow that they are 
incompatible with the elimination of scientifically important results and 
principles. In so wide a field, as yet so little cultivated, a multitude of 
approximations is likely to lead to more important results than would a 
small number of very elaborate investigations, for which as yet we lack 
the leading principles. 

Physical Soil Examination. 

Preliminary Observations. — A practiced hand — such as that of the " old 
fanner," or of a practical agricultural expert — will usually approximate 
near enough for practical purposes to a correct estimate of the tilling quali- 
ties of a soil, by handling it in both the wet and dry condition. If the soil 
has been sampled when reasonably dry, so as not to have been puddled 
in the operation, the facility with which small, dry lumps of the same 

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may be crushed between the forefinger and thumb will afford a good esti- 
mate of its behavior toward the harrow or cultivator; the behavior of these 
lumps when wetted will show the effect of rains on the dry soil, as in some 
cases they will at once flatten out into a pile of loose crumbs; in others 
will retain the shape, but soften readily; while in the case of some close, 
heavy soils, lumps will not only retain the shape but show no ready 
softening; while in others of the same class (viz., those of strongly calcare- 
ous character) the water will cause the same crumbling as in a sandy 
loam. Kneading of the wetted lump will show what will be the results of 
tillage after rains, and will, from the degree of plasticity, assumed, lead 
to an approximate estimate of the amount of real " clay present, as well 
as of the presence or absence of rock fragments, coarse or fine sand, etc. 

A rapid washing of the softened soil in a beaker will enable the observer, 
when necessary, to determine by means of the lens or microscope the nature 
of the sand present; a matter of no mean importance, since a soil whose 
mechanical analysis might show the same amount of sand consisting of 
pure quartz or other undecomposable minerals, would be of very different 
value from the one whose " sand " consists of granite, slate, basalt, or other 
country rock, from the disintegration of which the soil derives its origin, 
and which will, by its more rapid decomposition in the cultivated soil, 
continue to contribute to its resources. 

A material darkening of the tint of soils when wetted is always an indi- 
cation of the presence of much humus (except when they are highly 
tinted with ferric hydrate), enabling the analyst to proportion properly the 
amount to be employed in the determination of that substance, or to form 
an estimate of the humus percentage when that determination has to be 
omitted. 

Such a preliminary physical examination can, as a rule, be made and 
recorded within half an hour, or less, according to the experience of the 
observer; and for ordinary purposes it is usually all that is required, pro- 
vided, of course, that the properties of the corresponding subsoil, and, 
perhaps also that of the deeper layers, be either adequately known or 
similarly determined. 

Quantitative Determinations of Physical Data. — A full mechanical analysis 
of a soil is always an operation requiring much time and attention, even 
when the automatic mechanical soil-washer described by me in 1873 is 
used. In the current work of an agricultural survey, it must ordinarily be 
restricted to critical cases, in which the judgmentof the soils' tilling quali- 
ties, or means of improving the same, cannot be otherwise settled. 

The most obviously needful separation, in all cases, is that into " fine 
earth " and coarser materials that as yet form no part of the active soil. 
Just where to place this limit is a matter of discretion. I have made a 
uniform practice of using a sieve with meshes of .5 mm. aperture for the 
purpose, thus connecting the sifting process with the coarsest sediment 
which it is convenient to handle in tne mechanical elutriator, viz.: that 
corresponding to quartz grains of about .5 mm. diameter, or 60 mm. 
hydraulic value. Perhaps a smaller value might advantageously be 
chosen, although with finer sieves there is a rapidly increasing difficulty 
in preventing the retention on the sieve of aggregates of fine earth with 
the sand. The character of the coarse materials thus separated is of 
course duly recorded, both as to prevalent size and mineralogical compo- 
sition. Sometimes a further separation by sieves is desirable. 

When heavy clay soils or clay loams are in hand, the sifting process 
cannot be carried out in the dry way. It then becomes necessary to soften 
the soil by digestion with distilled water, on the steam bath, until it can 




APPENDIX. 



159 



be diffused so as to pass the sieve; after which the slush of "fine earth " is 
evaporated to dryness, care being taken to mix in, thoroughly, the crusts 
that sometimes form on the sides of the evaporating dish. 

Even in this preliminary manipulation much depends upon the means 
used for crushing, and for separating the fine earth from the coarse mate- 
rial, especially as regards the choice of pestles. At first I adopted one 
made of soft pine or " whitewood," but became satisfied that in very many 
cases this is inadmissible, as dissolving mechanical aggregates actually 
maintained in the soil after tillage. The hand, and then a soft rubber 
pestle, gently used, form the least objectionable appliances. 

When, after this, a complete mechanical analysis is to be made, I still 
practice, and recommend for the use of the experiment stations, the me- 
chanical soil-washer described by me, since the only other method that 
famishes reliable results — the " beaker " method elaborated and recom- 
mended by Osborne — necessitates such prolonged, undivided attention on 
the part of the operator, and when carried into detail as much as the me- 
chanical soil-washer readily permits, takes bo much time, as to restrict its 
use in a very undesirable degree. While I agree with Osborne, that it is 
not usually necessary or desirable to boil the soils for disintegration as long 
as originally' suggested by me — twenty-four hours — I dissent emphati- 
cally from his proposition to substitute " pestling " for boiling in all cases. 
No delicacy of touch can prevent the crushing and disintegration of com- 
plex particles loosely cemented, whether by calcic carbonate, ferric hydrate, 
zeolithic, or other cements, that form proper and important mechanical 
ingredients of the soil and should not be Droken up if the natural condi- 
tions are to be conserved. The pestling of the Mississippi Valley " loess," 
for example, would produce a material of totally different qualities from 
the natural soil; and the same is true of most subsoils containing bog ore 
("black gravel"). Boiling for any reasonable length of time does not 
affect these aggregates materially. 

The direct determination of the "clay " by precipitation, though trouble- 
some, is certainly indispensable on account of the almost paramount im- 
portance of that ingredient But I cannot agree with Osborne that it is 
permissible to get- around the difficulties surrounding this determination 
by precipitation with amnionic nitrate and subsequent ignition. We have 
no adequate data for making allowance for the change of weight by igni- 
tion; the "clay" of a mechanical soil-analysis is not kaolin; it not only 
contains metallic oxides, but much of the impalpable soil zeolites, as well 
as gelatinous humus; and the determination of these substances would 
have to precede or accompany any attempt to calculate its water of hydra- 
tion according to a chemical proportion. 

The chemical analysis of a number of sets of sediments, representing 

Srpical soils, according to the precedent of Loughridge (Am. Jour. Sci., 
an., 1874, p. 18; Proc. A. A. A. S., 1873, p. 80), would be extremely in- 
structive, and will be made at this station as soon as time shall permit. We 
will thus gain an approximate insight into the degree of coarseness of grain 
that will ordinarily preclude the material participation of rock debris in 
the nutrition of plants. 

Determination of Relations to Water. — Of these the one that can readily 
be measured in all cases without an excessive expenditure of time, and 
which affords a very important insight into the behavior of soils under the 
influence of atmospheric extremes, is that of moisture absorption. Where 
the hygroscopic condition of the air varies but little, and especially where 
its degree of saturation is usually high, this factor, though always impor- 
tant, is not as vital as is the case in the arid regions, where it may within 

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twenty-four hours range all the way from 30 to 95 per cent, usually with a 
corresponding variation of temperature in the reverse direction. It has 
been held by some that the absorption of aqueous vapor by the soil is of 
little or no consequence to plants, and this conclusion has received a pre- 
tended confirmation from ill devised and valueless experiments on the 
wilting of pot plants. A brief experience of a California "norther" fol- 
lowing a spring shower would quickly dissipate such conclusions, for it 
would be seen that the injury done to grain, other things being equal, fol- 
lows very obviously the greater or less moisture-retentiveness of the soils; 
the upper roots and the leaves of the grain on light sandy lands being lit- 
erally cooked by the heat before any injury is apparent on the heavier and 
more retentive soils, provided the latter be in good tilth. It is a priori 
abundantly obvious that the elevation of temperature at least must be 
materially delayed by the evaporation of a larger amount of water, even if 
no direct benefit were derived by the plant from the moisture in the soil. 
The " old farmer's " designation of certain soils as "droughty," is by observa- 
tion reduced distinctly to mean soils of low absorptive power. 

The determination of this factor cannot be properly made in any other 
way than in a saturated atmosphere, and in a stationary or slightly rising 
temperature. "Air-dried soil " is an expression devoid of definite meaning 
for this purpose. As I have elsewhere shown , the amount of vapor absorbed 
varies very little in a saturated atmosphere, between the limits of 10 and 20 
degrees Centigrade. There is therefore little practical difficulty in obtain- 
ing concordant and comparable results, provided complete saturation is fully 
provided for. A paraffine bath heated to 200 degrees Centigrade serves 
lor drying the moist soil, of which it is convenient to use about twenty 
grammes for this purpose. 

Extended comparisons with actual practice prove that whenever the 
moisture-coefficient thus obtained falls below 2 per cent, the soil falls 
within the limits of what is practically called "droughty;" when below 1.5 
per cent, very badly so. 

" Sandy loams " have coefficients from 2.5 to 4.5 per cent; between 4.5 
and 7.5 per cent lie the substantial clay loams, still of easy tillage and 
designated as " warm." From 7.5 to 10 per cent and up to 12 per cent is 
the usual range of "clay soils," such as prairie soils, adobe, etc. These 
figures are based on the proviso that there shall be no unusual proportions 
of either humus or finely divided ferric hydrate in the soils; when these 
are present the moisture absorption is profoundly modified and gives no 
clew to the tilling qualities of the soil. Coefficients as high as 20 per cent 
or more may in that case be observed. 

The "water-holding power" of soils does not seem to offer sufficient 
practical interest to make it a part of an ordinary soil examination, largely 
because of the similarity of the effects of "fine silt" and "clay." The 
capillary coefficients, on the contrary, would in many cases be of high inter- 
est, but the determination requires more time than can usually be given. 
There is much difficulty in maintaining the soil column unbroken in the 
case of those having a high rise of capillary water, and months will elapse 
before the maximum elevation is reached; although in sandy soils that 
maximum may be obtained within a fraction of a day. This subject is of 
special importance in connection with the irrigation of alkaline soils, in 
which the prevention of the " rise of the alkali " may be governed essen- 
tially by the capillary rise of which the water is capable within the soil, 
and the rapidity with which that ascent takes place. 



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Chemical Soil-Examination. 

The first and a very important step in the ascertainment of the chemical 
characteristics of a soil is the simple test for effervescence, always to be 
made preferably with hydrochloric acid, and on a sample previously 
moistened, so that the mere expulsion of air shall not be mistaken for the 
indication of the presence of carbonate of lime in considerable amounts. 
The presence or absence of this substance is of such fundamental impor- 
tance that this test should form part of even the most superficial examina- 
tion of any soil sample; moreover, it is a necessary preliminary to the 
ultimate analysis, if such is to be made, as, should no effervescence occur, 
the trouble of a carbonic acid determination may, in general, be dispensed 
with, or be replaced by the simple and rapid method of Mondesir. 

General Analysis. — The fundamental question of the solvent to be used 
in extracting the soil to be analyzed, has been under discussion for half 
a century. The propositions made range all the way from carbonated 
water to boiling sulphuric acid; some proposing to extract successively 
with acid of increasing strength, in order to gain an insight into the greater 
or less solubility of the several ingredients. The latter process may be of 
interest in some special cases; but it does not, so far as I nave been able to 
see, lead to any conclusions sufficiently definite to justify the enormous 
amount of labor involved in the examination of a single soil on this plan. 

Boiling sulphuric acid is known to bring into solution so much that is of 
no immediate or prospective use to plants — notably in the decomposition 
of clay — that its use can only serve to complicate the problem. Its solvent 
power is certainly greater than that of any acid at the command of vege- 
tation. 

Carbonated toater, on the contrary, falls very far short of the solvents 
known to be at the command of plants. The most powerful of these — 
oxalic acid — is of very common occurrence; and, as is well known, it 
successfully disputes the alkaline bases with nitric and chlorhydric acids. 
It would seem natural to use this strongest of vegetable acids for the 
extraction of soils, when it is desired to know what, at best, can be extracted 
by the exsudation of solvents from the root-cells of any plant. But in prac- 
tice it is found that the difficult solubility of several of its salts interfere 
so materially with its action in analytical digestions, that it cannot serve 
as the basis for any uniform series of analyses of varied soils. If any 
definite information can be obtained by the extraction of soils with strong 
acids, there is no obvious reason why the convenient and well known action 
of chlorhydric acid should not be employed. 

As to the concentration to be used, and the temperature to be used in 
digestion, it is obviously desirable that no unnecessary expenditure of time 
should occur. If digestion at 100 degrees Centigrade, with acid of convenient 
strength, will accomplish the objects in view within a reasonable time, it 
would seem best to adopt this mode, for many reasons that will occur to 
the practical analyst. 

An investigation undertaken at my suggestion by R. H. Loughridge (see 
the investigation quoted above), of a very generalized soil of the Mississippi 
Valley, indicates that a digestion for five days * with chlorhydric acid of 
the easily attainable specific gravity of 1.115 (resulting from the fractional 
steam distillation of acid of any strength), produces all the solvent effect 
desirable, little else than clay being decomposed afterward. I have there- 

•/. e., on the general steam bath of the laboratory, which may cool down to 50 degrees 
Centigrade dnnng the night, but is reheated in the morning. 

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fore adopted these conditions in all analyses made under my direction; but 
it should be added that even considerable deviations from the exact figures 
adopted do not appear to affect in any serious degree the results, so far as 
. they refer to the mineral plant food of the soil, and therefore to the practi- 
cal interpretation of the analysis. The addition of a few drops of nitric 
acid, for the oxidation of soluble organic matter that might otherwise inter- 
fere with the analysis, is also without any sensible effect on the final result 
But any ignition prior to digestion makes a total change, and is entirely 
inadmissible, as changing fundamentally the natural condition of the soil. 

The amount of acid used is ten times that of the soil, or 25 ccm. for the 
2.5 grammes of fine earth usually employed in the general analysis. By 
using so large an excess the variation of strength dependent upon differ- 
ences in the soluble matter of the soil is reduced to an immaterial quan- 
tity. The digestion is carried on in a porcelain beaker covered with a 
watch glass, on the general steam bath of the laboratory. 

The subsequent course of the general analysis is like that of any sili- 
cate, special attention, however, being given to the conservation of the 
bulk of solutions within such limits that the solubility of the (usually 
small, often minute) precipitates shall not 'materially affect the results. 
Ferric oxide and alumina are determined in the joint precipitate (formed 
according to Mitscherlich's method for manganese and magnesia separa- 
tion) by permanganate titration; the alkalies are separated from magnesia 
and manganese by the oxalic acid method (sublimated acid only being 
used), and then from each other by platinum, the latter being weighed in 
the metallic form. 

Special attention is also given to the determination (by boiling with 
sodic carbonate) of the silica set free by the acid digestion. In some 
cases the same datum has been determined in the raw soil; but the opera- 
tion is attended with extreme difficulties of manipulation, does not ordi- 
narily seem to lead to any important conclusions, and is advantageously 
replaced by the determination of humus, etc., by Grandeau's method. 

Phosphoric acid is determined in a separate portion (usually a larger 
quantity than that taken for the general analysis) by the molybdate 
method, after ignition for the determination of the joint amounts of water 
of hydration and organic matter. No other method has given such uni- 
formly satisfactory results. 

For the determination of humus I have uniformly adhered to the method 
of Grandeau, which alone discriminates accurately between crude, unhu- 
mified, and therefore inactive organic matter, and the fully formed, active 
humus. In the ash of this humus I have, in later times, always determined 
the phosphoric acid and silica; while the separation of the bases has been 
omitted, rather for the sake of economy of time than for any other reason, 
save perhaps that their status can be approximated from other points of 
view. 

The determination of the nitrogen of the soil I have usually omitted, for 
the reason that in virgin soils it seems to be essentially governed by the 
amount of humus, the determination of which affords an approximation 
to the resources of the soils in this respect Still, had the method of 
Kjeldal been sooner invented, I should have made this determination a 
usual one, as I intend to make it hereafter. 

For the majority of virgin soils the determination of nitrates, actual 
ammonia, and of chlorine, is unprofitable on account of the constant variabil- 
ity of these substances from day to day. In the case of alkali soils, how- 
ever, these determinations assume a capital importance. 

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Presentation and Interpretation of Soil Analyses. 

A convenient and uniform mode of presenting soil analyses is certainly 
important, since comparison is rendered extremely laborious by an indis- 
criminate arrangement of the items. In the scheme I have definitely 
adopted for use in this laboratory and in the publications of the station, 
two points of view are observed. One is that the "insoluble residue" 
should be the first item to strike the eye, because it gives at a glance a 
certain insight into the general character of the soil — as sandy or clayey — 
which it is desirable to have in mind before passing to the inspection of 
the active ingredients. The other is, that in the arrangement of elements, 
instead of each one's sweet will, the natural sequence of the electrolytic 
series should be followed; whereby, of the elements coming under consid- 
eration, potassium comes first and carbon last, the rest standing between 
in the well known order. The adoption of this simple and natural arrange- 
ment will obviate an immense amount of trouble and eye work in the 
extended comparisons, without which soil composition cannot be studied. 

Beneath the column of results of the general analysis, but separated so 
as to involve no misinterpretation, I place the results of the process of 
Grandean; and last, the coefficient of absorption of aqueous vapor, which, 
with the "insoluble residue," goes far to indicate the physical character of 
the soil. 

Interpretation of Analytical Results for Practical Purposes. — In forming a 
judgment regarding the practical import of the data resulting from a soil 
analysis, the simple question must be: "What does the comparison of 

SUCH DATA WITH ACTUAL AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE TEACH US? " 

I have from the beginning of my soil studies — for thirty-five years past — 
kept this question constantly in view, and have systematically selected 
sous for detailed examination and analysis with that definite object. In 
stating hereinafter the conclusions reached, I premise that of course they 
can be proved only by a discussion of the data, most of which have been 
published and are accessible to any one desiring to review them. I freely 
admit that this is a laborious task; but no one who does not take the 
trouble to undertake it, or a corresponding course of investigation, can 
justly consider himself a competent witness in the premises, either for or 
against the views here presented. A comprehensive comparative investi- 
gation of virgin soils has not been undertaken outside of the United States, 
nor within them outside of the work conducted by Dr. D. D. Owen and the 
writer. 

The first broad statement that may be made is that in no case has any 
natural virgin soil * showing high plant-food percentages (by the analytical 
processes outlined above) been found otherwise than highly productive, under 
Javorable physical conditions. This being true, the practical value of soil 
analysis is thus far established: that it can teach the settler, a priori, that 
certain soils, new to him and to every one, are a safe investment. 

But the reverse is not true, viz., that low plant-food percentages necessa- 
rily indicate low productiveness. That it cannot be true is evident from 
the simple fact that heavy clay soils rich in plant food may advantageously 
be diluted with arid sand, several times over, thereby increasing instead 
of diminishing their productiveness, because of improved physical conditions. 
This fact is abundantly exemplified in the daily experience and practice 

* This maxim does not, therefore, apply to the floor clays of coal beds ; nor to a soil that 
(as the one chosen by Professor Johnson to test the validity of Grandeau's hypothesis) 
has rested beneath a manure pile for a number of years; nor to a bed of basaltic crumbs 
such as formed the basis of Dr. E. A. Schneider's objections to soil analysis (Am. Jour. 
Science). 

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of gardeners. In nature it is emphasized by the effects of the washing- 
down of the poor sandy soils of pine and " black-jack " ridges upon the 
heavy black prairie soils of the Southwestern States, where the " mahog- 
any " soils so formed are in the highest repute for both productiveness, 
" safeness," and durability, and are invariably preferred to the black, heavy 
prairie soils. 

Of course there must be a limit to the favorable effects of such dilution, 
even if effected by means of sand, which renders the soil more readily 
penetrable by roots. So soon as, instead, the dilution is brought about by 
inert clay, the production of the soils fails pari passu with the dilution; a 
fact of which, again, abundant natural evidence may be found in the South- 
west, especially on tertiary territory. 

But even in the case of dilution with sand, not only is there a necessary 
limit beyond which plants cannot make up by greater spread of root for 
the diminished amount of available plant food existing within a given 
space; but it is also obvious, and abundantly exemplified in nature, that 
this limit is materially influenced by the nature of the plant's root system, 
and especially by its ability to develop abundant root-hair cells. The 
better provided it is in this latter regard, the greater will be its ability to 
utilize plant food spread through an extended space in a diluted form. 

Quantitative experiments on the limit of dilution for wheat will be made 
at this station this season, with rich, heavy adobe of part of the station 
grounds. 

A material limiting cause in the premises is the nearness to the surface 
of either the water table, or of hardpan difficult or impossible to penetrate 
by the roots. It has repeatedly occurred in California that sandy soils of 
low plant-food percentages that yielded heavy crops while the water was 
at the depth of ten or twelve feet, ceased to produce so soon as, by increase 
of irrigation in the neighborhood, the water rose within five feet or less of 
the surface. Examination showed that the active root system has thus 
been confined to less than half of the bulk of soil previously occupied by it 
in these pervious soils. In clay soils, five feet would have been more than 
sufficient depth for the same crops, as their roots would not go deeper in 
any case. In the same region, calcareous hardpan lying at the same depth 
has, like the water, caused production to languish after a few years; but 
when it was broken through, after the lapse of a year, vigor was restored. 

It is then absolutely indispensable that both the physical character — as to 
penetrability, absorptive power, etc. — of a soil should be known, as well as 
its depths above bedrock, hardpan, or water, before a judgment of its quality, 
productiveness, and durability can be formed from its chemical composition. 
But it is equally obvious that without a knowledge of the chemical compo- 
sition, it is not possible to form such a judgment with connaissance de 
cause." Definite information on both classes of properties must be before 
the agricultural expert; and it will be his own fault if from such data he 
cannot "beat" the old farmer in judging of soils. 

High and Low Percentages; Adequacy and Inadequacy. — It need hardly 
be reiterated that any estimate of what are high or low, adequate or inade- 
quate amounts, as indicated by analysis, can be based only upon actual 
comparative observation or experiment of plant growth in virgin soils. It 
may be objected even to this, that as we are unable to appreciate by the 
balance small additions of effective fertilizers to an acre of soil (as e. g., 
that of a hundred pounds of sodic nitrate), the errors of observation will 
obscure or obliterate differences actually occurring in natural soils. This 
objection would be tenable if these errors bore alone upon the available por- 
tion of the important soil ingredients. As they bear upon the total amounts. 

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these errors will be inappreciable in any estimate based upon the reason- 
able assumption, that as between toils of similar origin the amount of avail- 
able mineral plant food is proportionate to the totals present; an assumption 
which, in a great number of cases of dilution from natural causes, I have 
found abundantly justified. 

Since, however, the presence of one substance in the soil often exerts a 
material effect upon one or several others, such modifying coexisting condi- 
tions must be taken into consideration in forming our judgment. Among 
these, the presence of a (relatively or absolutely) abundant supply of lime 
seems to be the most common and potent; for the evidence that in presence 
of much lime smaller percentages of potash and phosphoric acid are ade- 
quate for profitable culture than when lime is scarce, is overwhelming. 
Most potent of all appears to be the coexistence of large supplies of lime 
and of humus. On the other hand, comparative discussion distinctly 
shows that the presence of much clay necessitates a larger supply of the 
active ingredients than is necessary in light or sandy soils; simply, per- 
haps, for the reason that roots cannot penetrate clay soils as minutely and 
abundantly as sandy ones. 

In the summary statement of conclusions in the premises, given below, 
these and other modifying conditions require mention, and must be con- 
sidered jointly with the quantitative results, if correct estimates are to be 
reached. Such estimates will, as already stated, usually seek to include 
four chief points: 

1. The immediate productive capacity of the soil. 

2. The duration of profitable productiveness under exhaustive (non- 
replacing) culture. 

3. The nature of the fertilizer first required when the production Black- 
ens. 

4 The crops for which it is best adapted. 

It is sometimes impossible, in the present state of our knowledge, to go 
beyond conjectures in some of these questions. But the cases in which 
much more than this can be done are so numerous (especially after a little 
experience in cultivation becomes available) as to leave no excuse for the 
neglect of the study of soils with all the means at our command. 

Details op the Analytical Results. — Insoluble Residue and Soluble 
Silica. — The former is, of course, an approximate measure of the greater 
or less sandiness of the soil — meaning quartz sand or other minerals not 
easily attacked by acids. 

The silica soluble in boiling solution of carbonate of soda affords impor- 
tant insight into the form in which several soil ingredients are present; 
among other points, it frequently proves the very abundant presence of 
aluminic hydrate, by the disproportion of the two oxides, commonly sup- 
posed to exist in combination as clay. It also demonstrates the greater or 
less abundance of the easily decomposable soil zeolites, which form the 
reserve of available lime, potash, and magnesia. In soils largely derived 
from talcose rocks it of course means but little that is of importance. It 
is noticeable that in the analyses of nearly all soils containing much calcic 
carbonate, the "soluble silica" is very abundant. • 

Potash. — Of the three critical mineral soil ingredients — potash, phos- 
phoric acid, and lime — the first seems capable of the greatest variation in 
percentage amount without materially affecting the productiveness of the 
soil. The minimum known to me to be found in any productive soil is on 
the coast of Mississippi, viz.: an average of .05 per cent in the soils of the 
sea-island cotton plantations. But these soils are remarkable for their 
sandiness, great depth, and (relatively) high contents of lime and humus. 




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UMVJ5B81TY OF CALIFORNIA. 



Elsewhere, and especially in the (non-calcareous) pine flats and uplands 
of the South, soils of such low potash percentage are very sterile, even 
when accompanied by fair proportions of phosphoric acid. The ordinary 
figures for " pine uplands" there range between .150 and .250 per cent; 
such soils "wear out" within four or five years, but even these seem to be 
best restored by the use of simple phosphate manures, or by marling; 
while the commercial potash salts have found little favor. Definite experi- 
ments on the subject have been few and unsystematic. In the " oak-and- 
pine uplands" of Mississippi the potash percentages range from .30 to .45 

Sr cent; in the highly productive and durable "oak uplands" along the 
ississippi trough, from .60 to .75 per cent is the rule. Thus, in these 
uplands the increase of productiveness and durability runs almost exactly 
parallel to the potash percentage. But in the highly productive and dur- 
able " prairie " soils of the same State, the presence of much lime and 
humus profoundly modifies these relations, and much smaller proportions 
of potash are common in very productive and durable lands. Hence, it 
can only be said that as between soils of similar origin and general char- 
acter, the potash percentage is an important index. So far as experience 
goes, I consider that no virgin soil having .60 per cent or over of A, 0 will 
wear out first on that side of its store of mineral plant food; and much less 
will suffice in the presence of much lime and humus. 

In California the same general rules seem to apply; but owing to the 
arid climate the potash percentages in our soils are usually so large — up to 
1.80 per cent — and moreover so generally accompanied by abundance of 
lime, that the use of potash salts has in no case proved a paying invest- 
ment in this State, save after long continued intense culture of small fruit, 
garden vegetables, etc. 

Lime. — The influence of lime upon the physical and chemical character 
of soils is so potent that the determination of its presence alone amply 
justifies the use of chemical analysis in the examination of .soils for practi- 
cal purposes. The most cursory observer cannot fail to observe the change 
that occurs, not only in the natural vegetation, but in the visible prosperity 
of the population, wherever a calcareous soil-region adjoins a non-calcare- 
ous one. That this fact has not been as fully appreciated as it deserves is 
due simply to the neglect of soil analysis generally, and more specially of 
that of virgin soils, where these effects are unobscured by the intervention 
of man. 

The Characteristics of Calcareous Soils are not Dependent upon Large 
Percentages of Calcic Carbonate. — The favorable effects of lime in soils 
have been additionally obscured by the definition of " calcareous soils " 
usually given in text-books, which teach that it means " a soil in which 
carbonate of lime is a predominating or characteristic ingredient, recog- 
nizable by effervescence with strong acids." Under this definition calcare- 
ous soils are few and far between in this country; whereas, as a matter of 
fact, the characteristic effects of lime on vegetation are produced by the 
presence of amounts vastly below those causing any visible effervescence, 
as any moderately attentive observer can verify. Moreover, it is not neces- 
sary that all the lime shown by analysis should be present in the form of 
carbonate; for quantitative investigation shows that when largely present 
in the form of zeolitic compounds, the natural weathering of the soil main- 
tains in it a sufficient amount of calcic carbonate to maintain, also, the 
calcareous characteristics of the soil; notably the ineffectiveness of dress- 
ings of marl, or even of caustic lime. 

The Soils of Arid Regions are Necessarily Calcareous. — I have elsewhere 
shown and discussed the fact that the accumulation of calcic carbonate in 

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soils is, a fortiori, a necessary result of arid climates that permit the 
accumulation of alkali salts in the same. That conversely, in regions of 
copwus summer rains calcareous soils are exceptional, and can continue to 
exist as such only where either calcareous sand or gravel originally inter- 
mixed with them continue to supply the lime, or else where the same sup- 
ply is perpetually renewed from calcareous substrata, of whatever nature. 
These facts have been abundantly verified by the investigations made by 
me in Mississippi, Louisiana, and California, as well as by those conducted 
in the cotton States generally in connection with the tenth census. 

Bottom Soils are More Calcareous than Uplands. — It follows from the 
same premises that the lime contents of " bottom soils " must always be 
greater than in the soils of the uplands, from the washings of which the 
former have been formed. Hence, lime vegetation appears in the bottoms 
of the Atlantic States, even where none is found in the adjacent uplands. 
Per contra, little or no corresponding difference is observable between the 
upland and lowland growth of the arid regions; the bottom growth is sub- 
stantially such as, with sufficient moisture, will just as well grow in the 
uplands, as is proved by the results of irrigation. The cause is essentially 
that uplands and lowlands alike have calcareous soils, i. e., soils containing 
at least the minimum of lime required to produce lime vegetation. 

Subsoils are More Calcareous than Surface Soils. — It also follows that in 
all ordinary cases the lime contents of subsoils must be greater than those of 
the overlying surface soils. Both of these conclusions are abundantly and 
completely verified by actual analysis; they might have been foreseen, but 
there is no definite mention of the fact in any work on agriculture within 
my knowledge. Yet, if the chemical composition of soils and subsoils is 
of any importance at all, this is among the most important factors. 

Effects of IAme on Humus. — Upon the basis of laboratory experiments 
with mixtures of lime with various organic substances, it has been held 
that the presence of lime in soils tends to the rapid eremacausis of humus; 
and hence, calcareous soils should be poor in the latter substance. The 
analyses of natural calcareous soils show the contrary state of things; and 
the intensely black color of the confessedly calcareous " prairie soils " of 
the West contradicts the above assumption, convincingly, even to the eye 
of the passer-by. A " gray adobe" or clay soil is invariably poor in lime; 
a black one, rich in lime as well as in humus. The coal-black tint of cal- 
careo-Aumte soils must not, however, be confounded with the brown one 
of peaty (ulmic) soils; which, however, become black when treated with 
doses of lime sufficient not only for neutralization, but for the continuation 
of that action which is so well and effectively known in the case of manure 

Eiles to favor the humification of the litter. In the arid regions the only 
lack soils are highly calcareous ones. So far as the evidence goes, lime is 
entitled to be considered the conservator of humus in natural soils. 

"Aufschliessung " by Calcic Carbonate. — It is almost a maxim in chem- 
ical geology that the chemical actions which in the laboratory are produced 
under the influence of strong reagents and high temperature, may and do 
take place in nature, slowly but not less surely, under the long continued 
action of weaker agents and lower temperature. As carbonated water will 
finally decompose the most refractory silicates; as carbonated alkalies in 
dilute solution will leach the amorphous silica out of hornstone pebbles 
(see report on the " Geology and Agriculture of Mississippi," 1860, page 19); 
«o calcic carbonate may be expected to perform, in the long run, the same 
functions as it does in Lawrence Smith s method of silicate " Aufschlies- 
sung." We shall expect calcareous soils to be better " aufgeschlossen " for 
the use of plants than non-calcareous ones, other things being equal; and 

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that this is really the case is shown by the high percentages of " soluble 
silica" (see above) found in such soils, as well as by the general fact men- 
tioned already, viz.: that in calcareous soils much smaller percentages of 
mineral plant food will suffice for the purposes of crops, under exhaustive 
culture. 

Add to the points enumerated the now well known physical effect of 
lime in favoring good tilth by the flocculation of clay, and we have an 
imposing array of advantages to be credited to the abundant presence of 
lime in agricultural soils. 

How Much Lime is Required to Secure These Advantages? — Taking as a 
guide the evidence of the natural growth as well as that of the results of 
cultivation, it becomes evident that the amount of lime required to render 
a soil practically a " calcareous" one, varies greatly according to the nature 
of the soil. A broad statement may, however, be made, to the effect that 
that amount is very much greater in clayey soils than in sandy ones, and may 
approximately be said to vary directly as the amount of clay in the soil. 

Thus, in the very sandy soils of the sea-island cotton plantations on 
Mississippi Sound, the presence of as little as .115 per cent of lime gives 
full sway to lime growth; but in the ill-drained "pine meadows" of the 
same region, .025 per cent leaves the land sour and sterile. On the other 
hand, in the heavy clay soil of the central portion of the State, .42 per 
cent of lime does not suffice to produce a lime vegetation, but .48 per cent, 
on a similarly heavy soil, shows the characteristic crab-apple and haw of 
the calcareous prairie soils. Precisely similar observations in Louisiana 
and California amply confirm the same general conclusion. 

Direct comparison of a great number of intermediate soils — loams, from 
sandy to clayey — confirm the same general rule, for the arid region as 
well as for that of summer rains. Loams whose moisture-absorption ranges 
from 4 to 6.5 per cent, require from .20 to .30 per cent of lime to show 
lime vegetation; the latter takes full possession when the lime percentage 
rises to .50 per cent, and a farther increase appears to influence the soil 
more from direct physical action than from chemical causes. I have not 
seen any advantages to accrue to a soil from an increase of lime beyond 
1.5 to 2.0 per cent, except that heavy, clay soils are somewhat lightened by 
granular carbonate. 

These facts, elicited from actual observation in the field (cultivated and 
uncultivated), and their comparison with the results of analysis, change 
materially the proper definition of " calcareous soils " from that given in 
the textrbooks of agricultural chemistry. A priori, it is not easy to see 
why any special change should follow the presence of an excess of lime 
over the amount required to keep the soil constantly drenched with a 
saturated solution of calcic carbonate in soil water. 

Magnesia. — However necessary magnesia may be as an ash-ingredient of 
plants, it does not seem to exert any important direct action upon the soil 
as such, so far as comparison of the experience of cultivators and observ- 
ers of virgin soils can discover. In the soils of the summer-rains region, 
magnesia generally exceeds lime in its percentage; in moderately calcare- 
ous soils (according to the definition given above) it most commonly 
approximates to lime in its amount I have never found it to be present 
in quantities so small as to arouse suspicion of a deficiency; and the expe- 
rience of mankind in fertilization does not seem to assign it any special 
importance as an addition to the soil, save for the sake of certain cross-* 
reactions in which it may take part. Soils of very high contents of mag- 
nesia are usually poor in other respects, on account of their derivation 
from talcose or serpentinous rocks. It is noticeable that as a general rule 

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the Boils of the " magneraan limestone " districts are inferior to those derived 
from pure limestones; as is well exemplified in northern Alabama and 
adjoining parts of Tennessee, as well as in Arkansas and Missouri. Just 
why this should be so is not apparent; but the same holds true of the 
dolomitic areas of the Spanish peninsula as compared with those in which 
purer limestones form the country rock. 

Manganese. — I have vainly sought to connect this metal with any special 
soil feature, either intrinsic or connected with its production. While omni- 
present, and sometimes quite abundant in the poor "pine woods" soils of 
the South, whose pine straw contains unusually large proportion of man- 
ganese in its ash, its presence, if of any consequence to plants, seems to be 
amply provided for by nature. I have always determined it in soil analysis 
because it is there, and for the sake of other determinations must be pre- 
cipitated. 

Iron. — I know of no soil whose contents of ferric oxide would not be 
more than ample to supply all the needs of vegetation, so far as direct 
absorption is concerned. Its ascertained percentage rarely falls below 1 
per cent, and more commonly ranges from 2 to 5 per cent. A curious fact 
amply illustrated by analysis is that soils of high ferruginous color do not 
always contain unusual amounts of the ferric hydrate, the color apparently 
depending more upon the mode of distribution than on the quantity. This 
is obvious enough in soils containing bog ore in visible grains; but in many 
cases it appears to be a semi-crystalline aggregation of the substance around 
particles of soil and sand that hides the tint. 

The almost universal preference accorded to " red " soils as against gray 
or whitish lands in the same soil region, has given rise to the proposition to 
render the latter classes equal to the first by the addition of iron in some 
form, even to the use of magnetite sand and iron scraps. It need hardly 
be said that the true cause of the preference given to red lands is chiefly 
that the presence of this color indicates good drainage, whereas in the cor- 
responding " white " lands the iron has usually accumulated in the subsoil 
in the form of bog ore in consequence of stagnation of water, forming a 
subsoil in which the process of reduction may recur at any time, and in 
which (as analysis has shown, and as might have been anticipated) a large 
proportion of the phosphoric acid of the soil has been accumulated and 
locked up. A red soil is a "safe " one, and is usually freed from the need 
of artificial underdrainage. 

That the color imparted by ferric hydrate favors the absorption of heat, 
is another recommendation of red soils; they are " earlier " than those of white 
or gray tints. Moreover, as direct determinations show, well-diffused ferric 
hydrate is powerfully hygroscopic, and adds materially to the retentiveness 
of soils for moisture; hence, crops on such soils are less liable to suffer from 
extreme heat than those on less retentive land. My former determinations 
of this factor in the soils of Mississippi amply illustrate this point, and 
Californian as well as Hawaiian soils * confirm the conclusion. 

Whether, finally, ferric hydrate may not act as a carrier of oxygen in 
favoring nitrification, is a question for which I have been unable to gather 
sufficient data. The idea once entertained by myself, that ferruginous 
soils were apt to be poor in humus, appears from more comprehensive 
investigations by the method of Grandeau, to be unfounded. But I have 
not thus far found them especially rich in nitrates either. 

A point of practical importance is that, doubtless in consequence of 
reductive processes, soils very rich in ferric hydrate suffer more promptly 

* Some of the Utter contain as much as 39.2 per cent of ferric hydrate, corresponding to 
27.4 per cent of metallic iron. 

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170 



UNIVERSITY OP CALIFORNIA. 



and severely from lack of drainage than similar soils of low iron percent- 
age. 

Alumina. — This item in the analysis conveys little information as to the 
character of a soil, because only a small partof the clay present is usually 
dissolved by the digestion as practiced in this laboratory. Together with 
the "soluble silica," however, the figure for alumina often shows very 
strikingly the degree of decomposition to which the soil has been subject, 
especially (as noted above) in the presence of much lime. It also serves, 
sometimes, to indicate the copious presence of aluminic hydrate in some 
form, when its proportion to the soluble silica admits of no other combina- 
tion. In such cases, moreover, the loss by ignition is always unusually 
heavy. When the figure for alumina is very small (2 per cent or less), 
the indication is that the soil is a very sandy one, of very low hygro- 
scopic power. 

Phosphoric Acid. — The conviction that has gradually established itself 
that the practical values of the several calcic phosphates are not nearly as 
different as was at first assumed, has materially increased the interest of 
phosphoric acid determinations in soils, particularly when these are strongly 
calcareous, and, therefore, according to the well known play of affinities, 
most of the phosphoric acid present will be in the form of tri-calcic phos- 
phate. There is a good reason why less phosphoric acid in a soil will 
suffice in soils rich in lime, than in those in which there is no base ready 
to dispute the possession of the acid with ferric oxide and alumina, which 
render it relatively insoluble and inert. The very minute amount of phos- 
phates present in the best of soils will render the search of the roots for 
them very laborious, unless it can be conveyed to them in solution, inde- 
pendently of the acids the roots may exude. 

From the discussion of the upland loam soils of the Southwestern States, 
I have been led to consider .05 per cent of P*0 { as the least amount that 
can be considered adequate for profitable production in their case, and that 
the percentage should rise to .10 per cent to be satisfactory. But in calcare- 
ous, and also in very sandy soils of great depth, less seems a good supply 
even there, and in California (where nearly all soils are calcareous) the 
percentage does not very often exceed .10 per cent, even in soils of great 
present productiveness and durability. The same is true of a good many 
productive bottom soils of the Southwest, which, however, are always of the 
calcareous class. Phosphoric acid percentages above .20 occur more rarely 
in California than in the Southwest; but in the arid region of Texas, and 
in the basaltic soils of Oregon, Washington, and Montana, .30 per cent and 
over is not uncommon. In the latter cases the occurrence of apatite crys- 
tals in the mother rocks is easily observable, and while such crystals 
scattered in the soil may be somewhat refractory in dissolution, yet the 
mechanical and chemical processes of soil formation must have supplied 
an abundance of finely pulverized mineral (" floats ") available for the use 
of vegetation. These basaltic soils produce extraordinary crops of grain 
within a very short growing season. It will be interesting to observe how 
soon their productiveness will decline, and what fertilizer will produce the 
best effect. I predict that phosphates will not be wanted first, but either 
nitrogen or potash, when the latter is not present in great abundance. 

The determination of phosphoric acid soluble in connection with the 
humus extracted by Grandeau's method is highly interesting; for whether 
or not that portion may be considered fully available, it is certainly very 
much more so than that which is left undissolved in the same process. The 
determination has, therefore, been made in all soils analyzed for the past 
ten yenrf>, and has proved very instructive in showing why some soils, with 

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APPENDIX. 



171 



very low phosphoric acid percentages, nevertheless did not respond to phos- 
phate fertilizers. But thus far no invariable definite relation between the 
"soluble P ? O s ," as shown by Grandeau's method, and other conditions, 
has been elicited by the discussion of the results. 

" Water and organic matter," or " loss by ignition" while not in itself a 
very instructive item, may become so by collation with the rest of the 
analytical statement. Representing, as it always does, at least three sub- 
stances — water of hydration of clay and ferric hydrate, etc., crude organic 
matter, humus proper, and sometimeB carbonic acid also— it is usually of 
very indefinite meaning. The determination of humus reduces its indefi- 
niteness somewhat; but the elimination of another unknown quantity — 



extreme difficulties and usually no adequate return in the way of instruct- 
ive information. It is, of course, necessary as a check upon the summa- 
tion of the analysis. 

Humus. — The determination of humus by Grandeau's method is of the 
highest interest, as against the extraction with potassic or sodic hydrates, 
still sometimes recommended. As the latter solvents do not discriminate 
between the crude, unhumified vegetable matter and the active humus, 
it misses the main point of interest. 

What degree of uniformity can be predicated of the composition of humus 
in virgin soils, I have not had time to determine. Even the physical prop- 
erties of the ammoniacal solutions obtained vary greatly; yet, as in any 
case humus must be considered the repository and storehouse of the soils' 
nitrogen supply, its proportion is of high interest 

In the loam (oak) uplands of the cotton States the percentage of humus 
seems to range usually between .70 and .80 per cent; in the poorer sandy 
(pine) soils, .40 to .50 per cent; in the black, calcareous, prairie soils, from 
1.20 to 2.80 percent. The determinations made there are not, perhaps, 
sufficiently numerous to give fair averages. 

In California (and in the arid region generally) the humus percentages, 
as might be foreseen, average somewhat lower; lowest in light loam soils 
of the high mesas of Southern California, where .30 per cent, and even 
less, has been found; yet these soils produce well at first, when irrigated. 
Percentages of .45 to .60 of humus are common in good upland loam soils 
that are neither very calcareous nor highly ferruginous. The " prairie," or 
black adobe soils, usually range from 1.20 to 1.80 per cent, a very few as 
high as 3.00. On the whole, the highly ferruginous soils are remarkable 
for large amounts of humus; as in the red soils of the foothills and of the 
Coast Range. In these latter cases, however, the ammoniacal solution is 
usually quite light-colored, and only becomes dark on evaporation, doubt- 
less by oxidation. 

It is pointedly claimed in some of the fruit-growing regions of this State 
that a too clean cultivation, entirely suppressing the growth of weeds, and 
thus affording no annual addition of vegetable matter save from the fall 
of the leaves, tends to injure the production of the orchards. It is readily 
conceivable that the long, dry, and hot season would tend to cause a very 
rapid oxidation of the humus in the soil well tilled, amounting to depri- 
vation when only a very little is originally present. Prom experience had 
in green manuring, it seems that half of 1 per cent (.50) is the minimum 
of humus desirable in California, and that when less is originally present 
an increase should be brought about as soon as possible. 

In western Oregon and on Puget Sound, where the summer rainfall is 
very heavy, humus percentages ranging from 3 to 6 per cent are quite 
common. 




water of hydration — would offer 



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172 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



The item of " a»h " of the humus extracted.bv Grandeau's method, is by 
itself of little significance, as it is sometimes almost wholly silica. Since 
the latter needs to be eliminated for the determination of phosphoric acid, 
its weight is easily recorded. Adding it to the amount of phosphoric acid 
found, the difference from the total ash shows the amount of other inor- 

?anic bases and salts present in the ash; but the further analysis of these 
ordinarily omit, as adding too much to the general work. In many cases 
of course such analyses would be extremely desirable and instructive. 



Doubtless there will be, even among professional readers of the summary 
statement here given of the claims of soil investigation in its application 
to practice, some who, failing to find in it a simple formula for deducing the 
agricultural value of any soil presented to them, will prefer to continue, as 
heretofore, to rest on the " non possumus " heretofore pronounced by promi- 
nent authorities in the premises. To these I would say that so long as 
they remain content to be mere assayers of soils, they might as well let the 
matter of their valuation rest where mere assayers must leave the value 
of ores of corresponding complexity, while they remain ignorant of the 
principles of metallurgy, and cannot prescribe any method of smelting 
that will extract the metal. That is the business of the metallurgical 
expert; and so, in the matter of soils, it will be the agricultural expert, 
and not the mere chemist or the mere farmer, who can properly expound 
and utilize for practical purposes the results of soil investigation. It is to 
be hoped that with the progress of the work of agricultural colleges and 
experiment stations, the class of men who combine both the theory and 
practice of agriculture will become more numerous. 



APPENDIX No. 2. 



LIST OF TREES AND SHRUBS IN THE UNIVERSITY GROUNDS. 

It should be understood that in making up this collection, the object has 
been not so much a complete representation of species, as to bring together 
representative species from such climatic regions as seemed to offer plants 
of possible practical interest. 

In the list the plants that are " half hardy" in the climate of Berkeley 
are marked "hh;" they require some protection when left in the open 
air in severe winters. Those requiring to be kept in the greenhouse (cold 
or warm) in ordinary winters are marked "g." Local wild species grow- 
ing within the grounds are marked "1." 

Maoholiace-e. 

Magnolia grandifiora, Large flowering magnolia. 
Magnolia acuminata. Cucumber tree. 
Magnolia trvpelala. Umbrella tree. 
Liriodendron tulipifera. Tulip tree. 
Liriodendron integrifolium. 

Memsfebxackjc. 

Menitpermum Canadente. 

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APPENDIX. 



Cappaeidele. 
Capparis tpinota, var. inermit, Caper bush. 

Bebbebideje. 

Berberu aquifolium, Holly-leaved barberry. 

Berberu heteropoda, Edible barberry (from Turkestan). 

Berberu Fremontii, Arizonian barberry. 

Berberu phmata, California barberry. 

Berberu vulgaris, Common barberry. 

Anonacejb. 

Arimina triloba. Pawpaw. 

Anorta CKerimoya, Custard apple, hh. 

CI8TACEJB. 

Oittut ladaniferut. 

Oittut attnu. White rockroae. 

Tamabiscinea. 

Fouquiera splendent. 

HVPEBICACE*. 

Hypericum ovatum, Sbrnbby St John's wort. 

Stkbculiacea. 

Sterculia (Firmiana) platanifolia. 
StercuKa divertifolia. 
Mahernia adorata. 

Braehychiton acerifolium, Australian flame tree. 

Malvacba 

Malta fragrant. 

Hibitcut Syriacui, Shrubby althea. 
Hibitcut Stnentit, Indian hibiscus. 
Lavatera arborea. Tree mallow. 
Lavatera atrurgentifiora. 
Lavatera inrularit. 
Lavatera venota. 

Abutilon Chinente, Chinese abutilon. 
Abutilon vexillatum. 

PlTTOBPOBEjE. 

Piltoeporum undulatum. 
Pittoeporum rubiginotum. 
Piltoeporum patulum. 
Pitlorporum eugenioidet. 
Pittoeporum tenuifolium. 
Pittoeporum eratrifolium. 
Pittoeporum fragrant. 
Solly a heterophyUa, 
Burtaria rpinota. 

TernstrOuiace-js. 

Tkea Bohea, Chinese tea plank 
Camellia Japonica, Camellia. 
ArirtoUUa racemota. 

Rutacbs. 

Xanthoxylon piperitum, Japanese prickly ash. 

Ptelea trxfoliata. Hop tree. 

Tripharia trifoliata, Three-leaved orange. 

(Strut Japonica, Japan orange. 

Oitrut aurantium, Sweet orange. 

OUrut vulgaris, Bitter orange. 

Oitrut Limonum, Lemon. 

Anacardiacejs. 

Rhut Cotinut, Smoke tree. 

Rhut (Umadentit, Fragrant sumac. 

Rhut venenata. Poison ivy. 

Rhut vernieifera. Varnish tree of Japan. 

Rhut tuccedanea. Wax tree of Japan. 

Rhut Coriaria, Tanner's sumac. 



174 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



Rhui integri/olia, California sumac. 

Rhu$ divernloba, Poison oak. 1. 

Lithraea venenota. 

Schinut molle. Pepper tree. 

PUtacia Terebinthue, Chian turpentine tree. 

Pittacia vera, Pistachio nut 

C EL ASTRA C KJE. 

Euonymut Japoniem. 
Euonymui radicant. 
Euonymut fimbriatut. 

Rhaiimbjc 

Rhamnui California!. 1. 
Rhamnut crocea. 
Maylenus ChiUntit. 
Hovenia dulcit. 
Ceanolhuijorediatut. 1. 
Dodonaea vitcota, 
Aberia Caffra, Kai apple, hh. 
Berchemia volubilu, Supple jack. 
Colletia ferox. 

VlTACBiB. 

See list of fruits, trees, and vines. 

COBIABIKJL 

Coriaria myrtifolia. 

SaPINDACEjB. 

JSecutut Californica. 1. 
Alectryon exceltum. 

Sapindut Mukorari, Japanese soapberry tree. 
Sapindut marginatut, Arizonian soapberry tree. 
Acer saccharinum. Sugar maple. 
Acer circinalum, Vine maple. 
Acer campettrc 

Acer polymorphum, Japanese maple. 
Acer macrophyllum. Large-leaved maple. 
Negundo aceroidet. Box elder. . 
Negundo Californicum. 
Koelreuleria paniculata. 
Melianlhut major. 

Meuacba 

Melia Azedarach, Pride of India. China tree. 

Melia Azedarach, var. umbraculi/ormit, Texas umbrella tree. 

Melia Azedarach, var. indica, 'Seem tree. 

Leotomhoos. 

Robinia pseudacacia, Black locust. 

tyartium junieum. 
lex giganlea, Furze. 
Vlex Europaea, Furze. 
Coronilla glauca. 
Goronilla emeru*. 

time Laburnum, Golden chain. 
titut Alleanut. 
litut prolif erui albut. 
titut tcopariut, Scotch broom. 
Cylitut Canarientit, Canary Island broom. 
Lupinut Douglarii. 
Lupinut Ludovicianut. 
Eotackia glabra. 1. 
Ptoralea glandulifera. 
Clianthui puniceut, Parrot's bill. 
Edwardtia grandiflora. 
Edwardria microphylla. 
VirgUia lutea. Yellow wood. 
Pueraria Japonica, Japanese starch vine. 
CercU oceidentalit. Red bud. 
Acacia decurrens, Black wattle. 
Acacia dealbata. Silver wattle. 
Acacia pycnanlha. Golden wattle. 

Acacia cyanophylla. ' 
Acacia armata. 
Acacia Riceana. 

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APPENDIX. 



175 



Acacia veriiciilata. 
Acacia longifolia. 
Acacia linearis. 
Acacia lineata. 
Acacia calamifolia. 
Acacia implcxa. 
Acacia cuUriformis. 
Acacia celastriformi 
Acacia linifolta. 



Acacia Cavenia. 

Acacia imbrieata. 

Acacia melanoxylon, Blackwood. 

Acacia talieina. 

Acacia fioribunda, Sentis. 

Acacia leiophylla. 

Acacia Qrtggvi, Texan mimosa. 

Qymnocladut Canadensis, Kentucky coffee tree. 

OledUschia triacanthot. Honey locust. 

Qleditschia triacanthot, var. inermis, Thornless honey locust. 

Parkimonia aeuieata, Palo verde (Green stick). 

Protopit julifiora. Honey mesquit 

Protopis pubescent, Screw mesquit 

Ceratonia Silurua, Carob tree. 

Sophora Japonica, Japan dye-wood. 

Poinciana regia. 



Rota rugosa, Japanese rose. 
Rota te&gera. 

Rota laevigata, Cherokee rose. 
Rota hybnda } in var. 
Rota indica, in variety. 
Rota mlphurea. 
Rota Banktut, in Tar. 
Rota tempervirent. 
Rota gymnocarpa. L 
Rota Calif ornica. 1. 

Rubut vilifoliu*, California blackberry. 1. 
Rubut Nutkanus, Thimbleberry. 1. 
Rubut tpectabilis. 

Rubut villosus. Eastern blackberry. 

Rubut idseus, Raspberry. 

Rubut occidentalit, Black-cap raspberry. 

Nuttallia ceran/ormit. 

Prunut Myrobalana, Myrobalan plum. 

Prunut Armeniaca, Apricot (See fruit trees.) 

Prunut domettica, Common plum. (See fruit trees.) 

Prunut tubeordata. Sierra plum. 

Prunut Paiica, Peach. (See fruit trees.) 

Prunut avium. Black heart cherry. (See fruit trees.) 

Prunut Ceratut. (See fruit trees.) 

Prunut Mahaleb. (See fruit trees.) 

Prunut terotina. Bird cherry. 

Prunut ilicifolia. Holly-leaved cherry. 

Prunut lauro-oerasut, English cherry laurel. 

Prunut Lutitaniea, Portugal laurel. 

Prunut Caroliniana, Carolina cherry laurel. 

Prunut emarginata. Dwarf cherry. 

8orbut aucuparia, European mountain ash. 

Borbut do m et t ica. 

Amelanchier atnifolia. L 

Raphiolepit ovata. 

Pirut communis, Pear. (See fruit trees.) 

Pirut mains, Apple. (See fruit trees.) 

Pirut Voronaria, Crab-apple. (See fruit trees.) 

Pirut Caccata, Siberian crab. (8ee fruit trees.) 

Pirut Japonica, Japanese, or Sand pear. (See fruit trees.) 

Peraphyllum ramotitsima. 

Cydonia Japonica, Japan quince. 

Cydonia vulgaris, Common quince. (See fruit trees.) 

Crataegus tomentota. 

Crataegus pyraoantha, Fire thorn. • 

Kerria Japonica. 

Gotoneastcr miorophylla. 

Beteromeles arbutifolia, California red haw (Photinia). L 




hh. 



KOSACCS. 



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176 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 

Eriobotrya Japoniea, Japanese medlar, or Loquat. 

Spiraea callosa, var. alba. 

Spiraea eallo$a, var. rubra. 

Spiraea chamaedrifolia. 

Spiraea lanceolata. 

Spiraea salicifolia. 

Spiraea prunifolia. 

Neillia opulifolia. 1. 

Holodiscus discolor. 

Gercooarpus betuloides, Mountain mahogany. 

Caltcahthbjs. 

Calycanthus occidentalis. 

Myrtackjc 

Eucalyptus globulus, Blue gum. 

Eucalyptus rostrata, Red gum. 

Eucalyptus amygdalina, White peppermint tree. 

Eucalyptus citriodora, Lemon gum. 

Eucalyptus Eugenioides. 

Eucalyptus Qunnii. 

Eucalyptus obliqua, Stringy bark or Messmate tree. 
Eucalyptus pamculata. White iron-bark. 
Eucalyptus pilularis. Black butt 
Eucalyptus viminalis, Manna gum tree. 
Eucalyptus resinifera, Red mahogany gum. 
Eugenia viyrtifolia. 

Leptospermum laevigatum, New Zealand tea. 

Metrosideros buxifolia. 

Callistemou coccineum. 

Vallistemon lanceolatum, Bottle brush. 

Melaleuca diosmifolia. 

Melaleuca hypericifolia. 

Melaleuca thymifolia. 

Tristania conferla. 

Myrtus communis, Myrtle. 

Kunzea pomifera. 

Psidium Cattleyanum, Strawberry guava. 
Psidium pyriferum. Pear guava. 
Punica granatum, Pomegranate. 

Lao brstbOmx acBjB. 
Lagerstromia Indica, Crape myrtle. 

ONAGBARIEjB. 

Fuchsia fulgent, hh. 
Fuchsia minima. 
Fuchsia longiflora. 
Fuchsia cerymbifiora. hh. 
Fuchsia microphylla. hh. 
Fuchsia globosa. hb. 

* Cacteje. 

Opuntia Ficus-indica, Tuna, hedge cactus. 

Opuntia nigrescent. 

Opuntia angustata, 

Phyllocactus crenatus. 

Phyllocactus phyllanlhus. 

Cereut speciosissimus. 

Cereus giganteut. Giant cactus. 

Cereus flagelliformit. 

Melocactus communis. Melon cactus. . 
Echinocactus Wislizeni. 
Echinocactus Texensis. 
Echinocactus pectinatus. 

Mksembryanthkmk^. 

Mesembryanthemum acinaciforme. 
Mesembryanthemum edule. 
Mesembryanthemum graeUe. 
Mesembryanthemum spectabile. 
Mesembryanthemum spinosum. 
Mesembryanthemum tenuifolium. 
Mesembryanthemum violaceum. 
Metembryantheum marginatum. 
And several other species not identified. 

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APPENDIX. 177 



PAWIFLOXEiB. 

Pattiflora CoeruUa. 
Pamfiora quadrangularit. g. 
Tactonia, three species, hh. 

Saxifbaqac&s. 

Ribet grottularia. Gooseberry. 

, California prickly gooseberry. L. 
Sibet rubrvm, Common currant. 

Ribet quereetorum, California yellow-flowered gooseberry. 

Ribet tanguineum, California red-flowering currant. 1. 

Ribet nigrum. 1. 

Ribet divarieatum. 1. 

Ribet Californicum. 

Philadelphut coronariut. 

Carpenttria California!. 

Deutxia tcabra. 

DtuUia orenata. 

Hydrangea hortentit. Hydrangea. 

Ebcalloniack^. 

EteaUonia glabra. 
Eteallonia Monlevidensit. 

Haxambmd&s. 

Liquidamber ttyracifiua. Liquid amber, Sweet gum. 

Caricaoea 

Carica Papaya, American pawpaw, g. 
YanxmcMa hattata. bh. 

ABALIACajB. 

Aralia rpinota. 

Pallia papyri/era, Rice-paper tree. 

Bedera Helix, Ivy. 

Hedera Hibernica, Irish ivy. 

Capbifoliaceje. 

Viburnum Units. 

Viburnum lucidum. 

Symphoricarput raeemonu. 1. 

iMmbucus glauca. Elder. 1. 

Louieera hitpidula, Wild honeysuckle. L 

Louicera Ledebourii. 1. 

COBHEJS. 

Oornue ttolonij era. L 
Garrya elliptica. 

RUBIACU. 

Galium Nuttallii. 1. 

Ctphalanthut occidental^ Button bush. 

Pmckneya pubent, Georgia bark. 

Bouvardia Davidtoni. 

Bouvardia Vrelandi. 

Ooffea arabica. Coffee, g. 

Cinchona officinalis, Cinchona bark. hh. 

Cinchona tuecirubra. Red cinchona bark. g. 

Cinchona Calitaya, Calisaya bark. g. 

Cinchona hybrida, Hybrid bark. hh. 

Cinchona Condaminea. hh. 

Composites. 

Supatorium glechomephyUum. 
Artemisia Calif ornica. Shrubby wormwood. 1. 
Baccharit pilularit, Groundsel tree. L 
Orindelia cuneifolia. 

Ebicacu. 

Erica arborea. Tree heath. I 

Erica mediterranea, Mediterranean heath. 

Arbutut Unedo, Strawberry tree. 

Arbutut Menzietii, Hadrona tree. 

Azalea occidenlalit. Western azalea. 

Azalea Indica, Indian azalea, in variety, hh. 

QauUheria thallon, Bearberry. 

PLUHBAOrN&S. 

Plumbago capentU, Leadwort 

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178 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



Sttbaoxjs. 

Styrax Californica, California storax. 
Styrax Japonica, Japanese storax. 
Maletia tetraptera, Snowdrop tree. 

Ebehacejb. 

Diopyntt Virginiana, American persimmon. 
Diopyrut digyna. 

Diopyrus lotut ; European persimmon. 
Diopynu Kaln, Japanese persimmon. 

MTBSIHKJt. 

Gorynocarput laevigatut, Karaka of New Zealand. 

Safotackjs. 

Aehrat Sapota, Sapodilla plum. g. 
Bumelia tenax. 

Argania Sideroxylon, Argan tree. hh. 

SCROPHULARIACI.E. 

Buddleya globoid. 
Paulownia imperialit. 
Veronica talicxfolia. 
Veronica tpeeiota. 
Veronica Andertoni. 
Veronica paniculata. 
Qoldfuma anitophylla. g. 
Libonia floribunda. 
Diplacut glutinotut. 1. 
Diploma parviflorut. 
Ruttelia juncea. g. 

BlQNONIAC&S. 

Catalpa tpeeiota, Hardy catalpa. 
Catalpa cordifoliOj Common catalpa. 
Bignonia jatminotdet. 

Vkbbehacia 

Callicarpa Americana, French mulberry. 
Vitex agnut cattut, Chaste tree. 
Aloytia oitriodora, Lemon verbena. 

BOEEAQINEJK. 

Heliotropium Peruvianum, Fragrant heliotrope, hh. 

Labiate. 

Salvia coccinea. 
Audibertia polyttaehya. 
Audibertia nivea. 
Prottanthera nivea. 

COHVOLVULACBJB. 

Convolvulus luteolut. 

SOLAHACtS. 

Habrothamnut elegant. 
Iochroma lubulotum. 
Fabiana imbricata. 
Ccttmm aurantiacum. 
Lycium Andertoni, Buckthorn. 

Mtoposikks. 

Myoporum inrulare. 

Apoothacbjc. 

Nerium oleander. 
Allamanda Schotti. g. 
AUamanda cathartica. g. 
Fortteronia difformit. 

Thtmilkacejb. 

Diroa occidentals. 
Daphne coUinat 

Elbaqnm. 

Eleagnut Japonica. 
Eleagnut pungent. 

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APPENDIX. 179 



OUACEX. 

Olea Europaea, Olive. (See fruit trees.) 

Oiea aquifolia. Holly-leaved olive. 

Olea fragrant, Sweet-scented olive. 

Ligustrum Japonicum, Japanese privet 

iXguttrum Jlalieum, Italian privet. 

Ltgustrum commune, Common privet. 

Forsythia viridissima. 

Byringa Japoniea, Japanese lilac. 

Syrmga vulgaris, Common lilac. 

Fraxinut Americana, American white ash. 

Chionanlhus Virginiana, Fringe tree. 

Laubikkjc 

Camphora officinarum, Japan camphor tree. ' 

Lmdera Benxoin, Spice bash. 

Persia gratissima, Aguacate, alligator pear. 

Pertea IAngue, Lingue. 

Oinnamonum glaucum, Cinnamon. 

Cinnamonum terieeum. 

UmbeUularia Califomica, California laurel, bay. 1. 
BeUota Miami. 

Pboteacbjl 

Bokea aeicularis. 

Banksia integrifolia. 

Oretittea robusta, Australian fern tree. 

Qrevillea eoeeinea. 

Macadamia ternata, N. Queensland nut tree. 

Phytolaccagkjs, 

Deeringia angustata. 

POLXGONACKS. 

Briogonum arborescent. 
MUhlenbeckea platyclada. 

U STIC A C M t\% 

Celtit occidentalit, Nettle tree. 

Ptanera cuspidata, Japanese planer tree. 

Ulniu compestris. Common English elm, var. pendula. 

Ulmut suberosa, Cork elm. 

Ficus carica^Fift. (See fruit trees.) 

Moral alba. White mulberry. 

Mom multicaulis. 

Monu Moretti. 

Mom nigra, Black mulberry. 

Mom Japoniea, Japanese mulberry. 

Mom Downingti, Hybrid. 

Platanus orien talis, Oriental sycamore. 

Platanus occidentalit, American sycamore. 

Madura auantiaca, Osage orange. 

EUPHORBIACKJC 

Euphorbia splendent. 
Stillingia Sebifera, Tallow tree. 
Buxut communis, Common boxwood. 
PoinseUia pulchenima. 

Jug lands*. 

Hicoria tomentosa, Mockernut 

Hicoria alba, Shellbark or shagbark hickorv. 

Bicoria Pecan, Pecan nut 

Hicoria glabra. Pignut hickory. 

Juglans Sieboldtii, Japanese walnut 

Juglans regia, Madeira nut, or English walnut 

Juglans Califomica, California walnut 

CUPULIMB.K. 

Fagut sylvatica, European beech. 
Quercus Suber, Cork oak. 

Quercut Robur, var. pedunculata. N. European oak, English oak. 
Querent Doualassii, Blue or California rock oak. 
Quercus Ktlloggii, California black oak. 

Digitized by Google 




180 UNIVER8ITY OP CALIFORNIA. 

reus nigra, Black jack oak. 
rcut alba, (Eastern) White oak. 
rcut pheilot. Willow oak. 
i imbriearia, Shingle oak. 
i coccinea, Scarlet oak. 
i tinctoria. Black oak. 
tfalcata, Spanish oak. 
t Prinoi, Swamp chestnut oak. 
tut einerta. Upland willow oak. 
tut Catetbxi, Bowers' scrub oak. 
rcut agrifolia, California live oak. 1. 
i lobata, California white oak. 
r demiflora, California chestnut oak. 
Corylut Aveliana, Hazelnut. 
Corylut purpurea, 
Corylut rottrata. Beaked hazel. 1. 
Cattanea vetca, Italian chestnut 
Oattanea Japonica, Japanese chestnut 
Cattanea pumila, Chinquapin. 

Mybicace-b. 

Myrica cerifera, Bayberry. 

Myrica Califomica, California wax myrtle. 

Bktulackjs. 

Betula alba. White birch. 
Betula rubra, Red birch. 
Alnut rubra. 
Alnut rhombifolia. 

* Saucinka. 

Salix viminalit, Osier willow ; Belgian, golden, and nobilit. 
Salix amygdalina, Tar. latifolia and Caucasian. 
Salix hippophaefolia, Silver willow. 
Salix cordata. ■ 
Salix purpurea. 

Salix latwlepit, Wild willow. L 
Salix laevigata, Wild willow. 1. 

Conitebs. 

Pinus parviflora, Small flowering pine. 
Pinut Mattoniana. 

Pinut exeelta, Bhotan pine of Himalaya. 

Pinus Canarientit, Canary Island pine. 

Pinut Pinea, Italian nut pine. 

Pinut maritima, European seacoast pine. 

Pinut tylvettrit, Scotch pine. 

Pinti* Auttriaea, Austrian pine. 

Pinut at«JraK«,Long-leaved pine. 

Pinut Strobut, White pine. 

Pinut radiata, Monterey pine. 

Pinut contorta, Coast scrub pine. 

Pinut muricata. Bishop's pine. 

Pinut pandemia, Yellow pine. 

Pinut Sabiniana, Digger pine. 

Pinut Coulteri, Great-coned pine. 

Pinut Parryana. 

Pinut tubereulata, California scrub pine. 

Pinut Torreyana. 

Pinut Llaveana, Nut pine. 

Pinut monophylla, Nut pine. 

Pinut Ruttelliana, Long-leaved Mexican pine. 

Picea Menxietii, Menzies' spruce. 

Pieea grandit. Western balsam fir. 

Picea amabilit, Silver nr. 

Pieea Cephalonica, Cephalonian silver fir. 

Picea Pintapo, Spanish fir. 

Abiet Vouglattii, Douglass' spruce. 

AbieiNor dmanniana, Nordmann's silver fir. 

Abiet firma, Japanese fir. 

Thuja gigantea. Port Orford cedar. 

Thuja orientalit, Chinese arbor vitas. 

Thujoptit borealii, Nootka Sound cypress. 

Thujoptit dolabeata. 

Cryptomeria elegant. 

Cryptomeria Japonica, Japan cedar. 

Digitized by VjOOg IC 



APPENDIX. 181 

Libocedrut decurrem, California white cedar. 
Ouprami Lawtoniana, Oregon white cedar. 
Cuprettut maorocarpa, Monterey cypress. 
Cuprettut elegant. 

Cuprettut Lusilanica, Portuguese cypress. 
Cuprettut Sinentit, Chinese cypress. 
Cuprettut pyramidalit. 
Cuprettut Afrieana. 

Cuprettut McJfabiana, HcKab's cypress. 
Cuprettut lorulota, Himalayan cypress. 
Cuprettut funebrit, Funeral cypress. 
Cuprettut excelta. 

Cuprettut Arizonica, Arizonian cypress. 

Sequoia gigantea, California big tree. 

Sequoia tempervirent t Redwood. 

Juniptrut JBermudiana, Bermuda juniper. 

Jumperut Japonica, Japanese juniper. 

Jumperut Japonica prottrata. Creeping Japanese juniper. 

Jumperut Hibtmica, Irish juniper. 

Jumperut Virginiana, Red cedar. 

Jumperut Sabina, Savin. 

Jumperut Attica. 

Dammara auttralit. Dammar pitch pine. 

Callitrit euprettiformit, Australian cypress. 

CaUitrit verrucota. 

Oingko biioba, Gingko. 

Taxodium dittickum, Southern cypress. 

Araucaria imbrieata. Chili pine. 

Arauearia ezeelta, Norfolk Island pine. 

Araucaria Bidwellii. 

Cedrut deodara, Deodaro cedar. 

Cedrut Libani, Cedar of Lebanon. 

Podocarput macrophyUa. 

Lariz Europtea, European larch. 

Taxut adpretta. 

Taxut baecata, Common yew. 

Torreya Californica, California nutmeg. 

Cycamus. 

Cycat revoluta, False sago palm. 

CaSCABIBU, 

Catuarina dittieha, Horsetail pine. 
Catuarina lorulota. 
Catuarina itrieta. .. 

MONOCOTYLEDONS. 

PALMES. 

Wathingtonia filifera, California fan palm. 

Washingtonia robutta, Arizonian palm. 

JSrytkea edulit. 

Erytkea glauea. 

Pritckardia Martii. hh. 

Pritehardia Oaudickaudi. hh. 

Pkamx daetyUfera, Date palm. 

Phttnix Canarumtit. 

Phoenix Leonentit. 

Pkcemx rupicula. hh. 

Areea rubra, hh. 

Latania Borbomca, Chinese fan palm. hh. 
Vorypha Auttralit. 

Ckamteropt humilit, Dwarf European palm. 

Ckamteropt excelta. 

Ckamteropt kyttrix, Blue palmetto. 

Jubaea tpeetabilit, Coquito of Chili. 

Sabal Palmetto, Palmetto. 

Thrinaz argentea. hh. 

Seafortkia elegant, hh. 

Liliaou. 

Cordyline Fortiori, Palm lily. 
Cordyline Auttralit. 
Dracaena cannaefolia. 
Dracaena termmaUt. 
Yucca Wkipplei. 

Digitized by VjOOg IC 



182 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 

Yucca aloe/olio. 

Yucca filammtota, Spanish bayonet. 
Yucca recurva. 
Yucca baccata. 
Darylirion Wheeleri. 
Daiylirion lerratifotium. 

Xanthorrhaa AustralU, Grass smilax tree of Australia. 

MC8ACI.B. 

Musa Emete, Abyssinian banana, bh. 

Muta Cavenduhit, Dwarf or Chinese banana, hh. 

Pahdanejb. 

Pandanus utilit. Screw palm. g. 
Pandanut Veitchii. g. 

Gramikkjs. 

Thamnocalamut spathiflorus. 
A rundinaria falcata. 
Bambuta stricta. 

Bambusa, four undetermined species. 



APPENDIX No. 3. 



LIST OP FRUIT TREES IN THE STATION ORCHARDS. 



A. 



1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
U. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
lft. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 



List of Fruit Trees in the Orchards of the Experimental Grounds at 

Berkeley. 



Peaches. 



Early Alfred. 
Victoria. 
Albert 
Leopold. 

Rivers' Early York. 
Early Silver. 
Troth's Early. 
Early York. 
McKevitt's Cling. 
Cooledge's Favorite. 
Haines' Early. 
Bergen's Yellow. 
Early Eivers. 
Alberg's Yellow. 
Sellers' Free. 
Hale's Early. 
Chinese Flat. 
Early Rose. 
Cole's Early Red. 
Early Louise. 
Early Beatrice. 
Large Early York. 
Large Early Mignonne. 
Early Savoy. 
Early Newington. 
Richmond. 

Canada, or Lake George Cling. 
Dagmar. 

Van Buren's Golden Dwarf. 

Monstreuse of Douay. 

Old Mixon Cling. 

Muir. 

Snow. 

Atlanta. 



35. 
36. 
37. 
38. 
39. 
40. 
41. 
42. 
43. 
44. 
45. 
46. 
47. 
48. 
49. 
50. 
51. 
52. 
53. 
54. 
55. 
56. 
57. 
58. 
59. 
60. 
61. 
62. 
63. 
64. 
65. 
66. 
67. 
68. 



Belle Coquette. 
Jones' Seedling. 
Surpasse Melocoton. 
Royal Kensington. 
Yellow Tuscany Cling. 
Moore's Favorite. 
Brevoort 
Hill's Madeira. 
Crimson Galande. 
Sellers' Cling. 
Hicks' Seedling. 
Comet 

White Tuscany Cling. 
Foster. 
Lemon Cling. 
Raymacker's. 
George the Fourth. 
Strawberry. 
Thissell Free. 
Mammoth Melocoton. 
Old Mixon Free. 
Waterloo. 

Late Morris White. 
Stump-the- World. 
Belle Doree. 
Delaney Heath Cling. 
Dr. Hogg. 
Belle Bausse. 
Lady Falmerston. 
Heath Free. 
Tippecanoe Cling. 
Pucelle de Malines. 
Leopold the First 
Chevreuse Hfttive. 



Digitized by 



Google 



69. White Melocoton. 

70. Jacques' Rareripe. 

71. Carmine. 

72. Ward's Late Free. 
71 Heath Cling. 

74. Prince of Wales. 

75. Magdala. 

7& Scott's Nonpareil. 

77. Vineuse. 

78. Red Cheek Melocoton. 

79. Walbnrton's Admirable. 

80. Acton Scott 

81. Morris White. 



L Early Violet 

2. Early Newington. 

3- Rivers' Orange. 

4. Boston. 

5. Red Roman. 

a Hardwicke's Seedling. 
7. Pitmaa ton's Orange. 



1. Blenheim. 

2. Breda. 

3. St Ambroise. 

4. Red Masculine. 

5. Turkey. 

6. Hemskirke. 

7. Early Moorpark. 

8. Alberge de Montgamet 

9. Purple. 

10. Mai corn's Breda. 

11. Sardinian. 

12. Kaisha. 
IS. Newcastle. 



L Ontario. 

2. Bryanston's Gage. 

S. Duane's Purple. 

4. Bradshaw. 

5. Blue Damson. 

6. Red Magnum Bonum. 

7. Imperial Gage. 

8. Jefferson. 

9. Green Gage. 

10. Myrobalan. 

11. General Hand. 

12. Lncombe's Nonesuch. 

13. Victoria. 

14. Ronald's Fancy. 

15. Lawrence's Favorite. 

16. Quackenbos. 

17. Monroe Gage. 

18. Columbia. 

19. Lombard. 

20. Yellow Gage. 

2L Reine Claude de Bavay. 

22. Prince's Yellow Gage. 

23. Smith's Orleans. 

24. St Lawrence. 

25. Shropshire Damson. 
28. McLaughlin. 

27. Goliath. 



1. Robe de Sergent 

2. Bulgarian. 

8. Grosse Prune d'Agen. 
4. Fellenberg. 
6. Wangenheim. 



APPENDIX. 183 



82. Amsden. 

83. Susquehanna. 

84. Belle de la Croix. 

85. The Nectarine. 

86. De la Regandiere. 

87. Royal George. 

88. Grosse Mignonne. 

89. Carpenter's White. 

90. Alexander. 

91. White Imperial. 

92. Schumaker. 
98. Ulatis. 

94. Solway. 

Nectarines. 

8. Downton. 

9. Victoria. 

10. Late Melting. 

11. Elruge. 

12. Due de Vitry. 

13. New White. 



Apricots. 

14. Canino Grosso. 

15. Peach. 

16. Moorpark. 

17. Shipley. 

18. Large Early. 

19. De Coulorge. 

20. Routier Peach. 

21. Luizet 

22. Bon Bon. 

23. Beauge. 

24. Orange. 

25. Large Red. 

Plums. 

28. Copper. 

29. Judson. 

30. Winesonr. 

81. Peter's Yellow Gage. 

32. Pond's Seedling. 

33. Prince of Wales. 
• 34. Orange. 

35. Bleeker's Gage. 

36. Belgian Purple. 

87. Drap d'Or d'Esperen. 

38. Transparent Green Gage. 

39. Coe's Golden Drop. 

40. Washington. 

41. Ives' Autumn. 

42. Royal de Tours. 

43. Autumn Compote. 

44. Peach. 

45. Yellow Magnum Bonum. 

46. Guthrie's Late Green. 

47. Autumn Gage. 

48. Diapree Rouge. 

49. Reine Claude Rouge. 

50. Dennison's Superb. 
5L New Large Bullace. 

52. Morocco. 

53. Cherry. 

Prunes. 

6. German. 

7. Prince Englebert 

8. St. Martin's. 

9. Silver. 
10. Sinioni. 

Digitized by Google 



184 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



11. Prune d'Agen. 

12. Golden. 

13. Shaw's. 



1. Blackman's. 

2. Japan No. S. 

3. Botankio. 

4. Long-fruited. 



14. T: 

15. G 



iter. 



Japan Plums. 



5. Masu. 

6. Kelsey's. 

7. Satsuma. 

8. B urban k. 



Almonds. 



1. Iianguedoc. 

2. Bidwell's Mammoth. 

3. Wolfskill. 

4. Commercial. 



1. Oregon. 

2. Yellow Spanish. 

3. Rockport. 

4. Reine Hortense. 
6. Kentish. 

6. Napoleon. 

7. Late Duke. 

8. Great Bigarreau. 

9. Late Mottled Bigarreau. 

10. Brant. 

11. Buttner's Yellow. 

12. Bigarreau Riverchon. 

13. Mervelle de Septembre. 

14. Frogmore Bigarreau. 

15. Early Lamaurie. 

16. Black Tartarian. 

17. Elton. 

18. Gov. Wood. 



5. Ne Plus Ultra. 

6. Rice's Twin. 

7. Golden State. 



Chssbiks. 



19. Gridley. 

20. Bell Crown. 

21. Black Mastodon. 

22. Centennial. 

23. Monstreuse de Mezel. 

24. Knight's Early Black. 
26. American Amber. 

26. Purity. 

27. California Advance. 

28. Downer's Late Red. 

29. Manning's Mottled. 

30. Montmorency a Longue Queue. 

31. May Duke. 

32. American Heart 

33. Plumstone Morello. 

34. Jeflery's Duke. 

35. Bigarreau Noir Hative. 

36. Black Hawk. 



L Kelffer. 

2. LeConte. 

3. P. Barry. 

4. Bloodgood. 

5. Edmonds. 

a Clapp's Favorite. 

7. Doyenne d'Ete. 

8. Cot Wilder. 

9. Brandywine. 
10. Tyson. 

U. Bartlett 

12. Kostiezer. 

13. Belle Lucrative. 

14. Osband's Summer. 

15. Dearborn's Seedling. 

16. Beurre Giffard. 

17. Madeline. 

18. Beurre de Waterloo. 

19. Gray Doyenne. 

20. Doyenne Boussock. 

21. Beurre' Superfin. 

22. BufFum. 

23. Paul Ambre. 

24. Louise Bonne de Jersey. 

25. Beurr6 DieL 
28. Swan's Orange. 

27. Beurre Bosc. 

28. Idaho. 

29. Napoleon. 

30. HoweU. 

31. Sheldon. 

32. Beurrfi Hardy. 

33. Paradise de Autumne. 

34. Urbaniste. 

35. Conseiller de la Cour. 



Peaks. 

36. Doyenne White. 
87. Oswego Beurrg. 

38. Beurre Langeier. 

39. Doyenne du Cornice. 

40. Dana's Hovey. 

41. Emile de Heyst 

42. Souvenir d'Esperen. 

43. ' Dix. 

44. Fulton. 

45. Canandaigua. 

46. Jones' Seedling. 

47. Kirtland. 

48. Stevens' Genes see. 

49. Pratt 

50. Ott 

51. Kingsessing. 

52. Beurre Amande. 

53. Baronne de Mello. 

54. Amire Joannet 

55. Flemish Beauty. 

56. Ducbesse d'Orleans. 

57. Liberate. 

58. Gratiola of Jersey. 

59. Duchesse de Berry d'Ete. 

60. Doyenne Robin. 

61. Beurre Golden of Bilbao. 

62. Bonne d'Ezee. 

63. Beurrt Goubalt 

64. Vicar of Winkfleld. 

65. Nouveau Poiteau. 

66. Nantais. 

67. Henry the Fourth. 

68. De Tongres. 

69. Jalousie de Fontenay Vendee. 

70. Rousselet Stuttgart 



Digitized by 



Google 



APPENDIX. 



185 



71. 
72. 

7a 

74. 
75. 
7d 
77. 
78. 
79. 
80. 
81. 
82. 
83. 
84. 
85. 
86. 
87. 



90. 

9L 

92. 

93. 

94. 

95. 

96. 

97. 

96. 

99. 
100. 
10L 
103. 
108. 
104. 
105. 
106. 
107. 
108. 
109. 



St Michael Archange. 
Ananas d'Et£. 
Andrews. 
B«nrr£ d'Anjou. 
8eckel. 

Duchesse d'Angouleme. 
Beurrfi Sterkmans. 
Beurrfi Clairgeau. 
Maurice Desportea. 
Williams' DTIiver. 
Madame Lorial de Barney. 
Bonne dn Pnits Ausault. 
Sarah. 

Madame Treyve. 

Pitmaston's Duchesse d'Angouleme. 
Dnhamel de Monceau. 
Souvenir dn Congres. 
Duchesse of Bordeaux 
Duchesse Precoce. 
Marechal Vaillant 
Petite Marguerite. 
St Crispin. 
Brock worth Park. 
Engine Appert. 
Louis Vilmorin. 
Beurrt de la Assomption. 
Napoleon the Third. 
Levard. 

Mount Vernon. 

Madame Cuissard. 

Anne Ogereau. 

Court Oueen d'Autumne. 

Andr£ Desportes. 

Duchesse de Monchy. 

Dr. Reeder. 

Butter. 

Jaminette. 

Columbia. 

Bergamotte d'Esperen. 



110. Doyenned'Alencon. 

111. Lawrence. 

112. Buerre' Oris d'Hiver Nouveau. 

113. Augustus Dana. 

114. Josephine de Malines. 

115. America. 

116. Manning's Elizabeth. 

117. Chanmontel. 

118. Prince St Germaine. 

119. Star of Bethlehem. 

120. Washington. 

121. Figue d'Alencon. 

122. Moyamensing. 

123. Bonne Sophie. 

124. Chaptal. 

125. Doyenne Sieulle. 

126. Calabasse Monstreuse. 

127. Beurrf Precoce. 

128. Beaupresent d'Artois. 

129. Beurrf d'Aremberg. 

130. St Germain. 

131. Bergamotte Cadet 

132. Belle Williams. 

133. Epine Dumas. 

134. Fondante de NooL 

135. Inconnue Von Mons. 
13& Marie Louise d'Uccles. 

137. St Andri. 

138. Pater Noster. 

139. Passe Colmar. 

140. Bezi Sanspareil. 

141. Winter Nelis. 

142. Glout Morceau. 

143. Pound. 

144. Beurr6 Easter. 

145. Forelle. 

146. Lankford. 

147. Theresa Apperent 



Apples. 



1. Calrille Rouge d'Ete. 

2. Sops of Wine. 

3. Tetofsky. 

4. Klrkbridge White. 

5. Seedless, 
a Serinka. 

7. Garretson's Early. 

8. Sweet Jane. 

9. Summer Hagloe. 

10. Keswick Codlin. 
1L Summer Queen. 

12. Hominy. 

13. J alien. 

14. McCloud's Family. 

15. Summer Rose. 

la Summer BeUflower. 

17. Primate. 

18. Benoni. 

19. Red Astrachan. 

20. Skinner's Seedling. 

21. Golden Sweet 

22. Early Harvest 

23. Early Joe. 

24. Disharoon. 

25. Pall Wine. 

2a Pomme Royal e. 

27. Jersey Sweet 

28. Pumpkin Sweet. 

29. Mangum. 

30. Hawthornden. 
SL Hall. 

32. Pall Jenneting. 

S3. Alexander. 

34. Sherwood's Favorite. 



35. Yopp's Favorite. 

36. Buckingham. 

37. Munson Sweet 

38. Red Fall Pippin. 

39. Carolina Red June. 

40. Dahlonega. 

41. St Lawrence. 

42. Porter. 

43. Lowell. 

44. Autumn Strawberry. 
40. Smokehouse. 

46. Rhode Island Greening. 

47. Duchess of Oldenburgh. 

48. Autumn Bough. 

49. Cogswell. 

50. Jeffries. 

51. Gravenstein. 

52. King of Tompkins County. 

53. Twenty-ounce. 

54. Canada Reinette. 

55. Ram bo. 

56. Maiden's Blush. 

57. Clyman's Seedling. 

58. Gloria Mundi. 

59. Golden Russet 

60. Talman's Sweet 

61. Peck's Pleasant 

62. Rozbury Russet 

63. Lady. 

64. Grimes' Golden Pippin. 

65. Flower of Kent 

66. Fallawater. 

67. Wall. 

68. Hubbardston's Nonesuch. 

Digitized by 



Google 



186 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



70. 
71. 
72. 
73. 
74. 
75. 
76. 
77. 
78. 
79. 
80. 
81. 
82. 
83. 
84. 
85. 
86. 
87. 



90. 

91. 

92. 

93. 

94. 

95. 

96. 

97. 

98. 

99. 
100. 
101. 
102. 



Northern Spy. 103. 

Shockley. 104. 

Nickaiack. 105. 

Red Warrior. 106. 

Seek-No-Further. 107. 

Maverick Sweet. 108. 

Berry. 109. 

Cullaaaga. 110. 

Mother. 111. 

Fomme Grise. 112. 

Fameuse. 113. 

Domine. 114. 

Ben Davis, or New York Pippin. 115. 

Willow Twig. 116. 

Red Canada. 117. 

Lyman's Pumpkin Sweet 118. 

Blackshear. 119. 

Equinetely. 120. 

Carter. 121. 

White Pippin. 122. 

Duckett 123. 

Cooper's Market 124. 

Belmont 125. 

Prior's Red. 126. 

Reinette Canada. 127. 

Bailey's Sweet 128. 

Fanny. 129. 

Green Sweeting. 130. 

Swaar. 131. 

McLellan. 132. 

Vandevere. 133. 

English Russet. 134. 

Wells' Sweet. 135. 

Dutch Mignonne. 136. 



McAffee's Nonesuch. 

Chestatee. 

Hall. 

Ortley. 

Jonathan. 

Smith's Cider. 

Rawle's Janet 

Baldwin. 

Yellow Bellflower. 
Wagener. 

White Winter Pearmain. 
Esopus Spitzenberg. 
Rome Beauty. 
Hoover. 

Grand Duke Constantine. 

Cardinal. 

Pigeon. 

Count Orloff. 

Grand Sultan. 

Dickinson. 

Edwards' Sweet 

Mammoth Black Sweet. 

Huntsman. 

Morton's Pearmain. 

Clayton. 

Ingram. 

Arkansas Black. 
Shackleford. 
Boradoffer. 
Challotten Thaler. 
Clyman's Pippin. 
Violet 

Clyde Beauty. 
Junaluskee. 



Crab-apples. 



1. Oblong. 

2. Montreal. 
8. Chicago. 

4. Coral. 

5. Red Siberian. 

6. Currant 

7. Transcendent 

8. Large Yellow. 



1. Mammoth. 

2. Champion. 



9. Ringo. 

10. Malus Carda. 

11. Hews' Virginia. 

12. Lady. 

13. Yellow Siberian. 

14. Hyslop. 

15. Large Red. 



Quinces. 



3. Apple. 

4. Japan. 



1. Rargigna. 

2. Zimeia. 

3. Cernica. 



1. Hachiya. 

2. Tassmoke. 

3. Gubaska. 



Figs. 



4. Breba. 

5. Smyrna. 

6. White Adriatic. 



Japan Persimmons* 



4. Tanamegaru. 

5. Yuma. 

6. Dai Dai Maru. 



* All these penlmmoiia are questionable u to name. 



Cabob Trees. 

Ceratonia Siliqua, seedlings from seed from Redington & Co., San Francisco. 



1. Downlng's Everbearing. 

2. Multicaulis. 

3. Nagasaki. 



Mulberries. 

4. Alba. 
6. Lhoo. 
6. Russian. 



Digitized by 



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APPENDIX 



187 



OXIVEB. 



1. Atro-violacea Seedling. 

2. Nigerrima Seedling. 

3. Buxifolia Seedling. 

4. Pnecoz Seedling. 

5. Rubra Seedling. 

6. Uvaria Seedling. 

7. Atro-rubens Seedling. 

8. Nevadillo bianco. 

9. Rubra. 

10. Polymorphs. 

11. Nigerrima. 

12. Oblongs. 

13. Atro-violacea. 

14. Regalis. 

16. Coiumbella. 



16. Atrc-rubens. 

17. Manzanillo. 

18. Macrocarpa. 

19. Conditiver. 

20. Correggiolo. 

21. Amellan. 

22. Lucques. 

23. Razzo. 

24. Herveza. 

25. Lavaningo. 
28. Obliza. 

27. Ovaria. 

28. Early Mission. 

29. Broad-leaved Mission. 

30. Mission, 1, 2, 3. 



B. List of Fruit Trees Planted at the Sub-stations. 

Note.— An " r " opposite a name indicates that the variety is represented at the station 
named at the head of the column. 



Tabirt. 



Pmo BoblM. TaUre. 



APPLES, 

Summer. 

Benoni . 

Early Harvest 

Early 8trawberry 

Gravenstein 

Keswick Codlin 

Maiden's Blush 

Red Astrachan 

Red June 

White Astrachan 

Autumn. 

Alexander 

Beauty of Kent 

Fall Pippin 

Fameuse 

Gloria Mundi 

Hoover „ 

Jonathan 

King 

Mother 

Porter 

Rhode Island Greening 

Roxbury Russet 

Skinner's Seedling 

Twenty-ounce 

Ram bo 

Winter. 

Golden Russet American 

Bailey's Bweet 

Baldwin 

Ben Davis 

Buckingham 

English Golden Rnsset 

Bsopus Spitzenberg 

Grimes' Golden Pippin 

Haas 

Lady Apple 

Ladies' Sweeting 

Limber Twig 

Lawyer 

Mann 

Missouri Pippin 

Hlckajack 

Northern 8py 



Digitized by 



Google 



188 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 
List of Fruit Trees— Continued. 



Vaeibtt. 



Ortley 

Peck's Pleasant 

Pewaukee 

Prior's Red 

Rawle's Janet 

Red Canada.. 

Red Cheeked Pippin 

Ribston Pippin 

Rome Beauty 

Smith's Cider 

Sonoma 

Stark 

Stump 

Swaar 

Talman'a Sweeting 

Vandevere 

Wagener 

Walbridge 

Wealthy" 

White Winter Pearmain 

Wine Sap 

Woll River 

Yellow Bellflower 

Yellow Newtown Pippin 

Unclassified. 

Amassia 

Colvert 

Duke of Devonshire 

Early Ripe 

Flora Bell 

McMahon's White 

Perry Russet 

Red Bietigheimer 

Reinette de Cain 

8weet June 

Trenton Early 

York Imperial 

Marshall's Seedling 

Arkansas Black 

Red Delaware 

Mammoth Black Twig 

Bledsoe 

Shannon 

Red Winter Pearmain 

Shirley 

Loy 

Steward 

Lincoln 

Gano 

Forest 

Violet 

Excelsior 

Acme 

Clyman's 

CRAB- APPLES. 

Hyslop 

Montreal Beauty 

Transcendent 

Whitney 

Yellow Siberian 

FEARS. 

Summer. 

Andre 1 Desportes 

Bartlett 

Beurrt d'Amanlis 



Amador. 



FuoBoblu. 



Tultn. 

r 
r 



Digitized by 



Google 



APPENDIX. 
List of Fbuit Trees— Continued. 



189 



Vavztt. 



Beurre Gififard 

Blood good 

Clapp'B Favorite 

Dearborn's Seedling 

Doyenne d'j£t6 

Le Conte 

Madeleine 

Souvenir da Congres 

Tyson 

Autumn. 

Belle Lucrative 

Black Pear of Worcester 

Beurrf Bosc 

Beurr6 Clairgeau 

Benrre' d'Anjou 

BenrrS Diel 

Bearrf Hardy 

Benrre' Superfin 

B.8.Fox 

Brockworth Park 

Columbia 

Dana's Hovey 

Dix 

Doyenne Bonssock..... 

Doyenne da Cornice 

Duchesse d'Augoulfime 

Flemish Beauty 

Frederick Clapp 

Gray Doyenne 

Gangel's Bergamotte 

Howell 

Keifert Hybrid 

Lawrence 

Louise Bonne de Jersey 

Mount Vernon 

Onondaga 

Paradis <T Autocrine 

Seckel 

Sheldon 

Van Mons Leon le Clerc 

White Doyenne 

Crbaniste — .. 

Winter. 

Beorrt Oris d'Hlver 

CoL Wilder 

Doyenne d'Alencon 

Easter Benrre' 

Emile d'Heyst 

Forelle 

Gloat Morceac 

Jean de Witte 

Josephine de Malines 

Nouveau Poiteaa 

P. Barry 

Pound 

Vicar of Wlnkfield 

Lawson or Comet 

Dr. Beeder 

Jaminette 

Winter Nelis 

Idaho 

Kennedy ... 

Conseiller del a Cour 

Beurrf Oris d'Hiver Nouveau . 
Cole 



Amador. 



Puo Boblas. 



Tulare. 



Digitized by 



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190 



UNIVERSITY OP CALIFORNIA. 
List of Fbuit Tkeks— Continued. 



Tariitt. 



Paao Roble*. 



Tatars. 



Heartt and Bigarreaut. 



Baumann's May 

Belle d'Orleans 

Black Tartarian 

Burr's Seedling 

Cleveland Bigarreau . 

Coe's Transparent 

Early Purple Guigne 

Elton 

Governor Wood 

Great Bigarreau 

Knight's Early Black 

Lincoln 

Lewelling 

Pontiac 

Rock port Bigarreau 

Tradescant's Blackheart 

Werder's Early Black 

Willamette 

Windsor 

Yellow Spanish 

Napoleon Bigarreau 

Black Eagle 

California Advance 

Centennial 

Purity 

Black Mastodon 

Early Rivers 

Guigne Tres Precoce 

Major Francis 

Schmidt's Bigarreau 

Duchesse de Palluau 

Nouvelle Royale 

Dulcet and Morelloi. 

Belle Magnifique 

Early Richmond 

Empress Eugenie 

English Morello 

May Duke 

Olivet 

Reine Hortense 

Olivet, on Mahaleb stock 

May Duke, on Mahaleb stock 

Nouvelle Royale, on Mahaleb stock . 



PLUMB. 



Bavay's Green Gage 

Bradshaw 

Cherry 

Coe's Golden Drop 

Coe's Late Red 

Columbia 

Duane's Purple 

Damson 

Early Golden Drop 

General Hand 

Royal Hfttive 

Smith's Orleans 

Imperial Gage 

Belle de Septembre 

Green Gage 

Czar 

Ickworth Imperatrice. 

Damas Noir 

Oullin's Golden 

Perdrignon Blanc ... 
Precoce de Berthold .. 
Rivers' Early Prolific. 



r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 



"DigitizAd by 



r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 



r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 



r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 
r 



/Google? 



APPENDIX. 
List or Fbuit Tbieb— Continued. 



191 



Variety. 



Puo Boblet. 



Japanae. 

Botan 

Chabot Blood 

Kelsey Japan, on Myrobalan... 

Prunus Simoni 

Burbank 

Satsuma 

Japan No. 3 

Botankio ... 

Long-fruited Japan 

Hasu 



On Peach Stock*. 



Columbia 

Damson ... 

Victoria 

Dnane's Purple 

imperial Gage 

Peach 

Jefferson 

Prince Englebert ... 

Yellow Egg 

Coe's Golden Drop . 

Glaister 

Ctyman 



Chickataw. 



Blackman. 
Marianna . 



On Myrobalan Stock. 



Goliath 

Copper Plum 

Judson 

Winesour 

Peter's Yellow Gage 

Prince of Wales 

Orange 

Belgian Purple 

Drap D'or d'Esperen 

Transparent Green Gage . 

Ives' Autumn 

Royale de Tours 

Autumn Compote 

Peach 

Yellow Magnum Bonum . 

Guthrie's Late Green 

Autumn Gage 

Diapree Rouge 

Reine Claude Rouge 

Dennison's Superb 

Bulgarian Prune 

Kelsey Japan, on Peach.. 

Satsuma 

Petite d'Agen 

Ontario 

Dnane's Purple 

Red Magnum Bonum 

Jefferson 

Pond's Seedling 

Lacorab's Nonesuch 

Victoria 

Ronald's Fancy 

Lawrence Favorite 

Quackenbos 

Monroe Gage 

Columbia 

Lombard 

Yellow Gage 

Prince's Yellow Gage 



Digitized by 



fcoogle 



192 



UNIVERSITY OP CALIFORNIA. 
List or Fedit Trees — Continued. 



Vaeirt. 



Amador. 



Puo BoblM. 



Tnltre. 



8t Lawrence 

Shropshire Damson 

McLaughlin 

On both Peach and Myrobalan Stack. 

Prince Englebert 

St. Martin's Prune 

Silver Prone 

Coe's Oolden Drop 

Bryanston's Gage 

Bradahaw 

Blue Damson 

Imperial Gage 

Green Gage 

Fellenberg 

General Hand 

Wangenheim 

German Prune....... 

Blackman's 

PBUHK8. 

Barry 

Brignole - 

Datte de Hongrie 

Fellenberg 

German 

St. Catherine... - 

St Martin's Quetsche 

Wangenheim 

Bulgarian 

Petite d'Agen, on Peach 

Petite d'Agen, on Almond 

Robe de Sargent, on Apricot and on Myrobalan 
8ilver Prune, on Apricot and on Myrobalan..*.. 

Golden Prune 

Basaford'8 Prune 

PEACHES. 

a. Freettone on Peach Stock. 

Amsd en's June 

Briggs' Red May 

Governor Garland 

Early Rivers 

Yellow St John 

Mountain Rose 

Coolidge's Favorite 

Large Early York 

Foster 

Early Crawford 

Noblesse 

Wheatland 

Columbia 

Morris White — 

Late Admirable - 

Late Crawford 

Newhall 

8mock's Late Free 

Beer's Smock 

Ward's Late Free 

Bonanza 

Billieu's Late 

Italian Dwarf 

6. Cling ttone on Peach Stock. 

Blood 

Chinese 

California 

Crimson Beauty 

George's Late 



Digitized by 



Google 



APPENDIX. 

List or Fbuit Tbies— Continued. 



193 



Heath 

Large White Cling 

Newington 

Nichols' Orange 

Rnnyon's Orange 

Sellers' 

Of Recent Introduction. 

Brandywine 

Elberta 

Henrietta Cling 

Jennie Worthen 

Lovell 

La Grange 

McDevitt's Cling 

Mrs. Brett 

Wager 

Wifiins' Cling 

On Myrobalan Stock. 

Early Alfred 

Early Victoria 

Early Leopold 

Rivers' Early York 

Early Silver 

Troth 

Early York 

name's Early 

Bergen's Yellow 

Alberge Yellow 

Sellers' Free 

Cole's Early 

Early Beatrice 

Large Early York 

Large Early Mignonne 

Early Savoy 

Early Newington 

Richmond . ... 

President 

Canada Cling 

Van Bnren's Golden Dwarf 

Monstrease of Douay 

Snow 

Atlanta 

Jones' Seedling 

Sorpasse Melocoton 

Hilf s Madeira 

Crimson Garland 

Hicks' Seedling 

Comet 

White Tuscany Cling (Tozetti) 

Baymacker 

George the Fourth 

Mammoth Melocoton 

Late Morris White 

8tump-the- World 

Malta. 

Belle Douay 

Delaney's Heath Cling 

Dr. Hogg 

Belle Bausse 

Lady Palmerston 

Heath's Free 

Tippecanoe Cling 

Pucelle de Malines 

Leopold the First 

Chevreuse Hfitive 

White Melocoton 

Jacques Rareripe 

Carmine 

13» 



Amador. 



Paso BoblM. 



r 

Digitized by 



Google 



194 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 
List of Fruit Trebs — Continued. 



Vi»i«rr. 



Amador. 



Puo Boble*. 



Tnlare. 



Prince of Wales 

Magdala 

Scott's Nonpareil 

Yineuse 

Red Cheeked Melocoton 

Walbarton's Admirable 

Acton Scott 

Morris' White 

Belle de la Croix 

Nectarine.: 

Dela Regandiere 

Carpenter's White 

Moore's Favorite — 

Freestone, on both Peach and Myrobalan Stock. 

Alexander 

Waterloo 

Hale's Early 

Strawberry 

Grosse Mignonne 

Royal George 

Old Mixon Free 

Susquehanna 

Stump-the- World 

Salway 

Clingstone, on both Peach and Myrobalan Stock. 

Lemon 

Old Mixon 

APRICOTS. 

On Apricot Stock. 

De Coulorge 

Musch Musch 

Oullin's Early 

Pringle 

Rivers' Early 

Royal Russian 

Vlard 

On Myrobalan Stock. 

Early Golden 

Red Masculine 

Turkey 

Early Moorpark. 

Malcom's Breda 

Canino Grosso - 

De Coulorge 

Orange 

Long Red 

On both Apricot and Myrobalan Stock. 

Beauge 

Blenheim - - 

Breda 

Hemskirk 

Kaisha - - 

Large Early Montgamet 

Moorpark 

Peach 

Purple or Black 

Sardinian 

St Ambroise 

NECTARINES. 

Lord Napier 



Digitized by Google 



APPENDIX. 
List or Fruit Trees — Continued. 



195 



Variitt. 



Amador. 



Pmo Boblee. 



Tulare. 



On Myrobalan Stock. 

Early Violet 

Rivers' Orange 

Red Roman 

Pitmaston's Orange . 

Late Melting 

Ducde Vitry 

On both Peach and Myrobalan Stock. 

New White 

Early Newington 

Boston . 

Hardwick's Seedling 

Down ton 

Victoria 

Elruge 

Stan wick 

QUIHCIS. 

Apple or Orange 

Angers - 

Champion 

Portugal 

Rea's Mammoth 

Chinese 

Meech's Prolific 

FI08. 

Black Ischia 

Brunswick .- 

California Black 

White Ischia 

Adriatic 

Smyrna . ...... 

Dalmatian 

San Pedro 

Agen 

Angelina 

Black Bourjassotte 

Col di Signora Nero 

Early Violet 

White Bourjassotte 

New Varietiet. 

Monaca Bianca 

Pasteliere 

White Marseilles 

Hirtu du Japon 

Du Roi 

Brown Turkey 

Orossale 

Orosse Oris Bifere 

Doree Narbus 

Ronde Noir 

Black Marseilles 

Drap d'Or 

Royal Vineyard 

White Genoa 

Ronde Violette Hfttive 

Abondance Prfcoce 

Ladora , 

Rocardi 

Negro Largo 

Coidi Signora Bianca 

Bamisotte Gris 

Raby Castle 

Brown Ischia 

D* Constantine 

Osborne Prolific 

Bulletin Smyrna No. 1 

Bulletin 8myrna No. 2 



Digiti: 



led by Google 



196 



UNIVERSITY OP CALIFORNIA. 
List or Fbuit Trees— Continued. 



Tabhr. 



Harriott's Seedling. 
King's Soft Shell ... 

Languedoc 

Mane Dupreys 

Paper Shell 

Pistache 

Sultana 

Drake's Seedling ... 

IXL 

Nonpareil 



CHESTNUTS. 



American Sweet... 
Italian or Spanish. 
Marron de Lyon 
Numbo 



English Red 

Purple Leaved 

Nottingham Prolific 

Dwarf Prolific 

Casford Nut 

Casford Thin-shelled.... 
Precoce de Frauendorf ., 

Geant de Halle 

Cut Leaved 

Imperial de Trebizonde . 
Merveille de Bollwiller .. 



PECAN NUT. 



Pecan Nut . 



BUTTERNUTS. 



Butternut . 



California Black 

Bijou 

Chaberte 

Common English, or Madeira Nut... 
Dwarf Prolific (on California stock). 

Mayette 

Serotina, or St John 

Franquette 

American Black 

Vourey 

Persian 



ORANGES. 



Konah 

Maltese Blood 

Washington Navel . 



Atro-rubens . . 
Atro-violacea. 
Columbella... 
Macrocarpa . . 
Nigerrima.... 

Oblonga 

Pendulina 

Polymorpha . 

Precox 

Regalis 

Rubra 

Rufa 

Salonica 

Uvarla 



Amador. 



Pmao Boblea. 



Tulare. 



r r 

Digitized by 



Google 



APPENDIX. 
List or Fecit Treks— Continued. 



197 



Vabibtt. 



Paso Bobln. 



Tulare. 



Nevadillo bianco 

Maruanillo (No. 2, Bulletin 85) 

Correggiolo 

Bazzo 

Herveza... 

Obliza..i 

Dalmatian 

Lucquee 

Amellan 

Laranigno 



POMKGRAKATI. 



Sweet fruited. 



CURRANTS. 



Black Naples . 
Fay's Prolific. 

Cherry _. 

White Grape . 



GOOSKBKRBIES. 



Berkeley .. 
Downing.. 
Champion. 



BLACK BKHRIrS. 



Crandall's Early. 

Lawton 

Wilson's Early .- 



MVLBEBBIE8. 



Lhoo - 

Nagasaki 

White Mulberry. 

Italian 

Kussian 



PLUM 8ZEDLIKG8. 



Hyrobalan 

Hovenia Dulcia . 



APPENDIX No. 4. 



Liar or the Different Varieties of Cultivated Grapevines and 
Types of Wild Vines (of the Genus Vitis) Represented at the 
Seven Different Stations. 

Bobdeauz Type. 

Cabernet Sauvignon. Tannat 

Cabernet Franc Gamay Teinturier. 

8t Macaire. Gros Mancin. 

Gros Verdot. Charbono. 

Petit Verdot Teinturier male. 

Merlot Pied de Perdrix. 

Beclan. Malbeck. 



Digitized by 



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198 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 

Burgundy Type. 

Pinot de Pernand. Meunier. 

Pinot de St Georges. Chauche' noir. 

Blauer Burgunder. Robin noir (Pfefler's Cabernet). 

While PinoU. 

Pinot Chardonay. Pinot vert dorfi ( ? ). 

Southern French Type— .Red. 

Petite Sirah. Grenache. 

Mondeuse. Petit Bouschet 

Bastardo. Alicante Bouschet 

Trousseau. Tinta Val-de-pefias. 

Cinsaut Aramon. 

Mataro. Mourastel. 

Ploussard. Etraire de 1'AdhuL 
Carignane. 

Southern French Type — Whitt. 

Roussanne. Chasselas de Fontainebleau. 

Marsanne. Early Silver Frontignan. 

Clairette blanche. Ugni blanc. 

Chauche gris. Chasselas rose. 
Verdal. 

Sacterne Type. 

Semillon blanc. Muscadelle da Bordelais. 

Sauvignon blanc. Folle Blanche. 

Sauvignon vert. Burger. 

Rhenish Type— .Red. 
RulSnder. Affenthaler. 

Rhenish Type— White. 

Kleinberger. Gewtlrz Traminer. 

Johannisberg Riesling. Zierfahndler ( ?). 

Franken Riesling (Sylvaner). Huscateller (Muscat blanc), 

Hungarian, Austrian, and Tyrolean Type. 

Peverella. Welsh Riesling. 

White Tokay. Rothgipfler. 

Zinfandel. Bakator (rouge). 

Slankamenka. Kadarka. 

Green Hungarian. Marzemino. 

Lagrain. Blue Portuguese. 

Gruner Valtelliner. Gross blaue. 

North Italian Type. 

Nebbiolo fino. Barba corba gelata. 

Nebbiolo Bourgu. Provinante. 

Freisa de Montferrate. Aleatico. 

Barbera fina. Refosco. 

Bonarda. Crabb's Burgundy (Refosco?). 

Port Type. 

Tinta de Madeira. Mourisco preto. 

Tinta Amarella. California Black Malvoisie. 

Tinta Cao. Mission. 

Moretto. Black Prince. 

Sherry and Madeira Type. 

Boal de Madeira. Beba. 

Feher Szagos. Malmsey. 

Palomino. Peruno. 

Pedro Jimenes. Mantuo de Pilas. 

Verdelho. Mourisco branco. 
West's White Proline. 

Digitized by 



Goo 



APPENDIX. 



199 



Table and Raibih— White. 



Muscat of Alexandria. 
Huasco. 

Canon Hall Muscat 
Bowood Muscat 
Almeria. 

Pizzutello di Roma. 
Steinschiller. 

Oelbe Seidentraube (Lignanga). 



White Vernaccia. 

Golden Queen. 

Sultana (round-berried). 

Thomson's Seedless (oblong-berried Sultana). 

White Corinth. 

Syrian. 

White Nice. 

White Malaga. 



Table— .Red and Black. 



Purple Cornichon. 
Sabalkansky. 
Black Ferrara. 
Emperor. 
Black Muscat 
Gros Maroc. 
Black Morocco. 
Blue Damascus. 



Faith. 

Cunningham. 

Herbemont 

Lenoir. 

Amber. 

RalSnder. 



Cornucopia. 



Gros Colman (Dodrelabi). 
Babarossa. 

Black Hamburg (Trollinger). 
Howland's Black Hamburg. 
Rose of Peru. 
Flame Tokay. 
Black Corinth. 



American Type— Improved. 

Walter. 
Martha. 
Diana. 

Moore's Early. 
Isabella regia. 

American Hybrids with Vinifera. 

Autuchon. 



V. cordifolia (Michaux). 
V. Kttivalu (Michaux). 
V. riparia (Michaux). 
V. labrutca (Linneus). 
V. mlpina (Linneus). 
V. ruptttrit (Scheele). 
V. candicam (Engelm.). 
V. Solonu (Engelm.). 
F. Monticola (Buckley). 
V. Berlandien (Planchon). 
V. Floridana (Munson). 

V. vinifera from Caucasus. 
V. Romaneti, two varieties. 



Types of Wild Vibes. 

American. 

V. rubra (Michaux). 
V. Arisonica (Engelm.). 
V. Californica (Bentham). 
V. cinerea (Engelm.). 
V. Doaniana (Munson). 
V. tricolor (Le Conte). 
V. coriacea (Shuttleworth). 
V. Champini (Planchon). 
V. Mumoniana (Simpson). 
V. Simpsoni (Munson). 

Asiatic. 

Spinoviti* Davidii, two varieties. 



APPENDIX No. 5. 



List of Herbaceous Plants in the Garden of Economic Plants at 

Berkeley.* 

Gbasbes (Graminex.) 

Japanese wheat grass, Agropyrum Japonicum; Japan. 

Blue stem, Agropyrum gtauoum; Colorado. 

Bunch, Agropyrum divergent; Oregon and Washington. 

* Trees ud shrubs surrounding the garden are Included in the lists of arbo returns. Common kitchen Tege- 
tables, of which the rarlety change* from Tear to year, are omitted from this enumeration, as also are a number 
of common flowering plants used merely for ornamentation. Some are mentioned on account of their climatic 
significance. All here mentioned are folly hardy at Berkeley. 

Digitized by VjOOg IC 



200 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



Bine joint, Agropyrum tenerum. 
Red top, Agrostit vulgaris; Enrope. 
White Dent, Agrottu alba; Enrope. 

Broad-leaved creeping bent, Agrostis stolonifera; England. 

Tall oat, Avena elatior; Europe. 

Wild oat, Avena fatua; Enrope. 

Meadow fox tail, Alopecurus pratensis; Europe. 

Kangaroo, Anthiitiria ciliata; Australia. 

Bchrader's brome, Bromut Schraderi, or unioloidet; South America. 

Hungarian brome, Bromut inermii; Europe. 

Soft Brome, Bromut mollis; Europe. 

Sucksdorf brome, Bromut Sucktdorfii. 

Hooker's brome, Bromut Hookcrianus. 

Grama, Bonteloua oligostachya; Colorado. 

Bermuda, Cynodon daelylon; Europe. 

Orchard, Dactylis glomerata; Europe. 

Mountain blue joint, Deyeuxia sp.; Pacific slope. 

Teosinte, EuchUena luxuriant. 

Giant rye, Elymut condensatut; Pacific slope. 

Indian millet, Eriocoma cuspidata. 

Various-leaved fescue, Fettuca heterophylla; Europe. 

Meadow fescue, Fettuca elatior; Europe. 

Sheep's fescue, Fettuca ovina; Europe. 

Small fescue, Fettuca tenuifolia; America. 

Hard fescue, Fettuca duriutcula; Europe. 

Bunch, or mountain fescue, Fettuca graeiUima. 

Fall bunch, or western fescue, Fettuca scabrella; Pacific Slope. 

Nit grass, Oattridium australe. 

Soft meadow, Holcus lanatut; Europe. 

Australian ray, Lolium perenne, var. Auttralientc. 

Italian ray, Lolium perenne, var. Italicum. 

Fall luetic, Melica attittima. 

Millet, Milium muUifiorum; Old world. 

Kentucky blue, Poa pratenti; Old world. 

Texas blue, Poa arachnifera. 

Northwestern blue, Poa Nevadentit. 

Roughish meadow, Poa trivialit. 

Timothy, Phleum pratente; Europe. 

Mountain timothy, Phleum, sp.; Colorado. 

Canary, Phalarit Canariensis; Europe. 

Southern reed, or California timothy, Phalarit intermedia; United States. 

Hairy-flowered paspalum, Patpalum dilatatum; America. 

Louisiana grass, gazon, Patpalum platycaule; America. 

Tallest panic, Panicum altitsimum. 

Bulbous panic, Panicum bulbosum: Arizona. 

Hair-stalked panic, Panicum capillare; America. 

Indian, or wood, Sorghum Nutant. 

Evergreen millet, or Johnson, Sorphum Halepente. 

St Augustine, Stenotaphron Amertcanum. 

Large panicled vilfa, Sporobolut cryptandrut. 

Feather bunch, Stipa viridula. 

Sorghums in variety. Sorghum vulgare. 



Horn-pod clover, AnthyUis vulneraria; Europe. 

Sylla, Hedysarttm eoronarium; South Europe. 

Japan clover, Letpedeta striata. 

Tangier pea, Laihyrut tingitanut. 

Red Dirdsfoot, Lotus tetragonolobut. 

Yellow treefoil, Medicago lupulina. 

Alfalfa, Medicago saliva. 

Snail clover, Medicago turbinata. 

White melilot, or Bokhara clover, Melilotus albut. 

Seradella, Ornithopus sativus. 

Sainfoin, or Esparcet, Onobrychis saliva. 

Red clover, Tri folium pratente. 

White clover, Trifolium repent. 

Scarlet clover, Trifolium incarnatum. 

Swedish clover, Trifolium hybridum. 

Strawberry clover, Trifolium fragiferum. 

California clover, Trifolium involucratum. 

California clover, Trifolium tridentatum. 

Hairy vetch, Vicia vtllosa. 

Common vetch, Vicia saliva. 

Worm clover, Scorpiurus tulcatut. 



Leguminous Forage Plants (Clovers, etc.). 




APPENDIX. 



201 



Forage Plants— Miscellaneous. 

Comfrey, Symphytum atperrimum. 
Salt bashes, Atnplex sp. and Kochia sp. 
Tagasaste, Oytitut proliferut albut. 
Jersey kale, Brattica sp. 

Textile Plants. 

Mew Zealand flax, Phormium tenax. 
Ramie, Boehmeria nivea and tenacittima. 
Jute, Corehorut textilit. 

Esparto grasses, Stepa tenacittima and Lygeum tparteum. 
African grass (Diss), fettuca allutima. 
Century plant. Agave Americana. 

Fiber flax— White-flowering from France, Royal from Germany, Russian from Pskoff, 
and Yellow-seeded. Linum untatittimum. 

Aromatic Herbs. 

Sweet fennel, Foenieulum officinale. 

Coriander, Coriandrum tatwum. 

Dill, Anethum graveotent. 

Caraway, Carum earvi. 

Long-flowered catnip, Nepeta grandifiora. 

Common catnip, Nepeta catarta. 

Lorage, Levitticum officinale. 

Tansy, Tanacetum vulgare. 

Summer savory, Satureia hortentU. 

Cummin, Oummum cyminum. 

Anise, PimpineUa antrum. 

Hoarhonnd, Marrubium vulgare. 

Sweet majoram, Origanum majorana. 

Wormwood, Artemitia absinthium. 

Rue, Ruta graveotent. 

Lavender, Lavandula vera. 

Bush basil, Ocimum batilicum. 

Balm, Mehtta officinalis. 

Sage, Salvia officinale. 

Spear mint, Mentha viridit. 

Crisp-leaved mint, Mentha critpa. 

Wild bergamot, Monarda fittulota. 

Common thyme, Thymut vulgarit. 

Balm of Gilead, Dracocephalum Canariente. 

Medicinal Plants. 

Yellow chamomile, Anthemit tinctoria. 

German chamomile, Matricaria chamomilla. 

Roman chamomile, Anthemit nobilit. 

Arnica, Arnica Montana. 

Comfrey, Symphytum officinale. 

Valerian, Valeriana officinalis. 

Sea lavender. Slatice limonum. 

Ginger, Zingiber officinale. 

Black henbane, Hyoteyamut niger. 

Rattlesnake weed, Daucut putillut. 

Poison lettuce, Lactuca virota. 

Marsh mallow, Althea officinalit. 

High mallow, Malva rotundifolia. 

Common mallow, Malva vulgarit. 

Fetid clary sage. Salvia tclariola. 

Poison lettuce, Lactuca tcariola. 

Poison lettnce, Lactuca anguttata. 

Hedge nettle, Stachyt affinit. 

Jamestonn weed, Datura stramonium. 

Poison hemlock, Conium maculatum. 

Hollyhock, Althea rosea. 

False indigo, Baptitia Auttralis. 

Great blue lobelia, Lobelia syphilitica. 

Indian tobacco. Lobelia inflata. 

Para cress, Spilanthes oleracea. 

Meadow sweet. Spiraea ulmaria. 

California golden rod, Solidago Californica. 

Celandine, Chelidonium majut. 

Red pepper, Capticum annuum. 



202 



UNIVERSITY OP CALIFORNIA. 



Belladonna, Atropa belladonna. 
Yellow melilot, Melilotus officinale. 
Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea. 
Foxglove, .DwttaJw alba. 
Mullein, Verbascum thapsu*. 
Black mullein, Verbatcum nigrum. 
Avens, Oeum urbanum. 
Liquorice, Qlycyrrhiza eehinata. 
Liquorice, Qlycyrrhiza glabra. 
Fenugreek, Trigonella foenum graecum. 
Jacob 8 ladder, Polemonium grandifiorum. 
Giant spurge, Euphorbia lathyris. 
White Mexican jJoppy, Argemone Mexicana. 
Opium poppy, Papaver somniferum. 
Long-leaved tobacco, Nicotiana longifolia. 
Japanese anemone, Anemone Japonica. 
Soap wort, Saponaria officinalis. 
Milk weed, Atclepvu Douglauii. 
St. John's wort, Hypericum perforatum. 
Borage, Borrago officinalis. 
Ginseng, Pkmax quinquefolium. 
False saffron, Carthamut tinctorius. 
Gum plant, Orindelia robutta. 
Chili cajote Calabazita, Ouourbita perenni?. 
Squills, Scilla officinalis. 
Indian hemp, Tricerastes glomerata. 
Aspodel, Asphodelus fioribundus. 
Asphodel, Asphodelus luteus. 
Fanque, Ounnera scabra. 
Sweet flag, Acorus calamus. 



Cafiaigre, Rumex hymenosepalus. 

Lemon grass of India, Cymbopogon sehoenanthus. 

Taro, or Tanja, Colocasia antiquorum, var. esoulentum. 

Chinese yam, Dioteorea batata*. 

Earth almond, Cyperus esoulentus. 

Chicory, Oichorium intybus. 

Edible oralis. Oralis crenata. 

Sunflower, Helianthus California^. 

Russian sunflower, Helianthus annuu*. 

Artichoke, Cynara scolymus. 

Cardoon artichoke, Cynara cardunculut. 

Madder, Rubia tinctoria. 

Oil radish, Raphanus oleiferus. 

Rape, Brastica campestris. 

Peanut, Arachis Hypogsca. 

Castor bean, Ricinus officinalis. 

Chapman's honey plant, Echinops sphosrocephalus. 

Dalmation insect powder plant Pyrethrum cinerarissfolium. 

Red insect powder plant, Pyrethrum roseum. 

Fuller's teasel, Dipsacus fulumum. 

(Acanthus mollis. 
Classic acanthus < Acanthus spinosu*. 

{Acanthus Utngifolius. 
Scarlet larkspur, Delphinium cardxnale. 
(Enothera taraxaoijolta. 



Canterbury bells 



Yellow flax, Linum flavum. 
Iris Ksempferi. 
Heuchera coccinea. 
Vancouveria hezandra. 
Mayflower, Convallaria majalis. 
Funkia cordata. 
Day lily, HemerocaUi* fuVva. 
Fragrant cleavers, Asperula odorata. 
California datura, Datura meteloidet. 



Miscellaneous Plants. 



Platyeodon grandifiorum. 
Salvia paten*. 
Eryngium pandanifolium. 
Hypericum sp. 




APPENDIX. 



203 



APPENDIX No. 6. 



Agricultural Experiment Stations in Account with the United 

States Appropriation. 

To receipts from Treasurer of the United States as per appropriation for year 
ending June 30, 1889, under Act of Congress, approved March 2, 1887 $15,000 00 

June 30, 1889— By buildings $736 70 

By chemical apparatus and supplies 910 68 

By furniture 1,801 34 

By fencing and drainage 203 82 

By freight and expressage 384 63 

By incidental expenses 121 36 

By labor 3,196 41 

By live stock 765 25 

By postage and stationery 274 38 

By printing 31 80 

By salaries 1,749 99 

By supplies 2,451 59 

By scientific instruments 85 94 

By tools, implements, and machinery 1,396 74 

By traveling 227 15 

By water supply 662 52 

$15,000 00 

We, the undersigned, duly appointed members of the Finance Com- 
mittee of the University of California, do hereby certify that we have 
examined the books and accounts of the experiment stations of the Uni- 
versity of California for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1889; that we 
have found the same well kept and correctly classified as above, and that 
the receipts for the time named are shown to have been $15,000, and the 
corresponding disbursements $15,000, for all of which proper vouchers are 
on file, and have been by us examined and found correct. 

A. S. HALLIDIE, 
HOEATIO STEBBINS, 
GEORGE T. MARYE, 
Finance Committee of the Board of Regents, University of California. 

I hereby certify that the foregoing statement, to which this is attached, 
is a true copy from the books of account of the institution named. 

J. H. C. BONTE\ 
Secretary of the Board of Regents. 



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204 APPENDIX. 



ERRATA IN LISTS OF PLANTS. 



Page 173, under Tamabiscinejs, after Fouquiera splendent, read hh. 

Page 174, under Rhaknkx, after Rhamnus California!, read California back thorn, Cascara 
sagraaa in part. 

Page 174, under same, after Ceanothus torediatui, read California lilac. 

Page 174, under Sapindacejs, after jEaculus Califomica, read California buckeye. 

Page 174, under same, after Acer campestre, read European elm. 

Page 174, under same, after Negundo Californicum, read California box elder. 

Page 174, under Lbqdminos^, second line, for junieum, read junceum. 

Page 175, under Rosacea, after Rosa gymnoearpa and Rosa Califomica, add Wild rose. 

Page 175, tenth line from below, for Caccata, read baccata. 

Page 177, twelfth line from above, after Ribes Californicum, read 1. 

Page 177, twenty-second line from above, for Liquidamber, read Liquidambar. 

Page 177, under Capbifoliacejb, after Viburnum, tinus, read Laurustinus. 

Page 177, under same, after Symboriearpus racemosus, read Wazberry. 

Page 177, under same, for Louicera, le&iLonieera. 

Page 177, under Rubiacejb, after Galium Nuttallii, read Woody cleavers. 

Page 178, lines five, six, seven, and eight from top, for Dyopyrus, read Diospyros. 

Page 179, middle of page, for Dceringta, read Deeringia. 

Page 179, under Euphobbiace.b, fourth line, for pulchenima, read pulcherrima. 
Page 179, under Ubticacm, last line, for auantiaca, read aurantiaca. 
Page 180, under Betulaoeje, after Alnus rubra and Alnus rhombifolia, read Alder. 
Page 181, thirty-first line from above, for Deodaro, read Deodar. 
Page 181, after Dracaena Cannaefolia and Dracaena terminalis, read Dragon tree. 
Page 182, seventh line from above, for Grass smilaz tree of Australia, read Grass tree of 
Australia. 

Page 184, under Peaks, No. 59, for Berrv, read Bern. 

Page 184, under same, No. 33, for Paradise, read Paradis. 

Page 184, under Chebbies, No. 12, for Riverchon, read Reverchon. 

Page 184, under same. No. 13, Mervelle, read Merveille 

Page 185, No. 134, for Nobl, read Noel. 

Page 186, No. 131, for Borsdoffer, read Borsdorffer. 

Page 186, No. 132, for Challotten Thaler, read Charlottenthaler. 

Page 192, middle of page, for Sargent, read Sergent 



c 



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I 

DNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA- COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE ¥ 
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



REPORT OF WORK 



AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS 

OK THK • 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, 

For the Year 1890. 



BY E. W. HILGARD, 

I'rofessor of Agriculture and Director of the Stations. 



BEING A PART OF THE REPORT OF THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 




STATK OFFICE, 



SACRAMENTO: 

: : A. J. JOHNSTON, SUPT. STATK PKINTINO. 
1891. 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA- COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE. 
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



REPORT OF WORK 



OP THE 



AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, 

For the Year 1890. 
BY E. W. HILGARD, 

Professor of Agriculture and Director of the Stations. 



BEING A PART OF THE REPORT OF THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 




SACRAMENTO: 
state office, : : : : : a. J. Johnston, supt. state printing. 

1891. 



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REPORT OF THE PROFESSOR OF AGRICULTURE AND 
DIRECTOR OF THE EXPERIMENT STATIONS 



TO THE 



PRESIDENT OF THE UNIVERSITY. 



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Google 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 17 

Scope of the present Teport 17 

Viticultural work to form a separate report 17 

Enlargement of the Station staff. 17 

Work assigned to Assistants M. E. Jaffa and Geo. E. Colby 17 

Scope of Station work on the Pacific Coast as compared with that of Atlantic 

and European stations 18 

EXPERIMENT STATIONS AND STAFF 19 

I. REPORT AND DISCUSSION OF WORK IN GENERAL LABORATORY. 23 

I. Analyses or Soils 23 

A. Foothill) 28 

From Foothill Experiment Station, Amador County 28 

Manzanita land soil, McKay tract 28 

Pine land soil, McKay tract 28 

Granite slope soil 24 

Slate soil, south slope 24 

Red soil near Moore's Station, Butte County; Norman Rideout 24 

Red soil and subsoil near Anderson, Shasta County; J. R. Love 26 

8oil of Honey Lake region, Lassen County; W. A. Clark 26 

B. Great Valley 27 

Soil and under-subsoil, Buhach Colony, Merced; McSwain & Co 27 

Soil and subsoil of Viticultural Experiment plot ; E. B. Rogers' place, Fresno. 28 
Subsoil and under-subsoil of Viticultural Experiment plot; Dr. Eschleman's 

place, Fresno 28 

Red soil of Fresno Plains, west of Fresno ; " Fruitvale Tract" 29 

Soils from Madera, Fresno County; John Brown 80 

C. Coatt Range 81 

Shell soil of Bay Island Farm, Alameda County; John 0. Fitlow 81 

Hillside soils, near Wright's Station, Santa Clara County; C. C. Poppe 32 

Soils of Chile's Valley, Napa County ; F. Sievers 33 

Tule soil, Grizzly Island, Sacramento County; Warren Dutton 34 

Sand hill soil, near Antioch, Contra Costa County; L. L. Guss. 86 

Tule soil, marsh meadow of Eel River, Humboldt County; G. H. Kellogg... 36 

D. South California 37 

Soils of South California Station 87 

Riverside soils, San Bernardino County 89 

Gage canal, Arlington Heights 40 

Windsor tract 40 

Under Riverside canal — 40 

Soils of Temescal Valley, South Riverside and Aubumdale Colonies, San 

Bernardino County 42 

Soil-forming materials near Santa Monica, Los Angeles County 46 

Bottom soil, 8weetwater Valley, San Diego County; W. D. Dickinson 47 

Soil from Palm Valley, San Diego County; S. W. Fergusson - — 48 

Bottom soils and subsoil of Colorado and Gila Rivers, Yuma; Hiram Blais- 
dell 4» 



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6 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



Faoi. 

Table I. Analyses of toils and subsoils 51 

II. Analyses of Waters 61 

A. Stream and Lake Waters 61 

From Pleasant Valley, Fresno County; Mrs. M. E. Cleary 61 

From Tulare Lake (near middle); B. F. Moore and T. A. Coonradt 61 

From Lake Elsinore, San Diego County ; Peter Wall 62 

From Lake Elsinore; N. Messer 62 

Water supply of the Temescal Valley, South Riverside, San Bernardino 

County 63 

Description of the valley 5S 

Cienegas 64 

Compton Cienega 66 

Rolfe Cienega 66 

Riley's Cienega 55 

Harrington Cienega ... 66 

Composition of the waters of the valley 56 

From Gila River; Hiram W. Blaisdell 57 

B. Spring Water* 68 

From twenty-four miles from Ukiah, Mendocino County; J. M. Robinson.. 68 

From Mount Ida Spring, Oroville, Butte County; Adolph Ekman 58 

From mountain spring near Cloverdale, Sonoma County; G. Hunziker 69 

From near Martinez, Contra Costa County ; William J. Young 59 

From Smith's Ranch, Alhambra Valley, Contra Costa County ; L. M. Smith. 69 
From hillside tunnel, Deaf, Dumb and Blind Asylum, Berkeley, Alameda 

County ; Professor Wilkinson 60 

From Strawberry Caflon, Berkeley, Alameda County 60 

From six miles from Montecito Valley, Santa Barbara County; Hon. E. H. 

Heacock 61 

From four springs, Piru Rancho, Ventura County; David C. Cook 61 

From mountains one thousand eight hundred feet above San Buenaventura, 

Ventura County ; Jos6 G. Moraga '. 62 

From six miles east of Sumner, Kern County ; John Barker 62 

From Santa Monica water-supply of Soldiers' Home, Los Angeles County; 

T. F. Laycock , 63 

From near Escondido, San Diego County; J. W. Turrentine 64 

C. Common WeU Waters 64 

From Roseville, Placer County; Dr. W. A. Finney 64 

From Rocklin, Placer County; Dana Perkins 65 

From Napa, Napa County; A. H. Grossman 65 

From St. Helena, Napa County; Rothwell Hyde 66 

From San Josfi, Santa Clara County; E. Younger 86 

From Cupertino, Santa Clara County ; F. Spangenberg 67 

From near Fresno: I. F. Moulton 67 

From San Joaquin Experiment Station, Tulare County 68 

From a sump ; San Joaquin Experiment Station 69 

From gas well near Sumner, Kern County; John Barker 69 

From Miramonte Colony, Kern County ; George A. Raymond 70 

From northwest of Bakersrield, Kern County; John S. Hittel 70 

From Livermore Ranch, Kern Island, Kern County; Messrs. Connor and 

Willis Carter 71 

From Mojave Desert, Kern County; B. Marks 71 

From Carisa Plains, San Luis Obispo County ; F. C. Howard 72 



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CONTENTS. 7 

Page. 

From San Juan Ranch, San Lais Obispo County; William Kelly 72 

From Ojai Valley, Ventura County; K. P. Grant 72 

From Nordhoff, Ojai Valley. Ventura County (four samples); Nordhoff 

Board of Health 73 

From Los Angeles; J. William James... 74 

From valley of Oila River, Yuma (four samples); Hiram Blaisdell 76 

D. Artesian Water*. 75 

From island in Suisun Bay, Solano County; J. W. Dutton 76 

From gas well in Sacramento; Sacramento Gas Company 76 

From Asylum for Insane, Stockton ; Dr. H. W. Eucker 77 

From Stockton waterworks; A. M. Noble 77 

From St. Agnes Academy, Stockton 78 

From ranch of H. T. Emeric, San Pablo, Contra Costa County 78 

From Goshen, Tulare County; C. F. Buckley 79 

From Hanford, Tulare County; R. W. Musgrave 79 

From supply of South California Experiment Station, Chino Ranch 80 

From San Bernardino; W. H. Avery 80 

From near Santa Ana, Orange County ; C. T. Hopkins 81 

From Elsinore, San Diego County; E. Z. Bundy 81 

III. Rocks, Clays, Marls, Prat, and Gypsum 88 

Phosphate rock; Samuel Cassedy, Petaluma 83 

Soft limestone; Germain Fruit Co., Los Angeles 83 

Rock and clay from Santa Barbara; J. C. Merrill 83 

"Cement rock;" Messrs. Fraser Bros., South Riverside 83 

Clay and limestone, San Bernardino County; Francis Cuttle 83 

Clay from BakersBeld; George Johnstone 84 

Marl; J. de Barth Shorb, San Gabriel 84 

Peat; C. J. Davis, Colton .-. 84 

Peat from San Bernardino Valley; Wm. H. Avery 86 

Gypsum; Alpine Plaster and Cement Co., Los Angeles 86 

Gypseous clay, from near Riverside; D. L. Wilbur.. 86 

IV. Alkali 87 

AlkaH, it* nature, came*, and repmtion; by E. W. Hilgard 87 

What is alkali 87 

How do these alkali salts get into soils 87 

How and why does alkali rise to the surface 88 

Table showing rapidity of ascent of water in soils 89 

Damage done is due to accumulation near surface 90 

How to prevent damage from alkali 90 

Black alkali, and damage therefrom 90 

How gotten rid of 91 

Easy test for alkalinity of soil 91 

White alkali and remedy 91 

Bottom waters of Fresno region 92 

Analyses of bottom waters 93 

Explanation for occurrence of alkali spots in Fresno region 94 

Drainage and gypsum the means of a radical cure 96 

Analyte* of alkali ... 96 

From soils on Runyon Farm, Sacramento County; N. W. Motheral 96 

From soils near Fresno; J. S. Dore 96 

From Pleasant Valley, Fresno County ; Mrs. M. E. Cleary 97 

From soils at various depths, Fresno County ; J. S. Hittell 97 



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8 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 

Paoi. 

From Kern Island; Willis Carter 97 

From Kern County artesian belt; George A. Raymond 96 

From near Bakersfield, Kern County ; S. W. Austin 96 

From Colton Avenue, Santa Ana bottom, San Bernardino County 98 

From El Cajon, San Diego County; C. M. Johnson, M.D 99 

Deposit in boilers; P. P. Keough, Bishop, Inyo County 99 

Further experiments on reactions between alkali sulphates and calcic carbonate; by 

M. E. Jaffa 100 

Previous results 100 

Experiments with potassic sulphate 101 

Experiments with sodic sulphate 104 

Experiments with calcic sulphate (gypsum) 104 

V. Feuits akd Vegetable Products 106 

Investigation of California oranges and lemons; by G. E. Colby and H. Dyer 106 

Description of oranges and lemons received 107 

Table of proximate analyses 109 

Proportion of rind to flesh of oranges 109 

Juiciness; sugar contents 110 

Acid in juice 110 

Nutritive value . Ill 

Analysis of ash of California oranges and lemons _.. 11S 

Ingredients withdrawn by citrus fruits 114 

Ash composition and nitrogen contents 114 

Analysis of apricots 116 

Examination of sugar-beets ... 115 

From Fresno 116 

From near Santa Bosa, Sonoma County; E. E. Sawyer 118 

From Chino Ranch, San Bernardino County; R. Gird 118 

From Watsonville, Santa Cruz County; N. D. Barry 119 

From Foothills Experiment Station, Amador County 119 

Character of soils of the station 119 

Analysis of the beets 121 

From Southern Coast Range Station, San Luis Obispo County 121 

Character of soils of the station 121 

Analysis of the beets 123 

Comparative tannin assays of canaigre roots; by Charles S. Bonner 123 

Internal structure of root 13* 

■ Microscopic character of root 124 

Location of tannin 124 

Determination of tannin . 126 

Table showing tannin in different parts of root 126 

Distribution of tannin in the root . . . 138 

Time of gathering.. 126 

Preservative fluids for fresh fruit; by E. W. Hilgard 136 

Must prevent all fermentation 126 

Must be a liquid 137 

Should not change color of the fruit 127 

Should not cause fruit to swell 127 

Use of sugar, glycerine, salt, alum, gypsum 127 

Amount of soluble matter in fruit juices ; 137 

Use of antiseptics— salicylic acid, boracic acid, sulphurous acid, and corrosive 

sublimate 128 



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CONTENTS. 9 

Paok. 

Additional experience with antiseptics 180 

77k; sulphuring of dried fruits; by E. W. Hilgard 181 

Objects sought to be attained 131 

Effects of sulphurous gas on apricots 182 

Effects of sulphurous gas on prunes 132 

Directions for proper sulphuring 138 

Ramie analyses. (See Fiber Plants of California, page 177.) 

VI. Febtilizbbs, etc 184 

The ut of fertilizer! in California; by E. W. Hilgard 134 

Increasing necessity for use of fertilizers - 184 

Quantities of soil ingredients withdrawn by various fruit crops 136 

Importance of examination of soils and waters 136 

Facts determined regarding the soils of the State concerning elements of 

plant-food 186 

Purity of commercial fertilizers 188 

Methods for decomposing bones 189 

Use of gypsum... 139 

Analytet of fertUizert 140 

Fish guano, from Messrs. Allen <fc Lewis, San Francisco 140 

Dry "hog tankage," from Messrs. Frost & Burgess, Riverside 140 

Sulphur refuse, from Shell Mound Station, Alameda County ; sent by Messrs. 

Sherwood, San Francisco 140 

Guano, from Sophia Island; Messrs. Crawford & Co., San Francisco 141 

The fertilizing value of grtatewood; by E. W. Hilgard 141 

Table showing ash composition, compared with that of samphire, seaweed, 

cabbage, and timothy hay 142 

Supply of mineral ingredients to the soil 142 

Removal of alkali by greasewood 142 

Comparison with ash of other crops v 143 

II. REPORTS ON CULTURE WORK AT THE SEVERAL EXPERIMENT 

STATIONS 146 

A. Ckstbal Statiox 147 

Field work of the station; by Edward 3. Wickson 147 

Wheat and the Hessian fly . — 147 

Benefits from tile drainage 147 

Orchard and vineyard 147 

Garden and nursery 148 

Propagating houses 148 

Arbo returns 149 

Roads and walks 149 

Manures 149 

The botanic garden; by Edward L. Greene 149 

Initiative work and purposes 149 

Climate of Berkeley well adapted to variety of plants 149 

Plants being collected from different parts of the State 180 

Plant house to be constructed 160 

OKxe culture and olive oil; by W. G. Klee 150 

Observation on olive varieties 160 

Tabulated statement of growth and bearing of varieties in Berkeley and 

other places 162 

Varieties according to per cent of pit 164 

University seedling olives 168 



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10 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 

Plot. 

The olive; notes by Louis PapareUi 159 

Ripening, picking, selection, and conservation 169 

Methods of gathering 160 

Sorting 161 

Conservation 162 

Proper fertilization of olive trees 162 

Chemical composition of the olive 163 

Fertilizers required for the tree 164 

Soil ingredients withdrawn from the soil... 164 

Time and mode of manuring olive trees 165 

Pickling olives, directions for 188 

California olives, their adaptations and oils 167 

Varieties — . 167 

Observations on the oils obtained IBS 

Analyses of California olives and oils 170 

Proportion of pit to flesh 171 

Quantity of oil 171 

Quality of oil 172 

Experiments with Mission olives by Adolph Sommer 172 

Tests of purity ; iodine absorption 173 

Importation of olives 174 

Olive oil adulterations, tests for 174 

Physical examination - 175 

Iodine absorption 175 

Bechi's reaction 178 

Hauchecorne's reaction 176 

Brulle's reaction - 176 

Heidenreich's reaction — 176 

Baudouin's reaction 178 

Schneider's reaction 178 

Fiber plants for California _ 177 

The production of ramie; by E. W. HUgard 177 

Culture inexpensive by high production and demand 177 

Productiveness of soil maintained by returning the " trash " 177 

Difficulty of separating and cleaning the flber 177 

Plans for decortication — " wet " and " dry " process 178 

Production of ramie in Kern, and Sacramento and Coast Range valleys ... 179 

Table of results of experimental culture at Berkeley 179 

Table of results of experimental culture in Italy ISO 

Return of the " trash " to the soil to maintain productiveness 180 

Ramie more exhaustive than cotton 180 

Sensitiveness to black alkali 181 

Not materially affected by white alkali 181 

Composition of the ramie plant; by M. E. Jaffa 181 

Annual yield on station grounds 181 

Annual yield at Padua, Italy 181 

Annual yield, Bakersfleld, Cal 181 

Chemical composition of the plant and its ash 182 

Fertilizing value of the ash 188 

Comparison with ash of other crops 186 

Table showing soil ingredients withdrawn by various crops 187 



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CONTENTS. 11 

Page. 

Ramie compared with fiber plants, wheat, sugar-beets, and fruits 186 

Flax for teed, and fiber; by E. J. Wickson 190 

Feasibility of production 190 

Best European varieties yield less seed than those grown in California 190 

Growth of flax on Experiment Station grounds 191 

Weights of seed, straw, and fiber (table) 192 

Results of retting show superiority of the station plant 192 

Grapes and other cultures 198 

New Persian grapes 193 

Letter from Prof. H. E. Van Deman 198 

Names of varieties 193 

New Italian grapes : 193 

Special value 193 

Names of varieties 194 

Culture of the black wattle; notes by W. G. Klee 196 

A source of tannin 196 

Recommended by Baron Ferd. von Miiller 196 

Estimate of cost of planting 196 

The two varieties— how distinguished 196 

Distribution of teed* and plants, and donations received; by E. J. Wickson 196 

Remarks concerning distribution 196 

Table showing number of plants and cuttings distributed in successive years. 197 

Table showing weight, in ounces, of seeds distributed 197 

Summary of applicants supplied— post offices, express offices, and counties 

reached 198 

Financial statement 199 

Donations of seeds, plants, etc., received during the years 1888-91 199 

Grasses and forage plants; by E. J. Wickson, accompanied by notes from trials 

made by correspondents 201 

Preliminary remarks 201 

Japanese wheat grass, a new species, description of 202 

Texas blue grass, with and without irrigation 203 

Schroder's brome grass, described and recommended 204 

Hungarian or awnless brome grass, a winter grass 207 

Tall oat grass, a winter grass chiefly 208 

Many-flowered millet grass 209 

Rye, for winter feeding ... 209 

Kaffir corn and millo maize, commended as fodder plants 210 

Johnson grass or evergreen millet, a pest 211 

Methods of extirpation 212 

Esparcette, or sainfoin, too highly praised 213 

Snail clover, most satisfactory where moisture is abundant 216 

Black medic, recommended for upper coast regions 217 

Japan clover, a failure in California 218 

Tangier pea 218 

Tagasaste. of no particular value in California 219 

Jersey kale, a wide range of adaptations 219 

Salt bushes, of doubtful value as feeding stuff. 220 

Reports on miscellaneous plants sent out from the Central Station; by C. H. Shinn.. 221 

General view of the subject - 221 

Seedling date palm 221 

Reports from experimenters — - -- 222 



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12 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 

Pioi 

As an ornamental lawn tree 222 

Review of the reports 222 

Most extensive planting done at Niles T .. 222 

The Persian date palm - 222 

History of introduction into California 222 

Letter from Professor Van Deman regarding distribution 222 

At Tulare and Pomona stations 22J 

The Huasco grape — 228 

Reports of experimenters 228 

Review of the reports 225 

Likeness between Huasco and Muscat •- - 225 

At Paso Robles station : -. 22« 

The olive 226 

Reports from growers — — 226 

The Nevadillo, and not the Manzanillo, harmed by cold 227 

Remarks on the reports 227 

The camphor tree; reports uniformly favorable 228 

Cause of failure in growth '. 228 

Station experiments. 228 

Reports from growers 228 

Review of reports 280 

Thecarob , 280 

A popular shade and ornamental tree 280 

Grows without irrigation, and on mesa land 230 

The cork oak 281 

California adapted to its growth 231 

Reports from growers , 251 

Soils best adapted to its growth 231 

Bamboos 232 

Reports from growers 232 

The mulberry ; a good avenue tree 238 

Value for fruit, timber, etc. 288 

Reports from growers 238 

Varieties best adapted to California 233 

New Zealand flax; a valuable plant 284 

Reports from growers- 284 

Not adapted to localities away from seacoast 234 

Best conditions for growth 284 

The melon tree; only suited to Southern California 235 

Reports from growers 236 

Other distributions 286 

Ouavas 236 

Coffee; unsuccessful attempts at cultivation ■ 235 

Catalpa 236 

Strawberry tree; successful attempts at growth 238 

Climate best suited to 236 

Maples as avenue and shade trees - 286 

Plant* along North Strawberry Creek; by Charles H. Shinn 236 

An illustration of what California gardeners can do with plants of a wide 

range of climate 236 

The weedt of California; by E. W. Hilgard 238 

Troublesome weeds of a country rarely aborigines thereof 238 



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CONTENTS. 13 

Paok. 

Some plants of careful culture in the East are weeds in California 289 

Mustard very abundant; radish, shepherd's purse, celery, fennel 239 

Native crucifers in the San Joaquin Valley... 239 

Weeds conspicuous on Atlantic Slope, almost unknown in California 240 

Polygonums a striking example 240 

Rumex crispus, pulcher, and acetosella (docks) are troublesome 240 

Amaranths flourish better than on the Atlantic side 240 

Chenopodiums almost as familiar as in the East 240 

Portulacca oleracea (purslane) in some localities 240 

Clayton ia perfoliate (spring salad) and Calandrinia Menziesii in vineyards. 240 
CaryophyUacea (Pink family); Silene Gallica (catchfly), Stellaria media 

(chickweed), Spergula arvensis (corn spurry) 241 

Papaveracax (Poppy family); Eschscholtzia Californica 241 

Malvacex (Mallow family); M. parviflora (malva) 241 

Gerantacejr (Geranium family); O. Carolinianum (weed geranium), Erodium 

cicutarum (alfilerilla), Oxalis corniculata (wood-sorrel) 241 

Anacardiaeex (Cashew family); Rhus diversiloba (poison oak) 242 

Leguminotst (Pulse family); Medicago denticulate (burr clover), Melilotus 
Indica (sweet clover), Lupinus formosus(sand lupin), Olycyrrhiza lepidota 

(native licorice) 242 

Rosacea- (Rose family); Charatebatia foliolosa (tar-weed of the Sierra foot- 
hills) 243 

Onagrariacae (Evening Primrose family); O. ovate (low evening primrose). 243 
Cucurbitacea (Gourd family); Megarrhiza (big root), Cue. foetida (calabazita 

of the Mexicans) 244 

Caclacese (Cactus family); cactus 244 

VmbMifene (Parsley family); Heracleum lanatum (cow parsnip), Peuce- 

danum, Caucalis, Sanicula Menziesii (snake-root) 244 

Subiacex (Madder family); R. tinctoria (madder), Galium (cleavers), 

Diodia (button-weed) - 244 

Diptacese (Teasel family); D. fullonutn (Puller's teasel) 244 



Compotitse (Composite family); Centaurea Melitensis and solstitialis (toca- 
lote of the Mexicans, Napa thistle, and tar-weed), Cotula vulgaris (May 
weed), 8ilbyum marianum (milk thistle), Carduus benedictus (pluraeless 
thistle), Xanthium (cockle-bur), Ambrosia (rag-weed), Sonchus oleraceus 



(milk thistle), Senecio vulgaris (groundsel), Erigeron Canadense (horse- 
weed), Cichorium intybus (chicory), Matricaria discoidea (chamomile), 
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (ox-eye daisy), Madia sativa (tar-weed), 
Hemizonia elegans and luzuIa?folia (tar-weeds), Helianthus annuus (sun- 
flower), Troximon, Hypocheeris (dandelion) 214 

Primulatxx (Primrose family); Anagallis arvensis (pimpernel) 247 

Apocynacea (Dogbane family); A. cannabinum (dog's-bane) 248 

Atdepiadaeae (Milk-weed family) ; A. Fremonti, eriocarpa, and fascicularis. 248 

Gentianacae (Gentian family) ; Erythrsea Mublenbergii (centaury) 248 

Pof«n«w»toc«K(Polemoniumfamily); Gilia squarrosa (skunk-weed) 248 

HydrophyUacetc (Waterleaf family); Phacelia tanacetifolia 248 

Borraginausc (Borrage family); Amsinckia intermedia and lycopsoides 

(yellow tar-weed) 248 

Convolndacex (Convolvulus family); C. Californicus and C. arvensis (bind- 
weeds), Cuscuta trifolia and salina (dodder) 248 

Solanaeete (Nightshade family); S. nigrum (nightshade), Datura stramo- 
nium and meteloides (Jamestown weeds) 248 



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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



Pagl 



Scrophulanacae (Figwort family); S. California, Mimulus lyratus (monkey 

flower), Orthocarpus purpurascens 249 

Labiates (Mint family) ; Brunella, Stachys bullata, Trichostema (camphor- 
weed 249 

Verbenaeete (Vervain family); V. officinalis 249 

Plantaginacesc (Plantain family); P. lanceolate 249 

Polygonacese (Buckwheat family); P. major, mollis; Rumez hymenosepa- 

lus, crisptis, pulcher, acetosella 249 

Urticaeese (Nettle family); TJ. holoserica and urens (nettles) 249 

Euphorbiacese (Spurge family); E. serpyllifolia, albomarginata, and ocel- 

lata (rattlesnake-weeds), Lathyris, Eremocarpus setigerus (turkey-weed). 249 
Saururacae (Saururad family); Aneraopsis Californica (yerba mansa of 

the Mexicans) 250 

Iridacex (Iris family) ; Sisyrinchium bellura (blue star grass) 250 

LUiacex (Lily family); Calochortus invenustus (California lily), Zygadenus. 250 

Juneaeesc (Rush family); J. effusus (bog-rush) 260 

Oraminess (Grass family) ; Bromus secalinus (chess grass), Lolium temulen- 
tnm (darnel), Lolium perenne and multiflorum (English ray grass), 
Bromus mollis and sterilis, Hordeum murinum (foxtail, or barley grass), 
Avena fatua (wild oat), Panicum halepense (Johnson grass), Setaria 
glauca (bristly foxtail), Poa annua (spear grass), Distichlis maritima 

(alkaligrass) 250 

Ftrta : Pteris aquilina (eagle fern ) 251 

Weed troubles are avoided by intelligent care ; 252 

Some Berkeley weed-seeds, with illustrations; by Hubert P. Dyer 252 

Cnusiferss (Mustard family); Raphanus sativus, Capsella Bnrsa-pastoris 283 

Papaveraeesc (Poppy family); Eschscholtzia crocea 268 

Qeraniacea (Cranesbill family); Erodium moschatum, Geranium Carolinia- 

nura, G. dissectum 288 

CaryophyUacea (Pink family); Silene Gallica 26* 

Portulaccacex (Purslane family); Claytonia perfoliata, Calandrinia Men- 

riesii 255 

Malvacesc (Mallow family): Malva parviflora 258 

Leguminosx (Pea family); Medicago denticulate, Lapinus mecrantha, Tri- 

folium gracilentum 267 

Composite (Sunflower family); Agoseris plebeia, A. hirsute, Calais Lindleyi, 
Hypocheeris radicate, Sonchus oleraceus, Senecio vulgaris, Matricaria dis- 

' coidea, Gnaphalium purpureum 269 

Labiate (Mint family); Stachys bullata 266 

Borraginaceac (Borrage family); Amsinckia 266 

Report on tree* planted at Mount Hamilton; by K. McLennan 267 

B. Thk Foothill Station; by Chas. H. Shinn 268 

Improvements and repairs 268 

The orchard 268 

Notes on apples, pears 269 

Plums— the true garden plum found in the Japan variety 269 

Prunes, apricots, peaches, nectarines 269 

Almonds, cherries, figs, olives, and nuts „ 289 

Report on the growing of grains in 1890-91; by Geo. Hansen 270 

Nature of the seasons — rainfall, etc 270 

Character of the soils 270 



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CONTENTS. 



15 



Page. 

Table showing average height, and time of ripening of seed : wheat, barley, 

oats, rye, spelts 271 

Fertilizer experiment* at the Foothill Station; by Geo. Hansen 276 

Report on the trial of hay -growing with the aid of different fertilizers. 275 

C. The Southern Coast Range Station; by Charles H. Shinn 278 

Description of grounds 278 

Visit of the Foreman to fairs.... 278 

Orchard experiments 270 

Summary of results 281 

Japanese plums sweeter than In the Bay country.. 281 

All deciduous fruits can be raised without irrigation 281 

Vineyard experiments 281 

Cereal experiments 281 

Tabulated report of crops on light soils 282 

Tabulated report of crops on adobe soils 286 

D. The San Joaquin Valley Station; by Charles H. Shinn 287 

Difficulties to contend with , 287 

One of the most important stations of the United States 287 

General appearance of the orchard. 287 

Reports on trees planted on alkali land : apricots, peaches, plums, nectarines, 

apples, almonds, pears, olives, figs, other plants 288 

Report on the cereals 280 

Wheat : preparation of soil and seed ; table showing the yield 280 

Barleys, rye, oats, spelts 290 

Report on grasses and clovers 201 

Cotton, and other cultures '. 201 

E. Thk South California Station; by Charles H. Shinn 202 

Reasons for selection of Pomona 202 

Work at the station begun T. 202 

Gift of Mr. Richard Gird 208 

Water supply 208 

. Preparation of the tract 203 

Fencing, farm buildings, etc 298 

Planting the orchard - 204 

Olives, citrus fruits, almonds, cherries, peaches, nectarines, apricots, plums, 

prunes, pears, apples, figs 294 

Condition of the orchard 206 

The vineyard... 296 

Date palms 295 

Notes on other plants - 295 

Donations of plants to the station 298 

Sugar-beets, varieties - 296 

Sorghums, choice collection of. 296 

Notes on growth 296 

Litt of graptt and fruit tree* planted at the itation 207 

III. ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY AND INSECTICIDES 301 

School inttruction in entomology; by E. J. Wickson 803 

California the first State to provide such instruction 303 

Required by Act of Legislature • 803 

Aid and encouragement given to teachers - — 803 

Requirements for successful teaching 30* 

Time and ability on the part of the teacher 804 



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16 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



PlGl 

Library of reference and microscopes 804 

Assistance from County Horticultural Commissioners 804 

Instruction by object lessons 304 

Classification of inseots 304 

Cooperation on the part of pupils 901 

Oral instruction 306 

Permanent collections 305 

What the schools are doing in entomology 306 

Extracts from correspondence 305 

Conclusions drawn therefrom 307 

Assistant in entomology appointed 307 

Spray and band treatment for the codlin moth; by C. W. Woodworth 308 

The use of arsenites 308 

Methods of application • 308 

Seasonable weather : 908 

Plan of procedure 308 

Table showing results with Paris green, London purple, and white arsenic, 

respectively 308 

Discussion of table 309 

Examination of the band methods of treatment 309 

Table showing results 310 

Discussion of table 310 

Other results from the experiments 310 

Varieties of pears and apples below and above the average of injury by the 

codlin moth 311 

Table showing results of spray treatment, by seasons 312 

Variation in Hessian fly injury; by C. W. Woodworth 312 

Observations during 1886-81 '. 312 

Table showing injury to wheat 313 

Resistant varieties of wheat 317 

Early and late varieties of wheat. 317 

The date of planting 318 

Use of gates against scale insects; by P. W. Morse 319 

Gases experimented with : Chlorine, carbon bisulphide, sulphuretted hydrogen, 

ammonia, carbon monoxide, oxalic acid, carbolic acid, hydrocyanic acid ... 319 

Injury to foliage 321 

Experiments on the cause and avoidance of injury to foliage 322 

Product and effects of ammonia 824 

Influence of temperature 328 

Conclusions 325 

Modes of preventing injury 325 

List of Papers Received in the Reading Room of the Central Station 327 

Account of Expenditures from the United Status Experiment Station 

Fund, for the Year ending June 30, 1891 329 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Diagram showing relation of hardpan to alkali spots 94 

Some Berkeley weed-seeds (twenty-three in number) 252 



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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



Prof. Martin Kellogg, Acting President of the University: 

Sir: I transmit herewith a report on the work of the Experiment 
Station of the University, including that of the culture sub-stations 
established under the provisions of the "Hatch Act" of endowment. 

In the regular order of events this report should represent the work 
of the year 1890. Owing, however, to the difficulties and delays brought 
about by lack of an adequate personnel in the staff, and the extraordinary 
duties imposed upon the Director in the establishment of new culture 
sub-stations, it has been impossible to keep pace, in the publication of 
the annual reports, with the actual progress of the work. Hence, the 
present document contains the record of some work dating back as far 
as 1888, and thus far published only in bulletin form; and at the same 
time, owing to the lateness of the date at which it becomes possible to 
send this manuscript to press, it has seemed inadvisable to defer further 
the publication, in permanent form, of important material now on hand, 
but actually elaborated within the season of 1891. As a matter of fact, 
therefore, this report clears our docket of work done up to June 30, 1891, 
and not thus far published save partially in bulletin form, excepting 
only the viticultural work, which for palpable reasons is best published 
separately, as has been done heretofore. A report on this latter subject, 
prepared largely by Assistant Paparelli, will therefore follow the present 
one within a short time, and will similarly clear our docket up to the 
vintage of 1890, of which only a partial report can, in the nature of the 
case, as yet be made. 

The increase lately made in the staff of the station, on the basis of 
the " College Aid Fund " provided at the last session of Congress, will 
render it possible to publish reports with regularity hereafter, so far as 
can be foreseen. It will always, however, be preferable to sacrifice the 
shadow to the substance, and to give publicity to subjects of immediate 
interest to the agricultural population whenever such matter shall be 
ready for the press. To do this in the definitive form of a final report 
would usually delay such publication to an undesirable extent; it is, 
therefore, intended to continue, as heretofore, the issuance of " bulle- 
tins" in transient form, which are to be reproduced, with more elaborate 
discussion when desirable, in the annual reports. 

As regards the chemical work here reported, except where otherwise 
noted, that relating to soils, waters, and other mineral substances, as 
well as fertilizers, also that relating to ramie, beets, and greasewood, 
has been done by Assistant M. E. Jaffa; while all relating to fruits, 
and especially the analyses of musts and wines (separately reported 
upon hereafter) has been done by, or under the charge of, Assistant 
George E. Colby. 

The arrangement and last revision of the body of the present report 
for the press has been in the experienced and efficient hands of Assist- 
ant Prof. R. H. Loughridge, whose former work in the report on cotton 
2* 



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18 



CNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



production for the Tenth Census, vouches for his qualifications in the 
direction in which additional aid was most needed in this office. In 
the preparation of the entomological portion of the report, Assistant 
C. W. Woodworth has made important contributions, and we look for- 
ward with confidence to a material development of the entomological 
work of the station under his hands, already well trained and proved in 
former fields. 

The wide and unusual scope taken by our station work is well illus- 
trated in the present report. The large extent of territory, and the 
equally wide climatic range requiring our attention; the questions of 
immediate vital interest newly arising under unusual and imperfectly 
known conditions, necessarily impart to our work an aspect entirely 
different from that borne by the record of the stations whose work is 
thrown within the well-traced lines of climates akin to those of western 
Europe and the Atlantic States, where most of the theoretical investiga- 
tion relating to agriculture has thus far been done, and laid down in 
standard publications. We cannot accept unquestioningly, for Califor- 
nia, many of the maxims that have gained unhesitating assent in those 
regions, but whose application to arid climates has never had oppor- 
tunity to be tested. The unfamiliar agricultural practice of South 
Spain, Egypt, North Africa, Asia Minor, and the northwest provinces 
of India, rather than that of the eastern United States, forms the basis 
upon which the greater part of California must build its own, profoundly 
modifying many of the current practices of the older States. The 
incredulity with which so many of the most familiar and daily occur- 
ring phenomena of Californian agriculture meet at the East (not 
uncommonly to the extent of being characterized as " another Califor- 
nia yarn"), admonish us that our line of investigation is necessarily 
laid in different and new directions; and that while we should sedu- 
lously avail ourselves of every possible source of information afforded 
by Old World and Eastern practice, yet to follow such precedents blindly 
and without careful consideration of the characteristic differences 
induced by climatic influences, would be to court failure in the majority 
of cases. 

If, therefore, Eastern or European readers should find the substance of 
this and of former reports of a rather miscellaneous and elementary 
character, and largely devoid of connected and systematic investiga- 
tion, such as forms the subject of station work elsewhere, let it be 
remembered that California is not only a new country in the sense 
of comparatively late occupation by a progressive population, but that 
it also contains so much that is intrinsically new to scientific and 
technical investigation; that the problems to be solved by the experiment 
station are correspondingly new and untried, and must be dealt with 
accordingly. 

E. W. HILGARD, 
Director of Experiment Stations. 

Berkeley, July, 1891. 



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EXPERIMENT STATIONS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF 
CALIFORNIA. 



CENTRAL STATION (Berkeley, Alameda County). 
(Not*.— AU station officers participate in University instruction.) 
E. W. Hilgahd, Ph.D., LL.D. (Professor of Agriculture), Director and Chemist. 
E. J. Wickson, M. A. (Associate Professor of Agriculture, Horticulture, and Entomology), 

Superintendent of Agricultural Grounds. 
E. L. Greene, Ph.B. (Associate Professor of Botany), Botanist. 

R. H. Locghridge, Ph.D. (Assistant Professor), Agricultural Geologist and Agricultural 
Chemist. 

M. E. Jaffa, Ph.B. (Instructor), First Assistant Chemist in Agricultural Laboratory. 
L. Paparklli, Lie. Agr. (Instructor), Assistant in charge of Viticulture and Olive Culture. 
George E. Colby, Ph.B. (Instructor), Second Assistant Chemist in Viticultural Labora- 
tory. 

C. W. Woodwobth, M.S. (Instructor), Assistant in Entomology. . 

W. G. Klke (deceased), Inspector of Stations, to October 20, 1890. 

C. H. Shins, A.B., Inspector of Stations, from October 20, 1890. 

Emil Kellnbr, Foreman of Station Grounds. 

P. T. Biolbtti, Foreman of the Viticultural Cellar. 

E. F. Goodyear, Cleric to the Director (resigned June 30, 1891). 

J. W. Blankenship, A.B., Clerk to the Director, from July 1, 1891. 



SIERRA FOOTHILL STATION (near Jackson, Amador County). 

A. Camikbtti, Patron; Jackson (term expired June 30, 1891). 
R. C. Rust, Patron; Jackson (appointed July 1, 1891). 
Obobob Hansen, Foreman; Jackson. 



SOUTHERN COAST RANGE STATION (near Paso de Robles, San Luis Obispo 

County). 

J. V. Webster, Patron ; Creston. 

R. D. Crcickshahk., Foreman; Paso Robles. 



SAN JOAQD1N VALLEY STATION (near Tulare City, Tulare County). 

B. F. Moobb, Patron; Tulare. 
Julius Fobbeb, Foreman; Tulare. 

80UTH CALIFORNIA STATION (near Pomona, Los Angeles County). 

Richard Gibd, Patron; Chino. 
K. McLennan, Foreman ; Pomona. 

VITICULTURAL STATIONS (un/ler private auspices). 
West 8i»b Santa Clara Valley Station; Cupertino, Santa Clara County. John T. 

Doyle, Patron ; Menlo Park. 
East 8ii>e 8anta Claba Valley Station; Mission San Josg, Alameda County. John 

Gallegos, Patron; Mission San Jos6. 
Fresno Valley Station; Fresno City, Fresno County. E. B. Rogers, Patron; Fresno. 



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SUMMARY OF CONTENTS. 



i. 



Page. 



Repobt and Discussion of Work in the General Agricultural Laboratory— 
Analyses of soils, waters, rocks, marls, peat, and gypsuro. Alkali, its causes, 
repression, etc. ; reactions between alkali sulphates and carbonates. Fruits 
and vegetable products: oranges, lemons, sugar-beets, apricots. Tannin 
assays of cafiaigre roots. Preservative fluids for fresh fruits; sulphuring 
of dried fruits. Fertilizers; use of in California; fertilizing value of grease- 
wood 23 



Repobt on Culture Work at the Several Experiment Stations— 

Central Station: Culture work; olives; fiber plants; donations received, and 
distribution of seeds and plants; plants along Strawberry Creek; weeds of 
California and of Berkeley. Culture work at the Foothill, Southern Coast 



KlPOBT ON ECONOHIC ENTOMOLOGY AND INSECTICIDES — 

School instruction in entomology. Spray and band treatment for the codliii 
moth. On variations in Hessian fly injury. Use of gases against scale 



II. 



Range, San Joaquin, and South California Stations 



146 



III. 



insects 



301 




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I. 

« 

RECORD AND DISCUSSIONS OF WORK IN THE GENERAL 
AGRICULTURAL LABORATORY. 



EXAMINATIONS AND ANALYSES OF SOILS, WATERS, FRUITS, 
ALKALI, AND MISCELLANEOUS SUBSTANCES. 



I. ANALYSES OK SOILS. 



A. SIERRA FOOTHILLS. 

Soils from the Foothill Experiment Station. 

No. 1291. Soil from mamanita land, McKay tract, Foothill Station, 
Amador County; from the level, or gently sloping portion of the land 
beyond (west of) the Amador ditch, at the foot of a granite ridge. The 
land is covered thickly with large bushes of manzanita and spiny 
chaparral, with tufts of grass in open spaces. The soil is a fawn-colored, 
coarse, gritty loam; dry lumps crush easily, showing much coarse, angu- 
lar sand, mainly granitic debris. 

No. 1294- Soil from pine land, McKay tract, from lower slope of 
residence hijl toward the ditch, overgrown with young pine and some man- 
zanita bushes. A reddish, coarse, gritty loam, dry lumps crushing easily, 
becoming but slightly plastic on wetting and kneading, and showing 
much mica. The coarse part consists mainly of sharp quartz sand and 
larger quartz fragments, evidently derived from veins in the " bedrock; " 
also, more or less rounded fragments of a sandy, micaceous shale or slate, 
often rusty; little or no feldspar. 

For comparison, two other soils of the station, already reported, are 
placed alongside. 



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24 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



Soils from the Foothill Station. 





NO. 1291. 


No. 1294. 


No. 1115. 


No. U1S. 




Soil from Man- 


Soil from Pine 


Granite Soil, 


Slate Soil, 




znnlta Land. 


Land. 


North Slope. 


South Slope. 


Coarse materials^.©*"" 


62.00 


23.00 


40.00 


19.20 


Fine earth 


48.00 


77.00 


60.00 


80.80 


Analysis oj jiik £iar{n* 




100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 




72.43) „. „. 
8.94f M - 87 


73.62) _j, „ 
6.26f 79 - 77 


62.441 -o- 

li.eif 78 - 95 


49.96) M „ 
14.96j °* !K 


Potash (K.O) 

Soda(Na s O) 


.64 


.26 


.68 


1.48 


.09 


.07 


.18 


.43 






•11 


.ou 




Magnesia (MgO)..- 


.18 


.16 


.30 


2.21 


Br. ox. of manganese (Mn 3 0 4 ).. 


nQ 
.w 


Al 


.V* 


tin 


Peroxide of iron (Fe,O s ) 


4.19 


4.67 


6.28 


11.52 


Alumina (Al 2 Ch) 

Sulphuric acid (SO,) ... 


8.63 


9.36 


12.18 


12.81 


.05 


.07 


.06 


.06 


.01 


.01 


.01 


.02 




4.89 


6.24 


7.28 


6.61 


Totals 


100.28 


99.81 


100.30 


100.22 


Humus 


.412 


.392 


.48 


.64 


Ash 


.618 


.368 


.23 


.80 


Sol. phosphoric acid 


.020 


.018 


.02 


.03 


Silica 


.240 


.130 


.16 


.60 


Hygroscopic moisture (absorbed 
at 16° C.) 










2.56 


3.14 


5.93 


5.74 



The above table shows very wide differences in the composition of the 
soils of the station in its several portions. All agree in having but a 
moderate supply of phosphoric acid; but in potash they range all the 
way from .26 to 1.48 per cent; in lime from .17 to .60 per cent (in the 
subsoil of No. 1113, 1.37 per cent). It is thus no wonder that without a 
close examination of the soils to be used, agricultural ventures in the 
foothills are sometimes disappointing; both because of great differences 
in the nature of the soils within small distances, and of the variations 
in depth. In addition, the so called granites differ so widely in their 
mineral nature that what is true of one " granite soil " may not be at 
all true of another in a different region. 

Of the two soils here specially in question, it appears that they con- 
stitute the poorest portion of the station tract; and hence the fertilizer 
experiments made upon them this year (1891) will be of more than 
usual interest, it being currently stated that they do not yield, at best, 
more than one and a quarter to one and a half tons of hay per acre, 
and in unfavorable years much less. The kind of fertilizer wanted on 
them will probably be found to be of the most complete type — that of 
stable manure. 

No. 1189. Red soil of the foothills, Sec. 7, T. 17 N., R. 14 E., near 
Moore's Station, on the Oroville road, Butte County; sent by Mr. Norman 
Rideout, Marysville. The sample was taken twelve inches deep. 

" The soil is taken from a hillside in the foothills, on the east side of 
the Sacramento Valley, at an elevation of about five hundred feet above 
the level of the sea. The soil is covered with a short grass which, dur- 
ing the winter and spring, affords an excellent pasture; and in this 
neighborhood such land is generally used for this purpose only. It is 



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ANALYSES OF SOILS. 



25 



well covered with trees, consisting of white oak, with an occasional digger 
pine. The soil, when plowed and exposed to the sun and air, assumes 
a bright red color, which becomes darker with cultivation. It packs 
quickly, but this difficulty seems to be overcome by repeated plowing. 
The soil is deep, and it is difficult to distinguish any subsoil; however, 
there seems to be more gravel at the surface. The average rainfall is 
twenty inches. Attention is being directed to this land as suitable for 
the vine, olive, and fig. Large numbers of trees and vines have been 
planted, and, with irrigation, appear to be doing well. The sample is a 
fair average one of a soil covering thousands of acres in the foothills, on 
the eastern border of the Sacramento Valley." 

A cinnamon-colored, silty loam. The dry lumps crush pretty easily 
between the fingers, soften quickly on wetting, without greatly darkening 
in color, and become only moderately plastic on kneading. The soil will 
evidently till kindly, save when very wet. It contains some coarse sand 
and (mostly angular) gravel up to one fourth inch diameter, consisting 
partly of white quartz, but mostly of gray sandstone, and other sandy 
varieties of the foothill " bedrock." It does not effervesce with acids. 

The analysis resulted as follows: 



Red Lands near Moore' t Station, Butte County. 



No. 1139. 
Red SolL 



Coarse materials>0.6 m °' . 
Fine earth 



AnalytU of Fine Earth. 



Insoluble matter. 

Soluble Bilica 

Potash (K-O) .... 

8oda(Na,6) 

Lime (CaO) 

Magnesia (MgO) . 



35.00 
66.00 



Br. ox. of manganese (Mn 3 0 4 ) 

Peroxide of iron (Pe t Oj) 9. 

Alumina (A1 2 0,) 12. 

Phosphoric acid (P,O e ) 

Sulphuric acid (80 3 ) 

Water and organic matter I 4. 



47.! 
18.! 



65.64 



26 
.06 
,10 
,23 
03 
84 
36 
07 
01 
42 



Total 99.90 



Humus. 
Ash . 



Sol. phosphoric acid 

Silica 

Hygroscopic moisture (absorbed at 15"C). 



.86 
.44 
.08 
.28 
4.00 



The analysis show.s this soil to be quite poor in potash and humus, 
but with a fair proportion of phosphoric acid, and a large one of lime; 
the latter substance, however, is not in the form of carbonate to any 
great extent, but, as shown in the higher proportion of soluble silica in 
this and other foothill soils, in that of an easily decomposable complex 
silicate. The soil is thus not a very thrifty one, and would soon be ex- 
hausted by field crops, but where deep enough will doubtless do well for 
fruits, especially peaches, almonds, cherries, citrus fruits, and others 
requiring light and well drained soils. For citrus fruits and grapes it 
would soon require fertilization with potash salts, and, ultimately, with 
complete fertilizers. Its low content of humus should, as soon as possi- 



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26 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



ble, be increased by green-manuring, or, if fruits should prove undersize, 
by the use of Chile saltpeter or other nitrogenous fertilizers. 

N08. 1027, 1028. Red soil and subsoil, from eight miles west of An- 
derson, Shasta County; sent by Mr. J. R. Love, Anderson. The dry 
lumps crush readily between the fingers, and when wet are of a dark 
red color, and plastic to some extent. The difference between the soil 
and its subsoil seems to be chiefly in the organic matter, which gives to 
the soil a darker color; the humus and its available constituents were 
therefore alone determined in the soil, and a full analysis given to the 
subsoil. 

Red Land west of Anderson, Shasta County. 



No. 1028. 
Red Subsoil. 



No. 1027. 
Bed SOIL 



Coarse materials> 0.5*"° * 23.3 

Fine earth 76.7 



Analysis of Fine Earth. 



Insoluble matter. 

Soluble silica 

Potash (K 4 0) .... 

Soda(Naj.O) 

Lime(CaO) 

Magnesia (MgO)_. 



Br. ox. of manganese (Mn s 0 4 ) . 

Peroxide of iron (Fe a O s ) 

Alumina (A1 2 0.) 

Phosphoric acid (P,0 5 ) 

Sulphuric acid(SOj) 

Water and organic matter 



Total. 



Hygroscopic moisture (absorbed at 16° C). 

Humus 

Ash 

Soluble phosphoric acid 



100.0 

51.8931 
17.848) 
.273 
.162 
.118 
.306 
.026 
6.979 
16.801 
.041 
.033 
7.447 



69.741 



100.922 
8.347 



8.000 
1.614 
.328 
.020 



This soil is rather unusual in composition for California, and would 
readily be taken, in its chemical composition, for one of the "Pine Hill" 
soils of the Cotton States. Its supply of lime is the lowest thus far found 
in any soil of this State, and would be deficient anywhere; phosphoric 
acid and potash are also in low supply, and considering the poverty in 
lime, this soil cannot be considered as likely to produce for more than a few 
years without substantial fertilization. The large percentage of alumina 
is evidently due to the presence of "clay," but the latter is not in a plas- 
tic condition, but probably in that of kaolin or porcelain earth — a poor 
foundation for a soil. 

So long as so much good land can be had in the State, few will care 
to cast their lot on such land as this. 

No. 1179. Soils from the east side of Honey Lake, Lassen County; 
sent by W. A. Clark, Berkeley. The samples were taken twelve inches 
deep, and represent a district of thirty square miles more or less accu- 
rately. They are whitish, silty, effervescent with acid, becoming some- 
what plastic on wetting, without darkening much in color. The coarser 
parts are sharply angular, apparently fragments of obsidian (volcanic 
glass) and pumice stone, with some quartz. All the samples appear 
to be ancient lake deposits. Only one was chemically examined. 



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27 



Soil from Honey Lake, Latsen County. 



No. 1179. 
East Bide 
of Lake. 



Potash 

Soda 

lime (8.64 carbonate of lime) 

Phosphoric acid 

8ulphuric acid 



.86 
.48 
4.78 
.12 
.OS 



These data show the soil to be highly calcareous, and rich both in 
potash and phosphoric acid. All are evidently poor in humus, and in 
the absence of definite information regarding the vegetation of the lands, 
it is difficult to judge how far they would be productive in cultivation 
without the addition of vegetable matter. So far as the mineral ingredi- 
ents are concerned they promise well, although the large proportion of 
soda found indicates the presence of some "alkali." Much will, of course, 
depend upon the nature of the subsoil, which, in some of these lands, 
is known to be extremely sandy, and of little promise. Such tracts 
are usually marked by an exclusive growth of greasewood; the addition 
of gray sage to this vegetation always proves the presence of a more 
substantial subsoil, which is of particular importance in lands to be 
irrigated. 



B. GREAT VALLEY. 

No. 1192. Soil from the land of the Buhach Colony, Merced; sent 
by McSwain & Co., Merced. The soil is a sandy loam, somewhat dark 
when dry. Its subsoil is much lighter in color, and closely resembles the 
under-subsoil, an analysis of which is given below. The soil sample was 
taken to a depth of six inches. 

No. 1194. Under-subsoil of the above; taken at a depth of from 
thirty to fifty-four inches. It is light gray in color when dry, very 
sandy. 

Vailey Land, Buhach Colony, Merced. 



No. 1192. No. 1194. 

Soil. Under-subsoil. 



Coarse materials>0.5" n » \ 85.00 , 30.00 

Fine earth I 65.00 70.00 

Analytit of Fine Earth. 1 I 

Insoluble matter i 90.30) M „, I 88.69) Q1 „ R 

Soluble silica - 2.37f 92,67 2.68 9125 

Potash (K a O) 1 .26 .25 

8oda(Na,0) ] .08 I .06 

Lime(CaO) : .49 .41 

Magnesia (MgO) .33 1 .84 

Br. ox. of manganese (Mn 3 0 4 ) .03 ; .03 

Peroxide of iron (Fe,O s ). 1 3.32 8.67 

Alumina (AI.,0,) 1.87 I 2.95 

Phosphoric acid (P 2 0.) 03 j .03 

Sulphuric acid (SO, ) 03 | .02 

Water and organic matter 1.27 .87 



Totals. 



100.38 I 99.88 



Humus 29 

Ash 34 

80L phosphoric acid 1 .02 1 

8ilica...:. I .17 ! 

Hygroscopic moisture (absorbed at 15° C.) | 1.08 I 1.28 



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28 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



These soils are extremely sandy, and at first sight would seem to 
correspond with the sandhill soils of the Fresno neighborhood. But 
examination shows that the sand of the Merced soils is very largely 
granitic, and, correspondingly, the analysis shows higher proportions of 
mineral plant-food, and, therefore, a better promise of durability. It 
will be observed that there is no notable difference between the subsoil at 
four and one half feet depth and the surface soil; the former is slightly 
heavier and more retentive. Considering the great depth and pervious- 
ness of the soil and subsoil, the low plant-food percentages need not 
discourage cultivation, so long as the level of the bottom- water is not 
allowed to rise too near the surface; but to fill up this land with water 
from below will be just as fatal to its production as it has been to that 
of the sandier class of soils near Fresno. The application of manures, 
when called for, will require careful management, as fresh stable manure 
would not decay, and therefore would remain ineffective, unless put in 
very deeply; while soluble fertilizers would very readily be washed out 
of reach of the roots of crops by heavy rains, or irrigation. 

No. 1061. Soil of viticultural experimental plot for grafting; E. B. 
Rogers' place, Fresno. The sample was taken twelve inches deep. 
This is a coarsely sandy, reddish soil, showing an abundance of angular 
granitic ingredients; some little angular as well as partly rounded 
gravel, as much as eight mm. in diameter. The dry lumps crush 
easily between the fingers; on wetting they soften quickly and become 
slightly plastic; but the soil should be workable at all times. When 
dry the color is reddish brown, mottled with white grains; wetting 
heightens the reddish tint. 

No. 106S. Subsoil of the above; taken from twenty-four to thirty- 
six inches depth. A brownish, sandy, lumpy mass, almost a hard pan, 
probably from sampling while wet. The dry lumps do not crush 
readily between the fingers, but soften instantly on wetting and become 
fairly plastic. This substratum manifestly contains more clay than 
the surface soil, for which it makes a very substantial foundation; it 
contains less of coarse and gravelly ingredients than the soil. 

No. 1065. Subsoil of land offered for an experimental plot on Dr. 
Eschleman's place, three miles east of Fresno. The sample was taken 
from twelve to twenty-four inches depth. It does not differ materi- 
ally from the soil in any respect, save in a slightly lighter color. The 
soil is a very sandy loam, somewhat coarse, and showing many white 
grains of one and two mm. diameter, which, under the microscope, are 
shown to be quartz and feldspar. The dry lumps are somewhat 
coherent, but are readily crushed between the fingers; the soil is barely 
plastic on wetting. 

No. 1066. Under-subsoil of the above; Dr. Eschleman's place. 
Taken at a depth of four to four and a half feet. The earth is very 
similar to the surface soil, save as to a still lighter tint and slightly 
greater coarseness. 



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ANALYSES OF SOILS. 29 



VaUey Land of Experimental Plots, near Fremo. 





R. B. Rogers' Place. 


Dr. Eschleman's Place. 




Soil. 


Subsoil. 


Subsoil. 


Under-subsoiL 




No. 1061. 


No. 1063. 


No. 1065. 


No. 1066. 


Coarse materials>0.5 nun 


AA K 
44.0 


OK K 


14.5 


15.85 


it; „ .i 


56.5 


74.6 


85.5 


84.65 


AnalytU of Fine Earth. 


1UU.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.00 


Insoluble matter.. T 


73.511) jw Rm 
U.288f M - m 


69.1701 „, -aa, 
13.498f 82 - 688 


83.30) on R1 
6.81f 89 ' 61 


85.56) go no 

8.70f 89 - 26 




.418 


.664 


.29 


.36 


Soda (Na.U) 

Lime(CaO) 


.630 


.762 


.47 


.26 


1.417 


.975 


1.02 


1.00 


Magnesia (MgO) 


1.955 


2.881 


.63 


.71 


Br.ox.of manganese ( M n 3 0 4 ) 


.068 


.157 


.06 


.02 


Peroxide of iron (Fe a O s ) 


A QQA 
4.HW0 


0.170 


2.70 


8.57 


Alumina (Al a O,) 

Phosphoric acid (P 2 0 5 ) 


4.268 


5.122 


4.27 


3.67 


.028 


.040 


02 


04 




.016 


.025 


.01 


'.02 


Water and organic matter.. . 


1.864 


2.289 


1.00 


1.06 


Totals.... 


100.369 


100.701 


100.07 


99.96 




.281 






.08 


Ash 


.082 






.10 




.004 








2.21 


4.07 


1.41 


1.81 


Absorbed at 


16° 0. 


15° C. 


16° C. 


16° C. 



It will be noted that these two soils, and their subsoils, differ as 
materially in their composition as in their aspect. The reddish soil 
of Rogers' place is very much more substantial than that from the 
Eschleman tract, which appears to have been originally a sandy wash, 
lying a good deal lower than the reddish soil. The latter is manifestly 
derived directly from the Sierra granite, which, as the high percentage 
of " soluble silica " shows, has been to a large extent disintegrated into 
more soluble forms; and while both soils alike are fairly calcareous, the 
red soil is richer in potash, and possesses a substantial subsoil that 
retains moisture well, a quality in which the soil of the lower ground is 
notably deficient. Both are rather poor in phosphates, and there can 
be no doubt that this deficiency will be the first to be felt, and require 
to be dealt with as cultivation progresses. Both soils also are poor 
in humus, and should be supplied with vegetable matter for greater 
retentiveness and better supply of nitrogen. Their great depth and 
perviousness of course makes up for the relatively low supplies of plant- 
food in these soils, so long as the water-level is kept below the reach of 
the roots. 

JVo. 1055. Red soil of Fresno Plains, Sec. 9, T. 14 S., R. 19 E., nine 
miles west of Fresno; from M. Theo. Kearney's "Fruitvale" tract. 
Taken to a depth of twenty-four inches. The soil is quite sandy, red- 
dish when moist, and grayish brown when dry; could be tilled at all 
times. It contains visible white specks of potash feldspar (orthoclase); 
at some points these are very abundant and large. On washing the soil 
yields about 65 per cent of materials coarser than one mm. hydraulic 
value, glistening with black and golden mica (biotite), and containing 
a large amount of coarse quartz and orthoclase (apparently no plagio- 



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30 



UNIVEBSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



clase). This tract is free from "hog- wallows," and bears the usual 
"plains" vegetation. It lies north of the Fresno "white ash" lands, 
toward the San Joaquin River; the "white ash" soil is doubtless con- 
nected with the Kings River drainage, the other with that of the San 
Joaquin River. 

Land of Fresno Plaint, " Fruitval-e" Tract. 



No. 10W. 
Red SoiL 



Coarse materials>0.6 , ■ 1, " 

Fine earth 

Analysis of Fine Earth. 

Insoluble matter 

Soluble silica 

Potash (KjO) 

Soda(Na,0) 

Lime (CaO) 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Br. ox. of manganese (Mn s 0 4 ) 

Peroxide of iron (Fe,O s ) 

Alumina (A1 2 0,) 

Phosphoric acid(P 2 0 5 ) 

Sulphuric acid (SO s ) 

Water and organic matter 

Total 

Humus.. 

Ash 

Sol. phosphoric acid 

Silica — 

Hygroscopic moisture (absorbed at 15° C.) 



9.00 
91.00 



100.00 



67. 
11. 



$ 78.91 



99*84 

.39 
.23 
.08 
.17 
3.62 



It will be seen that this soil differs quite materially from all the soils 
of the immediate neighborhood of Fresno thus far examined, the only 
point of agreement being a similar proportion of lime. But it is mate- 
rially richer in both potash and phosphoric acid, and in its general compo- 
sition is exceedingly like the lands of the Mussel Slough region in 
Tulare County, differing from the latter only in containing a little more 
iron. It will no doubt prove similarly productive when irrigated, and 
will be less subject to the invasion of alkali. Its supply of humus is 
not high, and hence, on cultivation, the addition of vegetable matter by 
green-manuring, or the use of nitrogenous fertilizers, would probably 
be first called for. 

No. 1189. Soil from Sec. 17, T. 12 S., R. 17 E., near Madera, Fresno 
County; sent by Mr. John Brown, Madera. This is a gray, silty soil, 
full of glistening mica scales and fine sand. It darkens a little on wet- 
ting, and becomes but slightly plastic on kneading. The natural grasses 
are bunch grass and alfilerilla; also, a weed commonly called "turpen- 
tine-weed" (Trichostema). The sample was taken to a depth of twelve 
inches from the surface, though there was no apparent change for thirty 
inches. , 

No. 1190. Soil from Sec. 28, T. 12 S., R. 17 E., Fresno County; sent 
by Mr. John Brown, Madera. This is a gray, sandy soil; the dry lumps 
are easily crushed between the fingers; becomes but very slightly plas- 
tic on kneading, and darkens considerably on wetting. The natural 
grasses are bunch grass, alfilerilla, and "salt grass." The sample was 



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ANALYSES OF SOILS. 



31 



taken to a depth of twelve inches from the surface; at fourteen inches 
there is a heavy, sandy subsoil. 

No. 1191. Soil from Sec. 15, T. 12 S., R. 17 E., Fresno County; sent 
by Mr. John Brown, Madera. The soil is dark in color, and its dry 
lumps are hard to crush between the fingers; it becomes quite plastic 
on wetting, and darkened considerably. It contains some specks of bog 
ore. It would not be tillable in wet weather. The natural grasses are 
bunch grass, salt grass, and turpentine-weed. The sample was taken 
to a depth of twelve inches from the surface; below fifteen inches the 
subsoil is sandy and light colored. 

Soils from Madera, Fresno County. 



No. 1189. 
Sec. 17, T. 12 S., 
R. 17 E. 
Soil. 



No. 1190. 
Sec. 28, T. 12 S„ 
E. 17 E. 
Soil. 



No. 1191. 
Sec 15, T. 12 S., 
R. 17 E. 
Soil. 



Coarse materials^-D""" 1 

Fine earth 

Analysis of Fine Earth. 

Insoluble matter 

Soluble silica 

Potash (K,0) 

8oda(NajO) 

Lime (CaO) 

Magnesia (MgO) : 

Br. ox. of manganese(Mn 3 0 4 ) 

Peroxide of iron (Pe 4 O s ) 

Alumina { Al,0, ) 

Phosphoric acid (P 2 0 5 ) 

8ulphuric acid (SO,) 

Water and organic matter 

Totals 

Hamas 

Ash 

Sol. phosphoric acid 

8ilica 

Hygroscopic moisture (absorbed at 16° C.) 



15.85 
84.15 



7.00 
93.00 



5.00 
95.00 



100.00 

65.791 
12.04) 

1.32 
.14 
.99 

1.54 
.02 

6.65 

7.73 
.06 
.01 

3.62 



77.83 



100.00 

73.811 
10.73f 
.67 
.23 
1.81 
1.74 
.03 
4.09 
8.97 
.16 
.06 
3.67 



84.04 



100.00 

52.88) „ 
18.26) ,1U 
1.01 

.22 
1.10 
1.28 

.02 
7.78 
9.62 

.08 

.01 
7.68 



99.91 

.88 
.62 
.02 
.47 
2.73 



99.96 

1.08 
.74 

.03 
.06 
8.84 



99.74 

2.82 
1.08 
.02 
.89 
7.02 



These fall within the limits of good, thrifty soils, without extreme 
physical character, and therefore adapted to a great variety of cultures. 
The most substantial is No. 1191, but from its appearance it seems not 
to be well drained, and is therefore recommended for figs, apricots, etc., 
rather than for grapes. No. 1190 ought to be good grain as well as fruit 
land; while No. 1189, being light in phosphoric acid and high in potash, 
and rather disposed to be droughty, is best adapted to grapes. 



C. COAST RANGE. 

No. 1029. Shell soil from Bay Island Farm, Alameda County; sent 
by John O. Titlow, San Francisco. 

"The land seems to be of drift material for from three to five feet 
deep; then a layer of sand of six inches, underlaid by hardpan." 

The soil contains much visible shell debris mixed with dark mold 
and some sand; in handling it the fingers become blackened. On wet- 
ting it hardly shows any adhesiveness, but becomes sooty black. 



Digitized by Google 



32 



Soil of Bay Island Farm, Alameda County. 




Coarse materia]s>0.5 m, » (mostly shells) 
Fine earth 



40.22 
59.78 



Analysis of Fine Earth. 



100.00 



Insoluble matter 

Soluble silica 

Potash (K a O) 

Soda(Na.,0) 

Lime (CaO) 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Br. ox. of manganese (Mn,0 4 ). 

Peroxide of iron (Fe 2 0 3 ) 

Alumina (AljO,) 

Phosphoric acia (P,0,) 

Sulphuric acid (SO } ) 

Carbonic acid (CO,) 

Water and organic matter 



09.941 



3.531 
.28 
.82 
8.21 
.43 
.08 
1.76 
2.66 
.70 
.16 
5.20 
6.61 



1} *>•« 



Total 



99.77 



Humus 

Ash 

Hygroscopic moisture (absorbed at 15°C. ) 



4.26 
.49 
5.67 



This soil is naturally very rich in lime, and extraordinarily so in phos- 
phoric acid, exceeding in this respect any soil thus far known to me; 
it is, of course, derived from the animal matter, fish hones, etc., which 
have gone into the shell bed. In potash the soil is not rich, but under 
the circumstances of its formation the amount present is probably very 
largely available; yet potash will doubtless be the first substance required 
when fertilization shall be needed. Its content of humus is unusually 
large. 

This land is hardly well adapted to general fruit culture, but should 
yield high returns in vegetables, grain, or forage plants. Of orchard 
fruits, plums, figs, and quinces would probably suit the conditions best, 
and melons will doubtless do finely. 

This soil is quite like that of the "shell hammocks" of the Gulf 
States. 

No. 999. Soil from hillside near Wright's Station, Santa Clara 
County, three and one half miles west of New Almaden quicksilver mines; 
sent by Mr. C. C. Poppe, Wright's Station. This is a sienna-brown 
loam; the clods are hard to crush between the fingers; it darkens 
considerably on wetting, and is somewhat plastic; it is mixed with 
a good deal of coarse sandy and rocky material. The vegetation is 
manzanita, small oak, and chaparral bushes. The elevation of the 
land is about fifteen hundred feet above the level of the sea. 

No. 1000. Soil from hillside three and one half miles west of New 
Almaden quicksilver mines, Santa Clara County; sent by Mr. C. C. 
Poppe, Wright's Station. The land faees directly north, and is covered 
with large oak, poison oak, and pepperwood. It is a loose, dark black- 
ish soil, abundantly mingled with angular rock fragments. On wetting 
it darkens to almost black, and becomes highly plastic; it has but little 
sand; on handling it easily yields a blackish dust and colors the fingers. 



Digitized by 



Google 



ANALYSES OF SOILS. 
Soils from Wright's Station, Santa Clara County. 



33 



No. 999. 
Hillside Soil. 



No. 1000. 
Hillside Soil. 



Coarse materials>0.5 ,, ' m 

Fine earth 

Analysis of Fine Earth. 

Insoluble matter 

Soluble silica 

Potash (K,0) 

Soda (Na,0) 

Lime(CaO) 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Br. ox. of manganese (Mn 3 0 4 ) 

Peroxide of iron (Fe,O a ) 

Alumina (AJjO,) 

Phosphoric acid (Pj0 5 ) 

Sulphuric acid (SO s ) 

Water and organic matter 

Total 

Hunras 

Ash 

Sol. phosphoric acid... 

Hygroscopic moisture (absorbed at 16' 0.). 



47.00 
53.00 



100.00 



11 



31 

.26 



100.88 

2.75 
1.40 
.04 
10.47 



9.86 
1.01 
.11 
10.33 



The red soil, No. 999, which is evidently somewhat refractory in 
tillage, is of very unusual composition, in the extraordinary amounts of 
magnesia and iron contained in it. The former points to its derivation 
from some of the serpentinous rocks of the region, which accounts also 
for its poverty in potash. It has, however, good supplies of lime and 
phosphoric acid, and an unusually high percentage of humus. The 
latter condition is exaggerated in the hillside soil, No. 1000, which is 
manifestly one of the characteristic "redwood soils," noted for their profuse 
productiveness; although, in such a case as this, better adapted to 
vegetables than fruit. In the latter direction the red soil is doubtless 

E referable, and with good cultivation will yield excellent results. The 
igh percentage of readily soluble phosphoric acid promises high and 
lasting productiveness; but potash manures will probably be necessary 
before many years under heavy cropping with fruit, especially in the 
case of grapes. The remarkably high absorption of moisture promises 
good security against damage from drought or hot winds. 

No. 1076. Soil, from cafion in Chile's Valley, Napa County; sent by 
Mr. F. Sievers, San Francisco. The soil is a yellowish-gray loam, quite 
light and easily tilled; the subsoil is slightly effervescent with acids, 
and heavier, yet not refractory. The sample was taken to a depth of 
twelve inches. 

No. 1077. Soil, from the hillside bordering Chile's Valley, Napa 
County; sent by Mr. F. Sievers, San Francisco. The soil is a yellow or 
fawn-colored adobe, brown when dry, and barely yields to the finger; it 
is moderately stiff when wet. It is underlaid at three feet by a very 
stiff subsoil. The sample was taken at twelve inches depth. 



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34 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 

Soilt of Chile's Valley, Napa County. 



No. 1075. 
Cafion Soil. 


No. 1077. 
Hillside 
Adobe Soil 


4.00 
96.00 


21.00 
79.00 


100.00 


100.00 


60.261 fiK 
13.59f W' 85 
1.48 
.41 
.30 
1.43 
.05 
6.97 
10.85 
.08 
.01 
4.85 


2uSf «» 
.67 
.76 
2.49 
10.77 
.19 
10 22 
7.38 
.08 
.03 
5.84 


100.28 


100.45 


.59 
.70 
.03 
6.38 


.82 
.40 
.02 
7.22 



Coarse materials^.S""" 

Fine earth 

Altai y sis of Fine Earth. 

Insoluble matter ... 

Soluble silica 

Potash (K.O) - 

Soda(NaoO) 

Lime(CaO) 1 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Br. ox. of manganese (Mn 3 0 4 ) 

Peroxide of iron (Fe,Os) 

Alumina (AljO,) 

Phosphoric acid JPjOj) - 

Sulphuric acid (SO s ) 

Water and organic matter 

Totals 

Humus 

Ash 

8ol. phosphoric acid 

Hygroscopic moisture (absorbed at 16fc° C.) 



These two soils differ widely in composition in most respects, the 
valley soil being very rich in potash and poor in lime, while the other 
is strongly calcareous, with but a moderate yet quite adequate supply of 
potash. The high figure for magnesia indicates the derivation of this 
soil from some of the " soapstone" or magnesian shales that occur so 
frequently in the Coast Range. Phosphoric acid is in only moderate 
supply in both, but in the valley soil much of it is in the soluble form; 
still, phosphates will here as elsewhere probably be the first fertilizer 
required when the soils' production slackens. The supply of humus 
is only fair in the valley soil, and should be supplemented by green- 
manuring. The character and great depth of the valley soil render it 
specially adapted to general fruit culture. 

No. 880. Tule soil, from inside of the levee on Grizzly Island, Sacra- 
mento County; sent by Mr. Warren Dutton, Dutton's Landing. The 
soil is a grayish silt with very little grit; becomes just a little adhesive 
when wetted. At the top it is penetrated with the roots of alkali grass. 
On a freshly-cut surface it is somewhat marbled' blue and yellow, with 
dots of bog ore; it crushes between the fingers. 

The soil (No. 881) on the outside of the levee is blackish and more 
clayey than the above, and its dry clods cannot be readily crushed 
between the fingers. It contains 6.86 per cent of moisture, air-dried, 
and 22.26 per cent of organic matter. 

The inside soil, whose analysis is given below, consists almost entirely 
of fine earth. 



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ANALYSES OF SOILS. 
Tide Soil, Sacramento County. 



35 



No. 880. 
Grizzly Island 
SolL 



Analysis of Fine Earth, 

Insoluble matter 

Soluble silica 

Potash (KjO) 

8oda(Na,0) 

Lime (Cat)). 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Br. ox. of manganese (Mn,0 4 ) 

Peroxide of iron (Fe s 0 3 ) 

Alumina ( A1,0.) 

Phosphoric acid(P,0 5 ) ... 

8ulphuric acid (80 3 ) 

Water and organic matter ., 

Total 

Humus ... 

Ash 

Hygroscopic moisture (absorbed at 16* C.) 



60.461 

15.02f 
.65 
.44 
.71 
1.71 
.07 
6.92 

18.43 
.08 
.18 

10.16 



66.48 



99.83 

1.95 
.47 
10.96 



This soil certainly seems to be worthy of reclamation by drainage, if 
such has not already been done when its levees were built. There is a 
large percentage of potash present, with a fair amount of phosphoric 
acid; while any sourness or acidity that might arise from its large con- 
tent of organic matter will be neutralized by its lime and magnesia. 

No. 12S0. Soil of the " sand hills," six miles east of Antioch, and three 
miles northwest of Brentwood; sent by L. L. Guss, Wrights, Contra 
Costa County. " The land is nearly level, and is covered with chaparral 
brush. There are some almond trees in bearing on land of this charac- 
ter, and they yield enormously, but the trees make very little growth; 
the sand is loose enough to drift when plowed. The sample was taken 
to the depth of fourteen inches." 

Sand Hillt Soil, Contra Costa County. 



No. 1230. 
Sand Hills Soli. 



Coarse materials^.*"" 

Fine earth 

Analysis of Fine Earth. 

Insoluble matter 

Soluble silica 

Potash (K.O) 

Soda(Na,0) 

lame (CaO) 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Br. ox. of manganese (Mn,0 4 ) 

Peroxide of iron (Fe,O s ) 

Alumina (A1 2 0,) 

Phosphoric acid(P 2 0 5 ) 

Sulphuric acid (80,) 

Water and organic matter 

Total 

Humus 

Ash 

Sol. phosphoric acid 

Silica..... 

Hygroscopic moisture (absorbed at 16° C.) 



6.00 
95.00 



100.00 



2ft «* 

24 
09 
66 
34 
02 
41 
89 
,06 
,02 
.28 



100.05 

.33 
.46 
.02 
.13 
3.94 



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36 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



In view of the extreme sandiness of the soil (92.04 of sand, etc.), it 
is very well supplied with plant-food, and if of sufficient depth, should 
prove very productive of fruit, at least, and anything else that has 
deep roots. It would not last long for grain; peaches and almonds, and 
grapes for wine, would be its special adaptation if the climate permits; 
but the depth of the soil above bedrock should not be less than eight or 
ten feet. 

No. 1178. Tule soil, from marsh meadows at the mouth of Eel River, 
Humboldt County; sent by G. H. Kellogg, of San Francisco. This is a 
light gray soil, of a silty character, much netted with tule roots, whose 
course is marked by rusty streaks, while rust spots also appear here 
and there. The dry lumps crush with difficulty between the fingers; 
they soften quickly and darken in color on wetting, and become slightly 
plastic on kneading. No coarse sand or gravel is present. 

Tule Soil, Humboldt County. 



No. 1178. 
Month of Eel 
River Soil. 



Coarse materials>0.5""° . 
Fine earth 



6.00 
96.00 



Analysis of Fine Earth. 100 (10 

Insoluble matter 61.331 

Soluble silica I 7.16f 

Potash (KjO) .34 

Soda(Na„0) .32 

Lime(CaO) I 2.06 

Magnesia (MgO) , I 4.89 

Br. ox. of manganese ( Mn,0 4 ).. . | .06 

Peroxide of iron (Fe 2 0 3 ) 9.66 

Alumina (A1,0,) 6.04 

Phosphoric acid (P,0 5 ) .18 

8ulphuric acid (SOj) I .88 

Water and organic matter 17.98 

Total . 

Humus. 



68.49 



99.74 
1.71 

Ash 17 

.04 



Sol. phosphoric acid 

Hygroscopic moisture (absorbed at 15° C.) 11.64 



Common salt, .083 per cent, was obtained by leaching the soil. 

This soil is evidently not greatly subject to tidal overflow, as it con- 
tains so little of the sea salt that otherwise would form an obstacle to 
its cultivation. In its chemical composition it shows good proportions 
of lime, phosphoric acid, and humus; but no very large amount of pot- 
ash, albeit the latter would not be found deficient for some time. The 
land will, doubtless, if properly drained, yield full crops of grain or hay 
for a number of years, and for the present would not seem to require 
any liming, as is so commonly necessary in marshes elsewhere. 



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ANALYSES OF SOILS. 



37 



D. SOUTH CALIFORNIA. 
SOILS OP THE SOUTH CALIFORNIA STATION. 

The establishment of a culture sub-station for South California, on 
land situated not far from Pomona, but within the limits of the Chino 
Ranch, was announced in the " Report to the President of the University" 
for 1890. Considerable progress has been made in the equipment and 
planting of this station, although the funds available for the purpose 
were materially below what could have been desired; since it was nec- 
essary to maintain the three stations already established, and to start 
and equip the fourth, within the limits of the sum which will barely 
suffice to " run" all four when once fully equipped. Some data regard- 
ing the progress made will be found in the report of the Inspector, Mr. 
Shinn, in another portion of this report. It is intended, so soon as the 
equipment and occupation of the South California Station shall be com- 
pleted, to render a report on it and on the region it is intended to repre- 
sent, as far as possible on the same plan pursued in a former publication 
treating of the other stations; including, therefore, as full a description 
of the physical and agricultural features of South California as the data 
at command will permit. As this report cannot be written until some 
time in 1892, some of the work done in that section since the last gen- 
eral report was published, will be reported upon in the present publication, 
for the more prompt information of the population interested. 

The South California Station tract comprises two plots of land, situated 
about two miles apart, both donated by Mr. Richard Gird, from land of 
the Chino Ranch. The main tract of thirty acres is on the northern 
line of that ranch, about two miles from Pomona and two and one half 
miles from Chino town. On it are located the station house and other 
improvements, the expense of the buildings having been provided for by 
subscription among the citizens of Pomona; while the water supply, at 
the rate of one inch for each ten acres, was also donated by Mr. Gird. 
The soils of this tract comprise about five sixths of "red mesa" land, 
such as has proved specially appropriate for the culture of citrus fruits; 
while the rest represents the gray, gravelly soil that characterizes the 
" washes" from the Sierra Madre. It is on this tract, of course, that the 
main plantation of fruit trees has been made. Water is found in this 
land at from forty-five to sixty feet depth, in gravel. 

The other tract, of ten acres, lies about two miles to southward of the 
first, and forms part of the wide belt of " moist lands " which border 
Chino Creek and require no irrigation, and are considered as more 
specially adapted to field crops. Water is here found at twelve to 
fifteen feet. This tract is within half a mile of the Chino townsite and 
about four miles from the town of Pomona. 

The soils examined represent the main body of the land of both 
tracts, so far as single specimens can do so; a more detailed examina- 
tion will be made hereafter. 

No. 1281. Surface soil, taken near the center of the main tract of 
the station, to twelve inches depth. It is a reddish gray or fawn- 
colored, sandy loam; the dry lumps fall to pieces readily, and show 
much sand, some coarse, up to one eighth inch diameter. The sand 
grains are mostly granular, colorless quartz, with much feldspar, black 
grains of augite, as well as of hornblende and some garnet, occasionally 



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38 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



mbedded in fragments of chlorite Bchist. These minerals prove the 
derivation of the soil from the head of the San Bernardino Valley, as 
against the gravelly " wash " soil, which contains only the granitic 
minerals of the Sierra Madre, where it is drained by San Antonio 
Creek. The soil when wetted darkens slightly and becomes slightly 
plastic, but not adhesive. The vegetation on this land is predominantly 
the sunflower, of small size because of dryness, a little blue sage, short 
grass, spinous-leaved gilias (G.filifolia, attractiloides), and turkey-weed 
(Eremocarpus setigerus). 

No. 1282. Subsoil, taken from twelve to twenty-four inches depth; 
it is quite similar to the soil, but a little more clayey and compact. 

No. 128 Jf. "Adobe" soil from the moist lands bordering Chino 
Creek; taken to twelve inches depth. A mouse-colored, moderately 
clayey loam, somewhat silty; the dry lumps crush quite readily between 
the fingers, and show little or no grit. With acid there is effervescence ; 
on wetting, the color deepens considerably, and when kneaded the soil 
becomes quite adhesive, showing that it must not be tilled while wet. 
Its natural vegetation is a dense, tall growth of grass, with some spots 
bearing the "Yerba mansa" (Anemopsis Califomica) and sunflower. 



Soils from South California Station. 



Center of Main Tract— Mesa 
or " Dry Land." 



No. 1281. 
Soil. 



No. 1282. 
Subsoil. 



South Plot- 
" Moist Land.'" 



No. 1281. 

soil 



Coarse materials;^""" 1 I 10.00 

Fine earth \ 90.00 



Analysis of Fine Earth. 



' 100.00 



Insoluble matter 

Soluble silica 

Potash (K,0) 

Soda(Na 2 0) 

Lime (CaO) 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Br. ox. of manganese (Mn,0 4 ) 

Peroxide of iron (Fe a O,) 

Alumina (A1,0 3 ) 

Phosphoric acid (P 2 0 6 ) 

Sulphuric acid (SO,) 

Carbonic acid (C0 2 ) 

Water and organic matter ■ 3.49 



67.981 
9.51| 
.93 
.42 
1.76 
.82 
.05 
7.07 
7.72 
.20 
.03 



77.49 



11.00 
89.00 



100.00 

70.461 
7.26? 
.90 
.33 
2.26 
1.91 
.04 
7.85 
5.72 
.13 
.06 



1.00 
99.00 



77.72 



2.82 



Totals 99.97 



Humus 58 

Ash 26 

Sol. phosphoric acid 02 

Silica 20 

Hygroscopic moisture (absorbed at 16" C.) 1.98 



99.74 



2.22 



100.00 

.95 
.60 
6.07 
.84 
.08 
6.43 
4.88 
.21 
.08 
3.76 
6.02 



99.70 

1.99 
1.13 
.03 
.96 
6.81 



The showing made by these analyses places these two soils high in 
the scale of productiveness, with large proportions of potash, lime, and 
phosphoric acid; and it is a curious fact that the lowland or moist soil 
differs from the mesa soil in only one material point so far as the mineral 
ingredients are concerned, namely, the lime percentage. Supposing the 
two to be derived from the same original material, this accumulation of 
lime in the lowland soil is to be expected on general grounds. The same 



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ANALYSES OF SOILS. 



39 



is of course true as regards the humus, which, with the greater moisture 
and more luxuriant growth borne by the soil that is naturally moist 
throughout the season, must also be expected. 

It is important to compare these soils with those of other parts of the 
southern region, which are supposed to be reasonably well represented 
on the station plots. A reference to the analyses given farther on, of four 
soils and subsoils from Riverside, and of six from the Temescal Valley, 
near South Riverside, shows a very near correspondence, in all important 
points, in the mesa materials proper. 

RIVERSIDE SOILS. 

The soils occurring within the limits of the Riverside basin are sub- 
stantially of two chief types, the intermixture of which produces the 
best soils for citrus culture, and occupy the largest areas. Pure granite 
soils, of a very light type, occupy the slopes and immediate base of the 
granitic ridges of the region, and may be seen characteristically at the 
west end of Roubidoux Mountain and elsewhere. On the other hand, 
more or lees heavy orange-tinted loams form a practically continuous 
belt, or upper terrace, along and around the whole of the San Bernardino 
Valley; they appear in force from Redlands southward, especially in the 
San Timoteo Canon, through which the Southern Pacific Railroad passes, 
up to the Gorgonio Pass; and much of this loamy ingredient in the soils of 
Riverside is directly traceable to that canon, from which a conspicuous 
red terrace extends to and around the Riverside basin. Its continuation 
is there known as "Arlington Heights," the name applying specially to 
that portion lying above the old Riverside ditch, and now covered by 
the Gage Canal. The soil of the Heights is a mixture of granitic sand 
with the red loam of the terrace formation proper. Ridges of this red 
soil extend down into the older portion of the colony, but the greater 
portion of the lands under the Riverside ditch is of a gray tint, and 
ranges in texture from a light loam to what is popularly designated as 
adobe, although rarely so heavy as to deserve that designation in the 
sense in which it is mostly used outside of South California. It is not 
at all outside of the limits of the loams that are a postulate for citrus 
culture. In the lowest ground — the trough of Tequisquite arroyo — 
there lies quite a light, sandy soil, brought down by the overflows. 

Nearly everywhere these soils are of great depth; in the breaks on the 
Arlington tract, profiles of as much as thirty feet of sensibly uniform red 
loam may be seen, and it will be noted by reference to the table below 
that it is of almost uniform composition, chemically, to the depth of ten 
feet at least. The roots of the wild shrubs are found within it to depths 
of from six to eight feet, showing it to be as easily penetrable to roots as 
it is to water; its red tint alone being proof of its perfect drainage. 

The sand contained in these soils is simply pulverized and partially 
decomposed granite, which by its further decomposition, accelerated by 
cultivation, will continue to evolve available plant-food for many years 
to come. The original natural vegetation is vigorous, and consists 
largely of the white and blue sages, the shrubby sunflower, cactus, 
" chaparral," some clumps of greasewood, and bushes of the elder, sub- 
stantially the same as on the lower ground, now mostly occupied by the 
orange orchards of Riverside. A good portion of these are located on 
precisely the same red soil, whose producing quality is therefore estab- 



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40 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



lished by actual experience, being practically the same as that of the 
lands first occupied because of their lower level and easier irrigation 
from the original sources of water supply. 

In the table below are given the analyses of five representative soils 
from the Riverside region, and one (No. 1537) which is quite exceptional, 
and confined to particular ridges. 

Nos. 809 and 812 are representative samples of the soils of the older 
colony lands lying under the old Riverside ditch. They were taken by 
Mr. G. L. Waring, of Riverside. Nos. 1406 and 1408 are from a locality 
about two hundred feet higher, and represent the higher lands of "Ar- 
lington Heights," lying under and irrigated from the Gage Canal. No. 
1536 is from the lower ground under the Gage Canal, about four miles 
southeast from the town of Riverside. 

Nos. 809 and 812. Light and heavy subsoils from Riverside. " When 
dry the soil is grayish; when wet, a light chocolate color, rather hard 
and gritty in character; and when flooded, and not subsequently broken 
up, it bakes very hard. The stiffer land is rather hard to work and 
unfriable, but where more sand is present it can be broken up into very 
small particles."^ — G. L. Waring.* 

No. 1406. Reddish-brown sandy loam soil, with much mica and some 
granitic debris; from the break near the head of Flume No. 11 of the 
Gage Canal, Arlington Heights, Riverside; taken to a depth of twelve 
inches. It becomes slightly plastic on kneading with water. The 
vegetation is cactus, Baeria, Croton, and greasewood. 

No. 1408. Under-subsoil of the above; very similar to it in color and 
appearance, somewhat lighter, with much mica and granitic debris; 
taken at a depth of from nine to ten feet. 

No. 1536. Brownish loam soil, from Arlington Heights, lot 1, block 37, 
Windsor tract, Riverside Orange Company. Contains little mica and 
much coarse granitic debris; it softens when wetted, and becomes fairly 
plastic on kneading. Taken to a depth of twelve inches. 

No. 15S7. Stiff reddish-brown clay soil, spotted with whitish granitic 
debris, mostly feldspar, quite coarse; from the Balmoral tract, River- 
side Orange Company, lower end of the Gage Canal, lot 2, block 8, of the 
Gage survey, Riverside. It softens slowly when wetted, and on knead- 
ing becomes extremely tenacious. 



* Report College of Agriculture for 1886, page 82. 



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ANALYSES OF 80ILS. 



41 



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Digitized by 



Google 



42 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



It will be seen that in almost all respects these soils are much alike, 
having large supplies of potash and lime, of which substances the vari- 
ations are within narrow limits. As regards phosphoric acid, it is a 
curious and unexpected fact that while the soils from the higher ground 
are well supplied with it, the heavier soils from the lower grounds — Nob. 
812 and 1536 — have a relatively low supply) which, in the case of the 
former, approaches deficiency. The explanation of this departure from 
the usual rule is found in the composition of the heavy red clay soil, 
No. 1537, which, while similar to the lighter soils in respect to the other 
ingredients of plant-food, is exceptionally poor in phosphoric acid, and 
has by its admixture (washing down from the granitic ridges) doubtless 
depressed the contents of the heavier soils in this respect. This " red 
adobe " seems to be formed directly from the granite of the ridges; and 
it is an important practical conclusion that wherever this heavy red soil 
prevails, fertilization with phosphates is preeminently called for. It is, 
however, ill adapted to citrus fruits at best. 

But all — even the heavier soil from the lower ground — are quite defi- 
cient in humus, and correspondingly in nitrogen ; so that the supple- 
menting of the latter substance (e. g., by dressings of Chile saltpeter) 
is indicated as the first step in fertilization, notably of orange orchards, 
which draw heavily on nitrogen when in bearing. Experience has already 
fully justified this induction, the good effects of nitrogenous fertilizers 
having been verified in numerous cases. 

The low moisture-absorption of the light loam soils, Nos. 809 and 1406, 
speaks of the need of deep tillage and frequent irrigation for so exact- 
ing a tree as the orange. The more retentive soils, if well tilled, will 
not dry out so quickly. 

SOILS OF THE TEMESCAL VALLEY. 

From a special examination of the lands and water resources of the 
South Riverside Land and Water Company, the following points of 
general interest are given by consent of the company: 

The colony sites of South Riverside and Auburndale cover the greater 
part of the lower valley of Temescal Creek; the latter, lying to north- 
ward of the stream, is a gently rolling mesa land, bounded on the 
southwest by the wash of Temescal Creek, to which there is an abrupt 
descent, or bluff. On the opposite side of that stream the land rises on 
a gentle slope to the base of the Santa Ana Mountains, from a minimum 
elevation of about five hundred to as much as one thousand four hun- 
dred feet, forming a plateau slope from two to three miles wide, on the 
upper portion of which is the townsite of South Riverside. The soil on 
both sides is prevalently of the reddish-loam character. On the right 
(Auburndale) side this loam is usually free from gravel, and sometimes 
quite sandy; on the South Riverside slope it is almost throughout much 
mixed with gravel. There is, generally, little change in the character 
of these soil-materials for depths ranging from five to ten feet; in wells 
a much greater thickness has been observed. These mesa soils become 
somewhat heavier as the Santa Ana foothills are approached, because 
of the red clayey material that forms the base of the slopes, locally 
passing into veritable adobe. Sometimes they are heavily packed with 
gravel, mostly of light-colored granite, with more or less of black 
siliceous schist. On the lower slope, near the South Riverside townsite, 



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ANALYSES OF SOILS. 



43 



and reaching higher up as the Santa Ana River is approached (near 
Rincon), there lies a gray, and usually very gravelly soil, the gravel 
being chiefly a dark-colored siliceous schist, derived from the upper 
canons of the valley. This land is quite distinct from the reddish mesa 
soil, and may be considered the "wash" of the Temescal Valley at a 
time when the water was of much greater volume than at present. 

The natural vegetation of these mesas is that of the dry mesas of 
South California generally — some cactus, white sage, sagebrush, and 
herbaceous plants of similar import; at many points the bunch grass 
(Festuca) forms a conspicuous and welcome ingredient of the vegetation. 
The shallow washes, or coulees, that in time of heavy rains carry off the 
surplus water of the canons, are marked by a vigorous growth of two 
species of sumac, the California buckthorn, some chaparral (Ceanothus), 
greasewood, and scattered elder bushes. The adjacent slopes of the 
Santa Ana Range are kept green all the year by a short growth of 
chaparral, toyon (Heteromeles), buckthorn, and scrub oaks, in pleasant 
contrast to the bare, rocky sides of the Sierra Madre and Temescal 
Ranges opposite. 

The following table shows the result of the analysis of a number of 
soils taken at various points so as to cover essentially the two colony 
tracts. All except Nos. 1249 and 1245 represent the soil layer from the 
surface to the depth of twelve inches. 

No. 1248. Soil from the foot of the slope (lot 7, block 67), South 
Riverside, typical of the valley "wash" referred to above. Gray, very 
gravelly; natural vegetation originally cactus patches, with turkey-weed, 
sunflower, tar-weed, and elder bushes. Quite plastic when kneaded, 
does not darken much in wetting; gravel all well rounded; much black 
siliceous schist. 

No. 1246. Mesa soil from an orange orchard on lot 6, block 43, nearly 
on the division line between the gray soil of the lower lands and the 
reddish mesa soil; dark colored, with but little gravel; a rich-looking 
blackish loam, becoming quite plastic on wetting, and darkening consid- 
erably in color. Original vegetation, turkey- weed, tar- weed, sunflower, 
and elder bushes. 

No. 1261. Mesa soil, twelve inches deep, from tract on the line of 
the pipe-line, lot 2, block 31, representing about the middle of the mesa 
slope, near the eastern line of the company's lands. A reddish, gravelly 
loam, darkening considerably on wetting, and becoming quite plastic. 
Original vegetation about the same as the preceding number. The 
gravel is largely angular, and mostly granitic. 

No. 1263. High ■mesa soil, twelve inches deep, from the high mesa 
(one thousand three hundred feet), half a mile from the foothill slope, 
lot 6, block 3, near the line of the Garretson tract; represents fairly the 
mesa within a mile or a mile and a half of the foothills of the Santa 
Ana Range. Quite reddish, with much angular gravel, mainly granitic; 
becomes very plastic on wetting, and darkens materially in color. 
Vegetation: bunch grass, alfilerilla, turkey- weed, and tar-weed. 

No. 1249. Subsoil from the bottom of the ditch, six feet below the 
surface, at the crossing of Ontario and Buena Vista Avenues. Very 
gravelly, reddish-gray loam,, less clayey than the surface at the same 
point. 

Nos. 1244 and 1246. Soil and subsoil from the Auburndale tract, lot 
1, block 90. A fair average of the tract at large; the subsoil, at a depth 



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44 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



of twelve to thirty inches, being chosen for examination on account of 
the great depth of the unchanged soil stratum, which in breaks is shown 
to be uniform for six to eight feet. Natural vegetation: patches of cactus, 
much bunch grass, turkey-weed, alfilerilla. The soil contains much 
coarse white sand, and becomes only slightly plastic on wetting, while 
darkening but little in color. 



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ANALYSES OP 80ILS. 



45 



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46 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



The salient point in the composition of all these soils is their high 
content of potash, exceeding 1 per cent in three cases in the South 
Riverside tract. This, with the large proportion of the same substance 
contained in the irrigation water, noticed elsewhere, guarantees the cul- 
tivator against the need of supplying this ingredient for a long time. 

Lime, also, is in ample supply in all the soils, including the "wash" 
soil of the lower land. A somewhat unusual feature is, that the sub- 
soil at six feet (No. 1249) contains only half as much as the surface soils, 
owing probably to its more sandy nature. 

Phosphoric acid, likewise, is in good supply in all, and will not require 
artificial -supplementing for a number of years, since an unusually large 
proportion is in the soluble condition. 

The supply of humus, or vegetable matter (and with it that important 
substance, nitrogen), is unexpectedly large for mesa soils, especially in 
No. 1246, which contains about three times as much as is commonly 
found in such soils. In the rest it is at least adequate. 

As regards physical properties, it will be noted that Nos. 1253 and 1249 
are quite gravelly; none are close; all are easily tilled. Nos. 1248 and 
1246 possess a much higher power of absorbing moisture than the rest, 
and will, therefore, be less sensitive to heat and drought. The rest are 
in this respect more nearly like the generality of mesa soils in Southern 
California. 

As a general result, it may be said that these soils are of very high 
quality, and, in view of their physical character, depth, and good drain- 
age, may be considered as especially well adapted to the culture of 
citrus, as well as most deciduous fruits, and also to the olive; consider- 
ing the climate, the almond seems to be particularly indicated as a 
promising crop. 

Soil-Forming Materials from Near Santa Monica. — The materials, of 
which the analyses are given below, were analyzed at the request and 
expense of the Forestry station, near Santa Monica. It is stated that 
they constitute the two chief varieties of material from which the hill- 
side soils of that region are formed; hence, it was desired to know their 
probable permanent value as supporters of forest growth.* 

No. 1521. Gray silty clay, from hillside near Forestry station, Santa 
Monica, Los Angeles County; sent by Mr. William S. Lyon, State Board 
of Forestry, Los Angeles. This is an indurated Boil-forming material; 
only slightly plastic with water; the lumps are rather easily crushed 
between the fingers. 

No. 1522. Yellow ochreous earth, from hillside near Forestry station; 
sent by Mr. William S. Lyon. This material is quite indurated, but 
crushes rather easily between the fingers, and becomes quite plastic 
with water. Its iron is in the form of fine grains of limonite or yellow 
ochre. 



•See Bulletin No. 6 of the California State Board of Forestry, page 5. 



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ANALYSES OF SOILS. 
Analyset of Soil-Forming Material*, Santa Monica, Los Angela County. 



47 




No. 1522. 
Yellow Ochreous 
Earth. 



Insoluble matter. 
Soluble silica 




;u. to) 

1.09 
.66 
3.23 
2.86 
.06 
8.11 
6.77 
.28 
2.66 



.68 



1.54 

.85 
8.14 
2.45 

.02 
18.19 
1.61 

.28 

.78 
3.18 
6.38 



| 66.82 



Alumina (A1 2 0.) 

Phosphoric acid (P 2 0 8 ). 
Sulphuric acid (S0 S ) ... 

Carbonic acid (CO,) 

Water 




3.60 



Totals 



99.93 



100.09 



Hygroscopic moisture (absorbed at 15° C). 



10.87 



The gray clay, on leaching, yielded 4.40 per cent of soluble salts, mostly gypsum. 
The yellowish earth yielded, on leaching, 3.18 per cent of soluble salts, which consisted 
chiefly of common salt, very little gypsum, and some sulphates of soda and potash. 

Both of these materials are rich in the essential mineral ingredients 
of plant-food; No. 1522 particularly so, since it contains over one and 
a half per cent of potash, and nearly three tenths of one per cent of 
phosphoric acid; the latter an extraordinarily high amount for this 
State. Both are strongly calcareous, the yellow variety especially so, 
and both have a very high power of absorbing moisture. Both contain 
some "alkali," but of the mild ("white") form, as must be the case in 
the presence of a considerable proportion of gypsum in both. Apart 
from the alkali, which may have been present accidentally in samples 
taken from the surface, in larger proportion than would be the case in 
soils formed from these materials, such soils would be exceedingly pro- 
ductive, if adequately supplied with vegetable matter, or, in its absence, 
with nitrogenous fertilizers. 

It will be interesting to ascertain what is the extent of the area of 
occurrence of soils so unusually rich in phosphates, and to determine 
whether or not the latter exist in a more concentrated form, available 
for use as fertilizers; such deposits having lately been actually dis- 
covered in the neighborhood of South Riverside. 

No. 12S8. Bottom soil of Sweetwater Valley, San Diego County; sent 
by Mr. Wallace D. Dickinson, of San Diego, for the purpose of ascer- 
taining if the land is suitable for potatoes. He says: 

Two or three Italians in. the Otay Valley have each year planted potatoes in August, 
irrigating the same with windmills. Last season I determined to experiment with some 
valley land of my own, lying in the valley of the Sweetwater, and irrigable from the 
Sweetwater Reservoir. So in June I plowed the land (then very dry), and, making ditches 
through it, thoroughly soaked the soil; then I ran a cultivator through it, and furrowed 
it out accurately two and one half feet apart; dropped the seed (good looking and very 
mature from the fall crop) four inches deep, and covered it by running a "Junior" culti- 
vator between the rows, with the plow wings properly set; this worked quickly and 
nicely. Two and a half acres were tnus planted. I was badly disappointed to find that 
but few hills came up, and I spent a half day among the Italians trying to locate the 
trouble. Tbey agreed that the seed was too old, and that potatoes should be planted 
whole when irrigated. 8o 1 replanted the plot with very good, small seed potatoes, some 
<>f which were beginning to sprout. The immature seed failed to show any sprouts; 
from the rest I gathered a crop about November first, realizing about eighty-five sacks 
per acre. 



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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



In the meantime, however, I had planted another plot on September twentieth, which 
met with a fate that I would like to have explained. In October, when the plants were 
about eight inches high, a frost killed about 6 per cent of them, while the balance recov- 
ered and were very promising, with a strong, healthy growth, and just beginning to 
blossom. As I expected rain, I postponed irrigating them until they were pretty dry, 
though a Chinese gardener claimed they were plenty wet— "heap water no good for 
potatoes." But as they had not had water for four weeks, I commenced to irrigate, but 
was interrupted by a heavy rain. Within one week at least one third of the tops were 
dead, and in two weeks not a green top remained ; the potatoes were the size of walnuts, 
and rotted in the ground at once. Why? Is the soil (a sample of which is sent) suitable 
for potatoes, or does it require fertilization? I irrigated the plants by allowing the water 
to now along center ditches between the rows. 

The examination resulted as follows: 



Bottom Land of Sweetwater Valley, San Diego County. 



Insoluble matter I 

Iron, alumina, etc I 

Potash (Kj.0) 

8oda(NaoO) 

Lime (CaO) 

Phosphoric acid (P 2 0 6 ) 

Water and organic matter 

Total 



No. 1238. 
SOIL 



95.45 

.64 

.22 
1.06 

.06 
2.57 



100.00 



For a sandy soil the plant-food percentages are quite large, and even 
as to humus, which is a common deficiency in the soils of the southern 
region, the sample is well supplied. The difficulties met with in the above 
cultivation of the potato are probably purely climatic, or due to the con- 
stant high temperature during the late growing season proposed for the 
crop. 

While it is true that the potato is a native of Arizona and northern 
Mexico, yet in its native habitat it occupies mountain locations, and its 
tubers are very small. It has been called the " Irish potato " from its 
peculiar adaptation to a climate about as different from that of Sweet- 
water Valley as can well be, and it is credited with producing there the 
maximum of tubers of the best quality. 

When the cut potatoes were planted in a hot soil (in July), where 
they got warm and began to dry on the outside before the water was put 
on, then chilled down with that water after they had gotten pretty well 
set with " microbes " in a highly " septic " soil, it was quite natural th»t 
the microbes and not the potato germs grew. 

Experienced irrigators are agreed that all violent changes caused by 
the application of water to the roots are dangerous; hence, when it 
becomes necessary to irrigate during the hot weather the water is not 
run very close to trees, nor very abundantly at a time, and thus the 
change is made more gradual. 

No. 1092. Soil from Palm Valley, San Diego County; sent by Mr. S. 
W. Fergusson, San Francisco. This is a grayish, light, loose soil, with 
small particles of mica, both gray and golden, and of quartz. The 
Palm Valley Colony is situated on the eastern slope of the San Jacinto 
Range, off Seven Palms Station, on the Southern Pacific Railroad. 



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ANALYSES OF SOILS. 



49 



Soil of Palm Valley, San Diego County. 



I Ko. 1092. 
XiKhtGreySoil. 



Coarse materials^.!*"" 
Fine earth 



None. 
All. 



Analysis of Fine Earth. 



Insoluble matter 
Soluble silica 



71.451 
5.50f 
1.42 



| 76.95 



Magnesia (MgO) 

Br. ox. of manganese (Mn 3 0 4 ). 

Peroxide of iron (Fe,0 3 ) 

Alumina (A1 2 0 3 ) 

Phosphoric acid (P,0 5 ) 

Sulphuric acid (SO s ) 

Carbonic acid (C0 2 ) 

Water and organic matter 




I 2.09 
I .05 



6.08 
6.78 
.85 
.01 
.18 
4.29 



Total 



100.18 



Hamus 

Ash 

Sol. phosphoric acid 

Hygroscopic moisture (absorbed at 13° C.) 



1.07 
.23 
.03 

2.06 



There is also .16 per cent "soluble alkali" in this soil, which consists 
of sulphate of soda (Glauber's salt), sulphate of potash, and a little com- 
mon salt, not enough to be hurtful. 

The analysis of the sample indicates a very rich soil, in which the 
percentages of plant-food (potash and phosphoric acid) are very high; 
lime and humus in good proportions. Should other conditions, as depth, 
drainage, and climate, be also favorable, this should be an extremely 
fertile and thrifty land. In texture it is a light loam, easily tilled. 

Soils from the Bottom Lands of the Colorado and Gila Rivers. — An 
analysis of a sample of soil from the Colorado bottom land, near Yuma, 
was given in aformer report (see page 39, report for 1882). This analysis 
is reproduced below for comparison with those of a soil and under-sub- 
Boil from the Gila River bottom, near the junction of that stream with 
the Colorado. These samples were sent, with request for analysis, by 
Mr. Hiram Blaisdell, of Yuma, and the result is here given by his per- 
mission. 

The three samples are very much alike — of a pale fawn color when 
dry; fine-textured, silty, with no coarse sand or gravel of any kind. 
The subsoil, No. 1197, is hardly to be distinguished from the surface soil. 
They lie loosely, and can be compressed considerably with little exer- 
tion. Their natural vegetation is mainly mesquite and "Colorado 
Hemp." 



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50 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 
Colorado and Oila Bottom Soili. 



No. 506. 
ColoradoRlrer, 
California. 
Bottom Soil. 



No. 1195. 
Gila Riyer, 

Arizona. 
Bottom Boll 



No. 1137. 
Olla River, 
Arizona. 
Bottom 8abaoll. 



Insoluble matter 

Soluble silica 

Potash (K.O) 

8oda(Na,0) 

Lime(CaO) 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Br. ox. of manganese (Mn,0 4 ) . 

Peroxide of iron (Pe a 0 3 ) 

Alumina ( A1 2 0,) 

Phosphoric acid (P 2 0 5 ) . 

Sulphuric acid (SO,) 

Carbonic acid (CO,) 

Water and organic matter 



Totals . 

Humus.. 
Ash 



58.571 
5.38f 
1.18 

.16 
8.67 
2.97 

.03 
4.14 
8.38 

.13 

.15 
7.82 
3.34 



63.90 



Sol. phosphoric acid 

Hygroscopic moisture (absorbed at 16" C.) . 



100.87 

.76 
1.16 



f.901 

i.49f 

.66 

.25 

1.26 

.66 

.08 

i.67 

'.48 

.23 

.03 

!.63 

1.98 



71.39 



S3 «» 

.67 

.39 
4.33 
1.97 

.03 
6.27 
4.27 

.17 

.05 
3.56 
1.44 



9.26 



100.22 



.43 
.02 
4.91 



99.83 



3.48 



It will be noted, as a common feature of these three soils, that they 
are highly calcareous; they show the presence of carbonate of lime by 
effervescence with acids. The Colorado soil is very rich in potash; the 
Gila soil much less so, yet very adequately supplied; the amount of soda 
found does not indicate much alkali contamination. The Colorado soil 
has a good but not high supply of phosphoric acid; the Gila soils 
both show an unusually high percentage of that ingredient. The Colorado 
soil has a good supply of humus; the Gila soil is notably deficient therein 
for a bottom soil. The latter point is explained by the fact, collaterally 
ascertained) that at low stages of water the Gila River carries enough 
alkali (carbonate of soda) to exert a sensible solvent action upon the 
humus of the soil. 

Although none of these materials become properly plastic on wetting 
and kneading, it will be noted that the Colorado soil shows a very high 
moisture-absorption, and a high percentage of alumina. In what form 
the latter is present, and what determines the high moisture-coefficient in 
this case, remains to be determined. In the Gila soil the moisture-absorp- 
tion is, at least, fair. 

Taken altogether, these soils should be highly and lastingly product- 
ive, and easily tilled if exempt or protected from overflow, and Bhould 
be adapted to a great variety of crops, determined more by the moisture 
conditions than by any other factor. 



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Soil Title.- 



Localitv. 



Manzanitasoil .. 

Pine soil 

Granite soil* 

Slate soil* 

Red soil 

Red soil 

Red subsoil 

White silty soil . 



Sandy loam soil 

Under-subsoil 

Soil 

Subsoil 

Subsoil 

Under-subsoil 

Fresno Plains red soil. 

Gray silty soil 

Gray sandy soil 

Soil. 



FOOTHILLS. 

Experiment Station, McKay tract 

Experiment Station, McKay tract 

Experiment Station, north slope 

Experiment Station, south slope 

Sec. 7, T. 17 N., R. 14 E., near Moore's Station . 

Eight miles west of Anderson 

Eight miles west of Anderson 

East side of Honey Lake 



Shell soil 

Hillside soil.. 
Hillside soil.. 

Loam soil 

Adobe soil 

Tule soil 

Sand hill soil . 
Tule soil 



Reddish-gray mesa soil 

Reddish-gray mesa subsoil. 

Adobe, or moist soil 

Reddish sandy loam soil... 

Under-subsoil 

Light subsoil* 

Heavy subsoil* — 

Brownish loam soil 

Reddish clay soil 

Valley ' ' wash ' ' soil 

Mesa soil 

Mesa soil 

High mesa soil 

Mesa subsoil 

Mesa soil 

Mesa subsoil 

Gray sandy clay 

Yellow ocnreous earth 

Bottom soil 

Gray soil 

Bottom soil* 

Bottom soil 

Bottom subsoil 



GREAT VALLEY. 

Buhach Colony, Merced 

Buhach Colony, Merced - - 

Viticultural experiment plot, E. B. Rogers' place 
Viticultural experiment plot, E. B. Rogers' plact 
Viticultural experiment plot, Dr. Eschleman's j»l i 
Viticultural experiment plot, Dr. Eschleman's pl«* 

Fruitvale tract, Sec. 9, T. 14, R. 19 E 

Sec. 17, T. 12 S., R. 17 E 

Sec. 28, T. 12 3., R. 17 E.. 

Sec. 15, T. 12 8., R. 17 E 

COAST RANGE. 

Bay Island Farm 

Near Wright's Station = 

Near Wright's Station 

Cafion in Chile's Valley -■■ 

Hillside bordering Chile's Valley 

Grizzly Island 

Six miles east of Antioch.. 1 

Mouth of Eel River 

SOUTH CALIFORNIA. 

Experiment Station, center of main tract, near C'bJ 
Experiment Station, center of main tract, near OW 

Experiment Station, south plot, near Chino... 

Riverside, Arlington Heights, under Gage Canal -- 
Riverside, Arlington Heights, under Gage ('mini — 

Riverside, under Riverside Canal - 

Riverside, under Riverside Canal — 

Windsor tract, Arlington Heights 

Balmoral tract, Arlington Heights - 

Temescal Valley, South Riverside 

Temescal Valley, South Riverside 

Temescal Valley, South Riverside 

Temescal Valley, South Riverside - 

Temescal Valley, South Riverside ; 

Temescal Valley, South Riverside 

Temescal Valley, Auburndale Colony - 

Hilside, near Forestry station .' 

Hillside, near Forestry station 

Sweetwater Valley ' 

Palm Valley ... 

Colorado River, near Yuma 

Gila River, near Yuma 

Gila River, near Yuma 



» Analyses published In previous reports. 



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ANALYSES OF WATER8. 



51 



II. ANALYSES OK WATERS. 



A. STREAM AND LAKE WATERS. 

Water from the streams of Pleasant Valley; sent by Mrs. M. E. Cleary, 
Coalinga, Fresno County. This water has a laxative effect upon per- 
sons drinking it for the first time, though after becoming accustomed to 
its use it seems to lose that eflect, except in warm weather. Fruit trees 
and vines, and all kinds of grain and most vegetables thrive when irri- 
gated with the water, but small shrubs and flowers sicken and die from 
the effects. 

An examination of the water shows it to hold in solution 119.4 grains 
of mineral salts per gallon, consisting chiefly of sulphate of soda, or 
Glauber's salt, which renders it entirely unfit for domestic use, that 
salt being a purgative much used in veterinary practice. Its continued 
use by persons will induce weakness of the digestive organs, and end in 
chills and fever, or some kind of constitutional derangement. If used 
for irrigation purposes, it will also injure the plants unless applied in 
such a manner and in such abundance as to prevent entirely the accu- 
mulation of salts near the surface by evaporation, which practically is 
hardly feasible. The nature of the water fully explains the fact stated 
above, that while trees grow well, smaller plants (with shallower roots) 
are not successful. The latter have their roots entirely immersed in the 
soil saturated with Glauber's salt, from which they suffer; while the 
deep-rooted plants have the greater portion of their roots below the 
point of damage, and can thus survive and even flourish, since the neu- 
tral salt does not corrode the bark or root-crown. 

Water of Tulare Lake, from near the middle (north and south), three 
miles from shore; stated to have been taken ten feet below the surface 
of the lake by a messenger sent by Mr. B. F. Moore, Tulare. The sample 
is slightly turbid, and has a fishy after-taste. 

Water of Tulare Lake, said to have been taken on the northeast side, 
two miles from shore, and one half mile beyond vegetable growth, two 
feet below the surface of the lake, or four and one half feet above the 
bottom, by Mr. T. A. Coonradt, Tulare. The sample was slightly turbid. 



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52 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



Water of Tulare Lake. 



Total residue by evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation 

Organic matter and chemically com- 
bined water . 

The soluble part consists of— 
Sodium and potassium sulphates (Glau 

ber's salt, etc.) . 

Sodium chloride (common salt) 

8odium carbonate (sal soda) 

The insoluble part consists of — 
Calcium and magnesium carbonates I 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum) 1 

Silica 



Middle of Lake. 


Northeast Side of Lake. 


Grains per 


Davfa In 

Jrf&rbS in 


Grains per 


Parts in 


Gallon. 


10,000. 


Gallon. 


10,000. 


60.16 


10.30 


• 29.77 


5.10 


43.46 


7.44 


18.82 


3.22 


9.11 


1.56 


5.81 


1.00 


7.59 


1.30 


6.14 


.88 


19.88 


3.41 


4.86 


.83 


3.77 


.64 


4.98 


.85 


19.81 


3.39 


8.98 


1.51 


7.71 


1.82 


4.12 


.71 


1.40 


.24 


1.69 


2.23 



The above analyses are difficult to reconcile, particularly as to total 
of salts present, with those made in former years upon well authenticated 
samples, and probably represent only local accumulations of mixtures 
of fresh water with the strong water of the lake, as analyzed in 1880 
and 1888. There certainly has been no such extensive change in the 
area of the lake as would seem to be indicated here. 

Water of Lake Elsinore, San Diego County; sent by Mr. Peter Wall, 
Elsinore, January, 1891. The water is clear, but has a faintly brackish 
taste. 

Water of Lake Elsinore; sent by Mr. N. Messer,Wildomar, San Diego 
County, January, 1890. The sample is clear and colorless. 

Water of Lake Elsinore. 



1890. 



Total residue by evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation 

Organic matterand chemically combined 

water • 

The soluble part consists of— 

Sodium and potassium sulphates(01au< 
ber'ssalt, etc.) 

Sodium chloride (common salt) 

Sodium carbonate (sal soda) 

The insoluble part consists of— 

Calcium and magnesium carbonate... 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum) 

Silica - - 



Grains per 
Gallon. 



103.21 
95.21 
2.75 

5.25 



76.00 
19.21 

2.75 
Trace. 



Parts In 
10,000. 



17.67 
16.30 
.47 

.90 



13.00 | 
3.30 



1891. 



Grains per 
Gallon. 



.47 



84.34 
71.84 
5.96 

6.54 

14.85 

43.37 
13.62 

5.49 
.47 



Parts in 

10,000. 



H.44 

12.30 
1.02 

1.12 

2.55 

7.42 
2.3S 



.08 
.94 



There is quite a diiference in the amount of mineral contents of the 
two samples, that taken recently having the least amount, especially of 
the alkali salts. This difference, or rather diminution of the mineral 
matter, is due entirely to its dilution, caused by the influx of pure water 
from the San Jacinto River last winter, and which made the lake over- 
flow into Temescal Valley, and seemed to make "soap" with the water 
of Lee's Lake, so that the creek frothed all over the riffles. 



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ANALYSES OF WATERS. 



53 



Even with this dilution the water of Elsinore Lake is too strong in 
alkali salts to be used for continued irrigation purposes. It would do 
for a few years, and then the land would be " dead " with alkali — " black 
alkali" at that. 

THE WATER SUPPLY OF THE TEME8CAL VALLEY.* 

The South Riverside Land and Water Company's supply is derived 
from the watershed of Temescal Creek — a total of about one hundred 
and seventy-five square miles — mainly on the Santa Ana Range, from 
which deep and long canons descend into the valley, while from the 
opposite steep and rocky slopes of the Temescal Range ^the foot of 
which is closely hugged by the creek in its upper course) only a few 
and comparatively insignificant runlets find their way into the valley. 
Again, the canons lying immediately adjacent to the colony lands of 
South Riverside furnish but a relatively small, though by no means 
insignificant, water supply, which requires storage reservoirs for the 
winter waters. One such has already been established at the mouth of 
Hagador Canon, and excellent natural sites for large reservoirs exist 
near the mouth of Lord's Cafion. The cause of the relatively scanty 
permanent flow from these gorges is manifestly the nature of the 
geological formation of the hills, which, near their base, is a structure- 
less red loam, that has materially contributed to the soils below; and 
farther back, the sandy clays of the older (Tertiary) beds, in which, 
likewise, water-shedding strata are very rare, and springs therefore 
scarce. Very much the same state of things prevails in several other 
cafions above, such as Manning's, Damron's, White's, and Anderson's; 
they do not reach back far enough into the rocky, central mass of the 
range. 

Ascending the valley, Coldwater Cafion is the first that yields an 
important permanent flow, and still above, Mayhew, Peter Wall, and 
Horsethief Cafions carry streams that flow throughout the year. The 
width of the Temescal Valley, in this upper portion, is from one to one 
and a half miles between the mountain slopes; but within it there lie 
bodies of low hill or mesa land, dividing it lengthwise into two portions. 
Through the narrow one, at the foot of the eastern or Temescal Range, 
flows the main creek; while more or less definite "washes" mark the 
points where, in times of flood, the waters of the cafions find their way 
across the valley from the Santa Ana Mountains. These washes are 
formed of great masses of debris, whose material is mostly granitic 
sand, gravel, and often huge bowlders of the same material, as well as 
of black-and-white-banded siliceous schist; showing both their origin in 
the central rock-masses, and proving the copious rainfall of the higher 
portions of the Santa Ana Range. A continuous flow of water in these 
washes exists but rarely, and for a short time; the porous nature of the 
deposits readily explains the disappearance of the waters from view. 

What becomes of the latter, is a question intimately connected with 
the valley's supply of irrigation water. A glance at a general map 
would seem to indicate that the Temescal Creek is but the natural con- 
tinuation of the San Jacinto River, which empties into Elsinore Lake; 
and from the latter a conspicuous channel leads directly into the 



•Abstract from a report made to the company, July, 1890. 



Digitized by Google 



54 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



Temescal Valley. In other words, Temescal Creek is the natural outlet 
of Elsinore Lake; but actual flow from the lake occurs only at long 
intervals. It has existed in 1890 for four months, finally ceasing on or 
about July twenty-fifth ; the last previous occurrence of such connection 
was in 1884; the last before that in 1864. It might be supposed that 
underground connection, through gravel beds, might, nevertheless, take 
place all the time. A plose examination made of the channel between 
the head of Temescal Valley and the outlet of Elsinore Lake, has shown 
that this is not the case, since impervious clay deposits intervene at 
several points, where the water would have to come to the surface. 
Moreover, the continuous concentration of the water of Elsinore Lake 
by evaporation, as shown by evidence, and analysis given above, shows 
clearly that under ordinary conditions of rainfall Elsinore Lake has no 
outflow of any importance. When it occurred in 1890 the water of 
Temescal Creek for some time was strongly tainted, as with soap, from 
the admixture of the alkaline water of the lake. Upon the cessation of 
the surface flow from the lake the water resumed its usual character of 
a mountain stream. But, to the casual observer, it now appears to be 
(to borrow a legal phrase) "without visible means of support." 

About eleven miles (on a direct line) above the townsite of South Riv- 
erside there is a long, shallow lake basin, about eighty acres in extent, 
called (from the first settler near by) Lee's Lake. From the lower end 
of this (partly tule-covered) sheet of water issues the ordinary flow of 
Temescal Creek, while little or no flow enters the upper end of the lake. 
Examination shows that the latter is fed by numerous springs (amount- 
ing in places to a continuous copious ooze for many yards) coming in 
from the southwest or Santa Ana side of the valley, and most abundant 
in front of the " washes " of Horsethief and Peter Wall Canons. It if 
obviously the flow of these gorges, absorbed within the great masses of 
debris they have deposited between their exits from the Santa Ana Range 
and the course of the main creek at the foot of the opposite slope, that 
with slow movement feeds the lake and the flow of the creek at its 
outlet, which in the dry season amounts to about four hundred miner's 
inches. 

Cienegas. — While there can be no doubt that the waters of Horsethief 
and Peter Wall Canons reach Lee's Lake more or less directly through 
the gravel and sand beds formed by them, and are substantially continu- 
ous across the valley, the same is not true of the two canons below, viz.: 
Mayhew's and Coldwater. The former, nearly two miles below Peter 
Wall's, is separated from it by hilly or mesa land, previously referred 
to, which is mainly composed of clayey strata, partly of an old forma- 
tion (Miocene), practically impervious to water. The Mayhew wash 
crosses these hills through a narrow pass; but wells, sunk close by. 
show that the gravel wash is only superficial, and that a clay mass or 
dam cuts off any considerable underground flow from the cafion to the 
creek. The 6ame condition of things prevails where the Coldwater wash 
occasionally pours its flood waters into Temescal Creek. 

The natural result is that the debris of these two canons have been 
piled up back of the clay ridges into heavy gravel beds, into which the 
waters are absorbed and stored, forming an extensive tract of moist or 
cienega land, from which water naturally bursts forth at many points 
in the form of copious springs, and from which, as experiment has 
shown, a still further supply can be drawn by artesian borings, or, as 



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ANALYSES OF WATERS. 



55 



has actually been done, by tunneling into the cienega from a lower level. 
In the experimental tunnel so driven (at Riley's Cienega), a flow of 
twenty-five to thirty inches rushed in through a small hole, so soon as 
the last of the clay wall was broken through, forty feet below the surface. 

The areas which may be properly designated as cienega land, show- 
ing the peculiar black soil that characterizes such spots, may be enu- 
merated as follows: 

1. The "Compton" Cienega, embracing about twenty acres of abso- 
lutely wet (tule) land, or one hundred and sixty acres of moist, all 
told, lies midway between Mayhew and Coldwater Canons, where they 
approach nearest (one half mile), and but a short distance from -the 
foot of the " clay hill " belt of the valley. From this wet land there 
has always been a steady surface-flow of between fifty to sixty inches. 
Three artesian wells have been bored within this cienega, one to the 
depth of three hundred, the two others to that of about one hundred 
and fifty feet, all in granitic gravel. There appeared to be no material 
increase of flow with greater depth, the discharge being steadily about 
twenty-five inches each from wells Nos. 1 and 2, and over twenty inches 
from No. 3. The water of the latter at present discharges from a pipe 
laid to a school house near by, twenty-five feet above the mouth of the 
well; the three aggregate seventy-two inches. 

2. The "Rolfe" Cienega, distant from the preceding about one fourth 
of a mile southeasterly, just beyond the wash of Coldwater Canon, has 
three hundred and fourteen acres of wet land, part of which is so full 
of springs, and with the luxuriant vegetation so dangerous for roam- 
ing cattle, that it has been fenced for safety. Four ten-inch artesian 
wells have been bored here to depths ranging from one hundred and 
twenty-five to one hundred and forty-five feet, all the time in granitic 
gravel. The flow of the borings here is more copious than in the 
Compton Cienega. Besides this, there is a considerable surface-flow, 
which has not been sensibly diminished by the boring of the wells, 
reported as amounting to as much as three hundred inches before boring 
the wells; this makes the total discharge from the Rolfe and Compton 
Cienegas about six hundred inches. 

The two cienegas are connected by a pipe-line, and their joint over- 
flows from wells and surface are gathered into a reservoir, and pass on 
to the Riley Cienega. 

3. Riley's Cienega is distant about three fourths of a mile due north 
from the artesian wells in the Rolfe Cienega, and about seven acres in 
area. This small cienega, like the last, lies on the course of Coldwater 
Canon wash, which here passes right at the base of the clay hills on the 
east side, while the same close in, within a few hundred yards, on the 
west also. Here (as previously mentioned) a tunnel was driven from 
the main pipe-line toward the cienega, with the intention of tapping it at 
some depth below the surface, the result being that, as stated above, 
a twenty-five-inch stream of water burst in through a hole about eight 
inches in diameter, when the clay wall was broken through into the 
gravel of the cienega. Nothing has since been done to increase this 
flow, which has risen to thirty inches at the last measurement made 
(July 2, 1888). 

4. The Harrington Cienega lies two and one half miles below the Riley 
tract, on the course of the main Temescal Creek, which is almost lost at 
the upper end of the moist land, but reappears at its lower end, being 



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56 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



forced to the surface by granite ledges which here confine the valley to 
a short gorge; at its narrowest point the latter is only three hundred 
feet across. The full flow of the creek passes over the granite rocks as 
a waterfall, of considerable volume when seen by the writer in June of 
the present year. The moist land above, much of which is overgrown 
with willows and cotton wood, is about seven acres in area. There can 
be no question that it is fed essentially by the main creek, which was 
compelled to drop its gravel in consequence of the barrier across its 
course. Its altitude at the lower end is eight hundred and forty-two 
feet. 

Below the Harrington gorge, Temescal Creek gradually becomes 
smaller in volume as it sinks into the gravel beds, and in years of 
ordinary rainfall is not seen to carry any water below the bridge on the 
Riverside road (Magnolia Avenue). In June, 1890, however, it not 
only flowed past the townsite itself, but reached the Santa Ana River 
as a definite stream, flowing mostly along the foot of the Auburndale 
bluffs. 

Character of the Waters — Chemical Composition. — The water of the 
artesian wells is limpid and cool, and very pleasant for drinking; that 
of Lee's Lake is, of course, more or less charged with vegetable matter 
derived from the tule and other growth that luxuriate in portions of 
the water-covered area. The subjoined analyses of samples representing 
the two kinds of water contributing to the South Riverside system, one 
taken from the largest well in the Rolfe Cienega, the other from the 
western margin of Lee's Lake, show their character: 



Competition of South Riverside Irrigation Waters. 



Artesian— 
June 24, 1890. 



Lee's Lake- 
August 31, 1890. 



Grains per 
Gallon. 


Parts per 
10,000. 


Grains per 
Gallon. 


Parts per 

10,000. 


13.20 


2.260 


14.14 


2.456 


12.00 


2.064 


12.25 


2.147 


3.96 


.679 


t.77 


£ 


.55 


.094 


1.00 




2.11 


.361 


.71 


.123 


.56 


.093 


.60 


.085 


.76 


.131 


.56 


.086 


8.03 


1.375 


9.68 


7.67* 


.88 


.161 


.13 


.022 


4.49 


.770 


6.76 


1.000 


.80 


.137 


.82 


.141 


.08 


.012 


.11 


.020 


1.80 


.305 


2.86 


.490 


1.20 


.205 


1.68 


.280 



Total solid contents 

Strictly mineral matter 

Soluble after evaporation 

Sodium chloride (common salt).. 

Sodium sulphate (Glauber's salt) . 

Sodium carbonate 

Potassium sulphate 

Insoluble after evaporation 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum) 

Calcium carbonate 

Magnesium carbonate 

Peroxide of iron 

Silica 

Organic matter (small) and water 



The total mineral contents of these two waters would, when mixed in 
equal proportions, average about twelve and one fourth grains per gallon. 
This, taken as a whole, is over five grains less than is contained in the 
water of the Los Angeles River, and less by three and one fourth grains 
than that in Warm Creek (the old Riverside ditch); it is almost pre- 
cisely the average of the Gage artesian wells at Riverside. Inspection 
shows that of the total of mineral matter, only one third in the artesian 
water, and less than one fourth in the lake water, consists of soluble or 
" alkali" salts, the rest being earthy matter that always forms an accept- 



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ANALYSES OF WATERS. 



57 



able contribution to the soil-mass. But of the permanently soluble 
portion a considerable part — three fourths of a grain in the artesian 
water — consists of a highly valuable fertilizing substance, viz.: potas- 
sium sulphate, the potash being manifestly derived from the granitic 
rocks and debris from which all these waters flow. While three fourths 
of a grain per gallon may seem a small amount, it ceases to be insignifi- 
cant when multiplied by the number of gallons expected to be used on 
an acre of ground in the course of a year. Allowing only one inch 
(four-inch pressure) to ten acres, we obtain for the weight of the potash 
thus brought on the land twenty-seven pounds, worth, in the form of 
the sulphate, $1 25 wholesale, at New York. While this may not seem 
a very important offset to the cost of irrigation water, the fact is that 
there is, even thus, supplied the full amount of potash required for a 
heavy crop of wheat (thirty bushels), including straw, or two and one 
half such crops of grain, exclusive of straw, or for a five-ton crop of 
grapes, which draw more heavily on potash than does any other fruit. 
It is clear that with what is always in addition supplied by the soil, 
the heaviest crops expected to be grown on these lands will not render 
fertilization with potash necessary, so long as these waters are used in 
irrigating it. 



Water from the Gila River, taken at different seasons and sent by Mr. 
Hiram W. Blaisdell, Yuma, Arizona. These samples were analyzed for 
the sender in order to determine whether well or river water would be 
best for use at different times of the year. 



Total residue by evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water alter evaporation... 

Organic matter and chemically com- 
bined water 

The soluble part consist* of— 
8odinm and potassium sulphates ) 

(Glauber's salt, etc.) ...}■ 

Sodium chloride (common salt) ) 

Sodium carbonate (sal soda) 



Grains per Gallon. 



Sample 
taken 
June 5. 



Sample 
taken 
June 23. 



Sample 
taken 
July 8. 



70.10 
46.70 
17.90 

6.50 



46.30 
.37 



90.30 
61.60 
22.60 

6.20 



61.00 
.60 



112.20 
78.60 

22.30 

13.30 



76.19 
.60 



Parts in 10,000. 



Sample 
taken 
June 5. 



Sample 
taken 
June 23 



Sample 
taken 
July 8. 



12.00 
7.99 
3.08 

.93 



.06 



16.46 
10.64 
3.96 

1.06 



10.46 | 
.09 



I 



19.20 
13.10 
3.82 

2.38 



13.01 
.09 



The insoluble part of these waters consists of gypsum (predominat- 
ing in the samples taken June twenty-third and July eighth), carbon- 
ates of lime and magnesia, and silica, with traces of iron, alumina, and 
phosphoric acid. This river water becomes so strong in salts during 
the summer as to place it beyond the pale of desirable irrigation waters. 
If used, the presence of carbonate of soda should be counteracted by 
the use of plaster (gypsum). The soil of the valley, however, is so 
porous that a leaching out of accumulated salts would seem to be easily 
effected by thorough flooding in winter. 



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58 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



B. SPRING WATERS. 



Water from a spring, twenty-four miles from Ukiah; sent by Mr. J. M. 
Robinson, Ukiah, Mendocino County. The sample is clear and color- 
less, and contains free carbonic acid. Its composition is: 



Total residue by evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation 

Organic matter and chemically combined water 

The soluble part consult of— 

Sodium and potassium sulphates (Glauber's salt, etc.) 

Sodium chloride (common salt) 

Sodium carbonate (sal aoda) 

The insoluble part consists of— 

Calcium and magnesium carbonates I 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum) j 

Silica 



Grains per 
Gallon. 


Parts to 

10,000. 


83.29 


14.26 


46.14 


7.90 


37.16 


6.36 


Trace. 




1.06 


.19 


1.90 


.32 


43.18 


7.S9 


35.75 


6.12 


1.40 


0.24 



The mineral contents of this water consist almost exclusively of the 
carbonates of soda and of lime, the latter being kept in solution in pres- 
ence of the free carbonic acid gas. By boiling, the water would be freed 
from the gas and the lime precipitated, thus leaving a water strongly 
alkaline with soda. Such a water would, however, not be palatable. 
The water is so highly charged with soda as to render it unfit for domestic 
use, but as an alkaline mineral water it is of fair strength, and if suf- 
ficiently charged with carbonic acid would, doubtless, form a palatable 
water of good medicinal qualities. 

Water from "Mt. Ida Spring," near Oroville, Butte County; sent by 
Mr. Adolf Ekman. "Carbonic acid and sulphuretted hydrogen gases 
constantly bubble up from the bottom of the spring; and cattle will 
swim the creeks in order to get a drink of the water, evidently appre- 
ciating its properties." The sample is clear, colorless, and tasteless. It 
contains a small amount of free carbonic acid gas, but no sulphuretted 
hydrogen was perceptible. Its composition was found to be: 



Total residue by evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation 

Organic matter and chemically combined water 

The soluble part consists of — 

Sodium sulphate (Glauber's salt) 

Sodium chloride (common salt) 

Sodium carbonate (sal soda) 

The insoluble part consists of— 

Calcium and magnesium carbonates > 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum) f 

Silica 



Grains per 
Gallon. 



Part* In 

10,000. 



74.30 


1172 


56.08 


9.60 


12.38 | 


112 


5.84 | 


1.00 


31.11 i 


5.32 


21.26 


3.64 


3.71 , 


.64 


1 

9.93 j 


1.70 


2.45 : 


.42 



The mineral content of this water is large, and the large amounts of 
Glauber's salt and common salt make it unfit for domestic use. It is a 
mild saline purgative mineral water, and its constant use is to be avoided, 
both by man and cattle; the latter are doubtless attracted by its saline 
nature. 



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ANALYSES OF WATERS. 



59 



Water from a mountain spring near Cloverdale, Sonoma County; sent 
by Mr. G. Hunziker, of Cloverdale. The sample is clear and contains 
a small amount of free carbonic acid. Its composition is as follows: 



Grains per 
Qallou. 



Parts in 

10,000. 



6.08 


1.04 


2.00 


.84 


8.44 


.59 


.64 


.11 


.22 


.04 


.64 


.09 


1.24 


.21 


2.62 


.45 


.82 


.14 



Total residue by evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation. 

Organic matter and chemically combined water 

The soluble part consuls of— 

Sodium and potassium sulphates (Glauber's salt, etc.). 

Sodium chloride (common salt) .. 

Sodium carbonate (sal soda) 

The insoluble part consists of— 

Calcium and magnesium carbonates 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum) 

8ilica 



This is an exceptionally pure water, containing a very small amount 
of mineral matter, being less than half of what is commonly found in 
the waters of that region. Among the mineral ingredients there is a 
comparatively large amount of carbonate of soda. 

Mineral water from near Martinez, Contra Costa County; sent by Mr. 
Win. J. Young. The spring from which the water was taken is situated 
in the bottom of a deep canon gulch. The sample is clear and emits an 
odor of sulphuretted hydrogen, which is present in small quantity. The 
water has the following composition: 



Total residue by evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation 

Organic matter and chemically combined water 

The soluble part consists of— 

Sodium and potasium sulphates (Glauber's salt, etc.) 

Sodium chloride (common salt) 

Sodium carbonate (sal soda) 

Magnesium sulphate (Epsom salt), small amount. 

The insoluble part consists of— 

Calcium and magnesium carbonates... I 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum) ( 

Silica 



Grains per Parts in 
Gallon. 10,000. 



114.13 


19.54 


78.21 


13.89 


28.50 


4.88 


7.42 


1.27 


68.89 


11.71 


7.86 


1.26 


2.48 


.42 


22.66 


3.88 


6.84 


1.00 



The water is quite strongly mineral — quite ten times as much as 
should be the case for domestic use. Its character is that of a saline 
purgative, resembling somewhat the waters of Byron Spring. It con- 
tains a very large amount of Glauber's salt, a good deal of common salt, 
with a large amount of lime and magnesia carbonate and silica. 

Water from a spring on Smith's Ranch, Alhambra Valley, four miles 
from Martinez, Contra Costa County; sent by Mr. L. M. Smith, Mar- 
tinez: 



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60 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



Grains per 
Gallon. 



Parte in 
10,000. 



659.69 


11194 


663.86 


111.94 


6.83 


1.00 


57.12 


9.78 


399.77 


68.44 


6.19 


1.06 


8.65 


1.48 


182.13 


31.18 


5.37 


.92 


.46 


.08 



Total residue by evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation _. 

Organic matter and chemically combined water, little. 

The soluble part consists of— 

Sodium and potassium sulphates (Glauber's salt, etc.) 

Sodium chloride (common salt).. 

Sodium carbonate (sal Boda) 

Magnesium chloride 

Calcium chloride 

The insoluble part consists of— 

Calcium and magnesium carbonates I 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum) f 

Silica 



The very large amount of mineral contents condemns this water at 
once for domestic purposes. As a mineral water it is very strongly 
saline, with also nearly half as much chloride of calcium. The most 
delicate tests showed the presence of extremely small amounts of lithia. 
Its value for medicinal purposes is in great doubt. 

Water from the tunnel in the hill at the Deaf, Dumb, and Blind Asylum, 
Berkeley; sent by Prof. W. Wilkinson, Superintendent. 

Water from Strawberry Caiion; in use by the University (from a pre- 
vious report, for comparison). Both waters are clear, colorless, and 
tasteless. 



Total residue by evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation 

The soluble part consists of— 

Sodium and potassium sulphates 
(Glauber's salt, etc.) 

Sodium chloride (common salt) 

Sodium carbonate (sal soda) 

Sodium silicate ... 

The insoluble part consists of— 

Calcium and magnesium carbonates. I 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum) ( 

Silica 

Phosphate of iron and alumina 



Asylum. 



Grains per 
Gallon. 



19.22 
8.24 
10.98 



4.29 
2.71 
1.24 



6.01 
4.97 



Parts in 

10,000. 



3.29 
1.41 
1.88 



.74 
.46 

.21 



1.03 
.85 



University. 



Grains per 
Gallon. 



14.21 
6.22 
8.99 



.27 
1.54 

.29 
8.12 

8.a 
'".Us 



Parts In 

10,000. 



1.01 
.37 
.64 



.11 
.02 
.22 

.62 

"*02 



A comparison of the two waters, respectively, from the Asylum and 
University water-supply, is of interest in showing that while that of the 
former has much the larger amount of mineral matter, nineteen to four- 
teen grains, it is also much softer than that of the University, because 
of the less content of earthy matter; only six grains of the total nineteen 
of the Asylum water go to produce the " hardness," while nearly nine 
grains of the total fourteen of the University act in that direction. 
Moreover, there is four times as much carbonate of soda in the former 
(1.24 against 0.29 in the University water); and as sal soda is used for 
softening hard waters, that is a point in favor of the Asylum water. 
Both are, of course, good waters for all domestic uses. 



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ANALYSES OF WATERS. 



61 



Mineral water, taken from a spring six miles from Montecito Valley, 
Santa Barbara County; sent by Hon. E. H. Heacock. The sample was 
clear golden yellow in color, with a strongly bitter taste, and without 
odor. 

"As a purgative water this is very effective and not painful in the 
least. It was a medicinal water used by the native Indians as a purga- 
tive and cure for most of their ills. It is estimated that the spring 
yields some five hundred gallons of water per day." 

An analysis gave the following result: 



Grains per 
OnUon. 



Parts in 
10,000. 



Total residue by evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation ._ 

Insoluble in water after evaporation 

Organic matter and chemically combined water 
The soluble part consists of — 

Potassium sulphate 

Sodium sulphate (Glauber's salt) 

Sodium chloride (common salt) 

Sodium carbonate (sal soda) 

Magnesium sulphate (Epsom salt) 

Magnesium nitrate 

The insoluble part consists of— 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum) 

Calcium phosphate : 

Magnesium carbonate 



2,224.64 
1,820.44 
83.88 
820.32 

6.16 
162.58 
242.88 
86.67 
966.6:) 
415.66 

57.12 
Trace. 
26.76 



880.86 
311.66 
14.86 
64.84 

1.06 
26.12 
41.58 

6.26 
165.48 
71.16 

9.78 
Trace. 
4.58 



The composition of this water is very unusual. There are waters as 
strong as this in Epsom salt and the other saline ingredients given, but 
the extraordinary quantity of nitrate of magnesia shown here is quite 
out of the usual way, and would hardly be looked for outside of the 
nitre beds of Bolivia or Nevada. 

In general saline strength the water is about equal to that of sea 
water. It is needless to say that with over fourteen hundred grains of 
magnesian salts per gallon it must be highly purgative, as Mr. Heacock 
says; but the cooling effect of the nitre may have something to do with 
the mildness or painlessness of the action referred to. As a very con- 
centrated medicine, it should be used with great caution by patients. 
The yellow tint is doubtless due to dissolved organic matter of some 
kind, not easily identified; it is evidently dissolved in the carbonate of 
soda. 

It would be highly interesting to ascertain the exact origin of this 
water, and the conditions under which so much nitre can be formed in 
the coast climate of Santa Barbara. 

Waters from four springs in the canons of Piru Rancho, near Camulos, 
Ventura County; sent by David C. Cook, Esq. The water from Spring 
No. 3 is colorless, and somewhat fiattish to the taste. There was a slight 
evolution of carbonic acid when boiled. Spring water No. 4 is from the 
same locality, but sent more recently; the sample is clear, tasteless, and 
odorless. 



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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



Total residue by evaporation 

8oluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation 

Organic matter and chemically combined water 
The soluble part consists of— 

Sodium and potassium sulphates (Glauber's 
salt, etc.) 

Sodium chloride (common salt) 

Magnesium sulphate (Epsom salt) 

The insoluble part consists of— 

Magnesium carbonate 

Calcium carbonate, small amount. 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum) 

Silica 



» » » 



Grains per Gallon. 



86.10 
47.81 
80.69 
7.10 



181.60 
87.70 
70.64 
23.36 



57.26 
21.62 
27.63 
8.00 



Spring No. 4. 



Grains 
perGaL 



61.68 
24.19 
29.90 
7.69 



9.93 
1.84 
15.42 

3.43 

21.92 
4.56 



The soluble part of these waters consists of sulphates and bicarbonates 
of potash and soda, with a small amount of common salt. The insoluble 
part is principally gypsum, with carbonates of lime and magnesia, and 
a very little silica; traces of iron are present. The waters are very nearly 
of the same character, although of different degrees of strength. None of 
them fall within the limits of what is usually considered potable waters. 
No. 2 is unfit for any but medicinal use, permanently. No. 1 might, with 
proper precautions, be used for irrigation. No. 3, with its 21.6 per cent 
of permanently soluble alkali, is just admissible for ordinary irrigation. 
It is still two and one half times stronger than the Los Angeles River 
water, and six times stronger than that of Kern River; and it will neces- 
sitate special modes of culture to render it permanently innocuous. But 
if forming only a part of the supply of the reservoir otherwise filled with 
rain water, it may, of course, be diluted down to the regulation strength. 

The water of the sample sent more recently (No. 4) contains a large 
amount of mineral matter, the greater part of which is gypsum and 
Epsom salt, with some Glauber's salt; it is therefore quite purgative in its 
nature, and, in its raw state, unfit for domestic uses; it may be improved 
for drinking by treatment with lime water, and for washing by the use 
of sal soda. It will do fairly well for irrigation. 

Mineral water from the mountains some twenty-five miles east of 
San Buenaventura, Ventura County, at an altitude of about one thou- 
sand eight hundred feet above the sea; sent by Mr. Jose" G. Moraga, 
Santa Barbara. The sample sent is clear and colorless, but intensely 
saline to the taste. It contains 4,544 grains of residue per gallon, con- 
sisting mainly of common salt, with chlorides of calcium and magne- 
sium in small quantities. There are also some carbonates of lime and 
magnesia, the former predominating, in the insoluble portion of the 
residue. This water is exceptionally strong in mineral contents, and 
of course is totally unfit for domestic use or for irrigation purposes, and 
too nearly pure salt water to promise unusual medicinal virtues. 

Water from a spring six miles east of Sumner, Kern County; sent by 
Mr. John Barker, Sumner. 

"The spring issues from under a bluff three hundred feet in height, 
and flows into Kern River, which lies about ten feet below it. A con- 
tinuous stream of gas-bubbles rises up through the water to the surface. 



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ANALYSES OF WATERS. 



63 



The bluff is composed of a regular stratum of sedimentary deposit, which 
has evidently been formed at the bottom of an ancient sea, as fossil 
remains are found all through it. A heavy deposit of white sulphur 
exists for a long distance above and below the spring. The temperature 
of the spring is 70 degrees Fahrenheit. Many persons with malarial 
troubles have used the water, and claim to have been benefited." 

The sample is clear, has a saline taste, and an odor of sulphuretted 
hydrogen. 



Total residue by evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation 

Organic matter and chemically combined water 

The toluble part consists of— 

Sodium and potassium sulphates (Glauber's salt, etc.) 

Sodium chloride (common salt) 

Sodium carbonate (sal soda) 

The insoluble part consists of— 

Calcium and magnesium carbonates I 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum) f 

8ilica 



Grains per 
Gallon. 


Parts in 

10,000. 


199.18 


34.10 


186.92 


32.00 


7.30 


1.26 


4.96 


.85 


16.72 


2.70 


142.72 


24.43 


28.48 


4.87 


4.67 


.80 


2.63 


.46 



The character of this water is that of a saline sulphur water of con- 
siderable strength. The chief ingredient is common salt; and, with the 
carbonate and sulphate of soda, it forms a composition that might be 
beneficial in many cases. But its exact uses must be pointed out by 
the doctors. 

Water, stated to be from the water supply of the Soldiers' Home, * 
located between Los Angeles and Santa Monica, about three miles north- 
west of " The Palms" Station, Los Angeles County. The water rises in 
a loose sandstone formation in the Santa Monica Mountains. Sent by 
T. F. Laycock, Los Angeles. 



Total residue from evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation 

Organic matter and chemically combined water 

The soluble part amtitU of— 

Sodium chloride (common salt) 

Sodium and potassium sulphates (Glauber's salt, etc.) 

Sodium carbonate (sal soda) 

Magnesium sulphate (Epsom salt) 

The intoluble part eontitU of— 

Calcium sulphate 

Calcium carbonate 

Magnesium carbonate 

Peroxide of iron 

8ilica 



Grains per 
Gallon. 


Parts In 
10,000. 


66.00 


11.30 


29.86 


6.03 


25.86 


4.42 


10.80 


1.86 


4.60 


.79 


7.32 


1.34 


2.48 


.42 


14.46 


2.48 


12.03 


2.04 


9.90 


1.69 


2.72 


.49 


Trace. 




1.20 


.20 



The high mineral contents of this water condemn it for domestic use, 
since Epsom salt, Glauber's salt, and gypsum comprise the chief ingre- 
dients and make it highly purgative in its nature. Even treatment with 



•The authenticity of this sample is called in question by the authorities of the Home. 
On this point the station has no other information than that given by the sender; but, 
whatever may be its derivation, such water is most positively unfit for domestic use. 

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



lime, as described in previous reports, would leave the water objection- 
able, though the removal of magnesia in that way would be a material 
improvement. The water is, therefore, unfit for habitual use, and if 
so used will necessarily produce serious disorders. It can be used for 
irrigation in sandy soils that are well drained, but in clay soils it will 
soon cause " alkali." 

All the waters draining from the " rotten sandstone " of the region 
will probably be of the same nature, and wells should be bored down 
into the clay formations to get a reasonably good water. 

Water and gas from a spring near Escondido, San Diego County; sent 
by Mr. J. W. Turrentine. 

" The spring is located almost in the bed of Escondido River, not in 
the channel, but manifestly has no connection with the water of the 
river. The water seems to rise through a fissure in the granite from an 
unknown depth, and flows about one half of a miner's inch. The water, 
when entirely free from contamination, is soft, and apparently contains 
sulphur. Large quantities of gas or air escape continually; sometimes 
large bubbles are sent up, a few of which would fill a pint bottle. Dur- 
ing the past three years there seems to have been no change either in 
the quantity or quality of the water." 

The sample is clear, colorless, and tasteless, and has the following 
composition : 



Total residue by evaporation.. 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation 

Organic matter and chemically combined water 

The soluble part consists of — 

Sodium and potassium sulphates (Glauber's salt, etc.) 

Magnesium sulphate (Epsom salt), small amount. 

Sodium chloride (common salt) 

Sodium carbonate (sal soda) 

The insoluble part consists of— 

Calcium and magnesium carbonates ) 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum) j 

Silica 



Grains per 
Gallon. 



Parts in 

10,000. 



24.94 


4.27 


15.71 


2.W 


6.96 


1.19 


2.27 


.89 


9.08 


1.56 


4.77 


.82 


1.86 


.32 


6.96 


1.02 


1.00 


.17 



The gas that is given off is nitrogen, entirely neutral, and of no effect. 
The mineral contents are too small to entitle it to the name of mineral 
water, though such as there are will probably act as a gentle purgative 
on some persons; this property may also prevent its use for domestic 
purposes. 



COMMON WELL WATERS. 

Well water; sent by Dr. W. N. Finney, Roseville, Placer County. The 
water is from a bored well; the sample sent is clear, with a slight odor 
of sulphuretted hydrogen. 



Grains per 
Gallon. 



Parts In 

10,000. 



Total residue from evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation 

Organic matter and chemically combined water 
Silica 



89.25 
26.58 
9.76 
2.92 
3.63 



6.72 
4.55 
1.67 
.80 
.62 



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ANALYSES OF WATEKS. 



65 



More than two thirds of the soluble part consists of the sulphates of 
soda and potash, the rest comprising bicarbonate of soda and common 
salt, the former predominating. 

The water is slightly purgative, owing to the presence of Glauber's 
salt, which, with the carbonate of soda, makes' up the effective portion 
of the contents. It would hardly do for daily use, but would be useful 
medicinally in certain cases of disease. 

Well water; sent by Mr. Dana Perkins, Rocklin, Placer County. 

" The well is sunk in soft granite to a depth of thirty feet, to a hard 
granite bowlder, over which a small stream of water runs in; water also 
seeps in at about three feet from the bottom." 

The sample is clear, colorless, and tasteless, and has the following 
composition: 



Grains per 
Gallon. 



Parts In 

10,000. 



Total residue by evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation 

Organic matter and chemically combined water 
ffilica __ 



18.40 
5.84 
8.47 
4.09 
4.21 



8.15 
1.00 
1.45 
.70 
.71 



The soluble part consists chiefly of common salt, with small amounts 
of sulphates and carbonates of the alkalies. The insoluble part consists 
of silica with considerable gypsum, and small quantities of carbonates 
of lime and magnesia. The water is good for both domestic and irriga- 
tion purposes. 

WeU water; sent by Mr. A. H. Grossman, Napa. The water is clear, 
and has an odor of sulphuretted hydrogen. 



Grains per 
Gallon. 


Parts In 

10,000. 


12.16 


2.06 


1.76 


.80 


7.77 


1.83 


2.63 


.45 


.04 


.01 


.62 


.11 


1.09 


.18 


1.29 


.22 


6.48 


1.11 



Total residue after evaporation .. 

8oluble part after evaporation 

Insoluble part after evaporation 

Chemically combined water and organic matter 

The toluble part amtuU of— 

Sulphate of soda and potash (Glauber's salt) 

Carbonate of soda (sal soda) — 

8odium chloride (common salt) 

The insoluble part amrittt of— 

Carbonate of lime and magnesia 1 

Sulphate of lime i I 

8ilica 



The only unusual thing about this water is its high content of silica, 
which probably causes it to turn turbid in a peculiar way, and to 
incrust vessels. It possesses no medicinal virtue, and is simply a good 
water for domestic use. It resembles very closely that from the well of 
Mr. Zierngibl, of St. Helena (given in a previous report), both in total 
constituents and in the relative amounts of each. 

5» 



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66 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



Well water; sent by Mr. Roth well Hyde, St. Helena, Napa County. The 
water is clear, colorless, and tasteless. It has the following composition: 




Parts in 

10,000. 



Total residue by evaporation 

Soluble part after evaporation 

Insoluble part after evaporation 

Chemically combined water and organic matter 
Silica 



1.42 

.20 
.96 

.27 
.73 



This water is very weak in its mineral constituents, a little more than 
one half of which is silica. There is present about half a grain each of 
common salt and bicarbonate of soda, a very little Glauber's salt, and 
a little more than one grain of carbonate of lime and magnesia in a 
gallon of the water. 

This water, like that from the well of Mr. Zierngibl, of St. Helena, 
and Hunziker's Spring, Cloverdale (see above), is quite peculiar, in that 
its chief mineral constituent is silica, while the permanently soluble 
portion is very small. If the insoluble portions were removed, by boil- 
ing or other means of precipitation, the water would be almost chem- 
ically pure. It is very good for domestic and all other uses. 

Well water; sent by Mr. E. Younger, San Jose", Santa Clara County. 

"The water has a flow of six inches over a tin pipe from a well that is 
four hundred and fifty feet deep, the lower one hundred and eighty feet 
being through a rotten clay with streaks of rust, and inclosing large 
brownish-colored bowlders. The water when allowed to drip for any 
length of time upon substances, forms upon them a brownish deposit 
looking like rust; and when confined for some time in a closed vessel 
it acquires a very strong odor. Tender flowers will not stand being 
watered with it." 

The sample received was clear, colorless, and odorless; also free from 
iron. An analysis shows it to have the following composition: 



Grains per 
Gallon. 



Parte In 
10,000. 



Total residue by evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation 

Organic matter and chemically combined water 

The soluble part consists of— 

Sodium and potassium sulphates (Glauber's salt, etc.) 

Sodium chloride (common salt) 

8odium carbonate (sal soda) 

The insoluble part consists of— 

Calcium and magnesium carbonates I 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum) f 

Silica 



20.16 
8.18 
8.47 
8.60 

2.61 
.68 
4.89 

7.01 
1.46 



3.45 
1.40 
1.45 
.60 

.45 
.11 
.84 

1.20 
.26 



The water agrees remarkably with those examined from artesian 
wells between San Jose* and Alvarado, both as to amount of mineral 
matter and its nature. The predominance of carbonate of soda is char- 
acteristic of all the artesian waters coming from near the center line of 
the Santa Clara Valley. There is nothing against the water for domestic 
use; for irrigation, the carbonate of soda should be counteracted by the 
use of land plaster from time to time; but it is, in general, a very good 



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ANALYSES OF WATEHS. 



67 



water. The coloration spoken of arises from a deposition of a mixture 
of silica and a little iron rust on the surface of tin or other articles that 
will show such change readily. Any water containing carbonate of 
soda is liable to put vegetable matter into a condition of offensive (lacto- 
butyric) fermentation, and hence the odor alluded to above. It will 
only happen when left stagnant, and means nothing to the detriment of 
the healthiness of the fresh water for drinking or other domestic pur- 
poses. 

Water from a bored well near Cupertino, Santa Clara County; sent 
by Mr. F. Spangenburg. 

"The well, seven inches in diameter, was bored on a wet spot to a 
depth of fifty-two feet, through ten feet of alluvial soil, thirty-six feet 
of yellow clay, impervious to water, but easily penetrated, three feet of 
blue clay, and three feet of blue gravel and stones. The well is situated 
at the outlet of a small ravine running north and south; the land on 
the east side of the ravine is hilly, and has a dark, clayey soil, mixed 
with enough gravel to prevent its being sticky. The land on the west 
side is gravelly. The watershed of this ravine covers fifteen or twenty 
acres. The wells on the adjoining places all have good water. The 
water in the pipe of this well stands fifteen inches above the surface of 
the ground, and is not influenced by wet or dry weather." 

The sample of water sent is clear, colorless, and odorless, and has the 
following composition : 





Grains per 
Gallon. 


Parts In 

10,000. 


Total residue by evaporation 


46.73 
12.86 
28.60 
10.28 
8.52 


8.00 
2.20 
4.04 
1.76 
1.47 




Silica 





The soluble part consists chiefly of common salt, with small amounts 
of the sulphates and carbonates of the alkalies, and a very small part 
of sulphate of magnesia (Epsom salt). The insoluble part consists 
chiefly of the carbonates of lime and magnesia, with some gypsum and 
silica. For domestic uses this water is but very slightly saline, but is 
somewhat hard from the presence of so much lime, etc. The latter 
could be removed by boiling or treatment with lime (see previous 
report), leaving behind only an unobjectionable amount of common 
salt. The water is quite well adapted to irrigation purposes, the lime 
and magnesia being advantageous, especially upon the clayey lands. 
The salt, while generally objectionable on such lands, is too little in 
amount to work any injury. 

Well water from four miles southwest of Fresno; sent by Mr. I. F. 
Moulton, San Francisco. The water was taken at a depth of six feet 
(bottom water), and contained some suspended matter. The sample is 
clear and colorless, but saline to the taste. 



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UNIVERSITY OP CALIFORNIA. 



Total residue by evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation 

Organic matter and chemically combined water 

The soluble part consists of— 

Sodium and potassium sulphates (Glauber's salt, etc.) . 

Sodium chloride (common salt), chiefly 

Sodium carbonate (sal soda) 

The insoluble part consists of— 

Calcium and magnesium carbonates 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum) 

Silica 



Grains per 
Gallon. 


ParUin 

10,000. 


84.68 


14.48 


73 01 


12.50 


6.88 


1.18 


4.68 


.80 


60.63 


10.38 


12.38 


in 


8.86 


.66 


3.40 


.52 



The water is quite saline in character, its mineral contents compris- 
ing chiefly common salt, with a considerable amount of Glauber's Bait, 
and a small amount of sulphate of potash. There is also a considerable 
quantity of gypsum present. The water is unfit for either domestic or 
irrigation purposes, and when evaporated at the surface will produce 
"white alkali/' 

Well water, from the San Joaquin Valley Experiment Station, Tulare 
County; taken in December, 1889, and November, 1890. The samples 
sent were clear and colorless. 



Taken In 1889. 



Grains per 
Gallon. 



Parts In 

10,000. 



Taken in 1890. 



Grains per 
Gallon. 



Parts In 

10,000. 



Total residue by evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation ... 

Organic matter and cbem. com. water. . 

The soluble part consists of— 

Sodium and potassium sulphates 

Sodium chloride (common salt). 

Sodium carbonate (sal soda) 

The insoluble part consists of— 
Calcium and magnesium carbonates) 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum) f 

Silica 



11.46 
2.78 
8.11 
.66 

.44 
.88 
1.96 

6.72 
1.39 



1.96 
.48 

1.88 
.09 

.08 
.07 



1.16 



11.87 

2.82 
7.59 
1.46 

.80 
.27 
1.85 

4.96 
2.63 



2.05 
.60 

1.30 
.25 

.14 

.04 
.32 



2.05 



This water is remarkably weak in mineral contents, coming, as it 
does, from an alkali region. The ingredients are chiefly carbonates of 
lime and magnesia, but hardly in sufficient amounts to make the water 
" hard; " its saline contents are remarkably low. It is a good drinking 
water. Here, as elsewhere, surface water should be strictly excluded 
from bored wells, as it is intensely alkaline. 



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ANALYSES OF WATERS. 



69 



Water from a sump, fourteen feet deep, in the northwest (alkali) cor- 
ner of the San Joaqnin Valley Experiment Station grounds, near Tulare. 
The water is somewhat turbid, shghtly alkaline to test paper, but with 
no odor or taste. This sump was dug with a view to testing the practi- 
cability of leaching out the alkali in the soil above, by flooding with 
water from the bored well of the station, which draws upon the supply 
found in gravel at depths from forty-five to sixty feet. The analysis 
of this water is given above. 



Grains per 
Gallon. 


Parts in 

10,000. 


38.82 


6.66 


20.62 


3.63 


12.79 


2.19 


4.91 


.84 


8.90 


1.62 


6.77 


1.16 


4.96 


.86 


7.88 


1.36 


4.91 


.84 



Total residue by evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation 

Organic matter and chemically combined water 

The toluble part consult of— 

Sodium and potassium sulphates (Glauber's salt, etc.) . 

Sodium chloride (common salt) and some nitrate 

Sodium carbonate (sal soda) 

The insoluble part consists of— 

Calcium and magnesium carbonates 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum), a little 

Silica 



As this sump is located in the " alkali corner " of the station grounds, 
in the bottom of a slough into which the surface water drains, it is 
probable that this water sample is stronger in alkali than the surface 
water at other points would be found to be. As it stands, however, the 
large percentage of mineral matter in this water renders it unfit for 
either irrigation or domestic use. The saline sulphates would soon 
prove injurious to man, while the carbonate of soda would produce 
"black alkali" on lands irrigated with the water. It is therefore desir- 
able to exclude this surface water from the wells bored for either domes- 
tic or irrigation supply, as in fact is usually done in the region. As 
will be seen, its mineral contents exceed that of the well water over 
three times. 

Water from a gas well, six miles east of Sumner (Bakersfield), Kern 
County; sent by Mr. John Barker. 

" The well is situated on the bank of Kern River, some fourteen feet 
above low-water level, and three hundred yards from a gas and sulphur 
spring. The gas from the latter, collected in a reservoir three feet in 
diameter, and twelve feet in height constructed for the purpose, is 
sufficient to furnish one burner with a continuous supply, burning with 
a bright clear flame without smoke or odor. The well, ten inches in 
diameter, has been bored to a depth of fifty-three feet. The formation, 
from the surface down, is a sedimentary one, filled with marine fossils 
and petrifactions. The well was bored without difficulty for the first 
forty feet, when we encountered strata of what seemed to be a water 
formation of limestone filled with marine shells, and from three to 
twelve inches thick each; between these strata we find the same softer 
formation that exists near the surface (chalky rock). After penetrating 
this for thirteen feet a double casing of iron was put in. At the depth 
of twenty-two feet a strong flow of very strong sulphur water was 
struck, that rose four feet above the surface, and ran a stream over the 
top of the pipe-casing, equal to about three miner's inches; the water 
had a temperature of 80 degrees Fahrenheit, and is much stronger than 



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70 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



in the spring. The casing was then forced down twenty-two feet farther, 
but the water comes up with about the same volume on the outside of 
the casing. When the water was first struck at twenty-two feet there 
also came a very strong flow of gas, sufficient, I should think, to supply 
a large house with light and fuel." 

The sample of water is clear, and has the odor of sulphuretted 
hydrogen. An analysis shows the following composition: 



Grains per 
Gallon. 


ParUin 

10,000. 


168.38 


27.W 


• 147.48 


25.26 


9.76 


1.67 


6.14 


LOS 


22.99 


3.95 


100.97 


17.2s 


23.62 


4.08 


6.56 


X 


4.21 


.72 



Total residue by evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation 

Chemically combined water and organic matter 

The soluble part consuls of— 

Sulphate of soda and potash (Glauber's salt) 

Sodium chloride (common salt) 

Bicarbonate of soda (sal soda) 

The insoluble part consists of— 

Carbonate of lime and magnesia — 

Silica 

Sulphuretted hydrogen, 2.73 cubic inches per gallon; free car- 
bonic acid, very small amount. 



The character of the above is that of a strongly saline sulphur water. 
Without the sulphur it would be very much like a great deal of the 
alkali water that runs in some of the streams of Kern, San Luis Obispo, 
and Ventura Counties. With the sulphur, it may prove worth develop- 
ing for curative purposes if the latter proves constant and strong. It is, 
of course, altogether too strongly mineral for domestic use. 

Well water from Miramonte Colony; sent by Mr. George A. Raymond, 
Miramonte, Kern County. 

" The well is twenty-two feet deep, and the water rises to within seven 
feet of the surface. A flow was struck at about thirteen feet, but the 
quantity was very small." 

The sample is clear and colorless. 



Grains per 
Gallon. 



Paxt» In 

10,000. 



Total residue by evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation 

Organic matter and chemically combined water 
SiHca 



8.18 
4.67 
2.34 
1.17 
1.11 



1.40 
.80 
.40 
.20 
.19 



Bicarbonate of soda is the chief ingredient of the soluble portion of 
the residue, the sulphates of soda and potash, with a little common salt, 
making up the remainder. The insoluble portion is about evenly divided 
between silica, on the one hand, and the lime and magnesia salts on the 
other. Altogether, it is a very good water for domestic use. It is a little 
purer than the Kern River water. 

Well water, from a well twelve feet deep, on Sec. 3, T. 26, R. 23 E., 
northwest of Bakersfield, Kern County; sent by Mr. John S. Hittell, 
San Francisco. The water, on evaporation, was found to contain 1669.4 
grains per gallon, which renders it entirely unfit for either domestic use 
or for irrigation purposes, being nearly two hundred times stronger than 



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ANALYSES OF WATERS. 



71 



Kern River water, and the ingredients almost wholly saline. Here, as at 
Tulare City, the surface waters should evidently be excluded from the 
wells bored for either domestic or irrigation supply. 

Residues from water from bored wells, respectively on the places of 
Messrs. Connor and Willis Carter, near Livermore Ranch, Kern Island, 
Kern County. The residues were furnished by Mr. Carter. 





Connor's Place. 


Carter's Place. 


Grains per 
Gallon. 


Parts in 

10.000. 


Grains per 
Gallon. 


Parts in 
10,000. 


Total residue by evaporation 

Organic matter and chemically combined water 
Sifica I 


•8.04 

2.08 
.61 
.84 

.62 


.621 
.868 
.104 
.069 
.088 


10.28 
6.86 
2.76 
1.66 
1.62 


1.76 
1.00 
.47 
.28 
.26 





The water of each of these wells is very weak in its contents of min- 
eral matter, that of Mr. Connor being especially so. In each the soluble 
alkali salts predominate, and in each the silica comprises the largest 
proportion of the insoluble part of the residue, though in that of Mr. 
Carter's well it is nearly equaled by the carbonates of lime and magnesia. 
In Mr. Connor's well the sulphates of soda and potash comprise nearly 
one half of the entire residue, or a little more than one grain per gallon, 
carbonate of soda being next. In that of Mr. Carter there is a little 
more common salt than of the sulphates of soda and potash, and the 
two make nearly one half of the entire residue. 

The exceptional purity of these waters is quite remarkable, considering 
that the surface of the country is so commonly charged with alkali. 

Water from a bored well in the Mojave Desert, about six miles east of 
Mojave, Kern County; sent by Mr. B. Marks, of San Francisco. The 
water was taken at a depth of one hundred and eighty-five feet, at which 
it was struck in large volume, rising twelve feet. When taken from the 
sand-pump it was thick and yellow, on account of the churning motion 
of the auger; it was allowed to settle and the water drawn off. 

" The material penetrated by the well was a dry cement gravel, with 
layers of clay, and this has continued from the surface down to the 
depth of three hundred feet. There are no surface indications of alkali 
in that region." 

The sample is clear, colorless, and tasteless; the analysis showed the 
following composition: 



Grains per 

Gallon. 



Parts In 

10,000. 



Total residue by evaporation 

8oluble in water after evaporation , 

Insoluble in water after evaporation 

Organic matter and chemically combined water. 
Silica 



20.26 
4.20 

11.62 
4.44 
6.30 



S.47 
.72 

1.99 
.76 

1.07 



The soluble portion consists of carbonate and chloride of sodium, 
with a small amount of sulphate of potassium. The insoluble part con- 



• From data reported by Mr. Connor; probably too low. 



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72 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



sists mainly of silica, with a considerable quantity of lime carbonate, 
and a small amount of gypsum and carbonate of magnesia. This water 
is " hard " in character, from the rather large amount of lime and mag- 
nesia; these can be readily removed by boiling, or by treatment with 
lime, as recommended in a former report. The water is admirably 
suited for irrigation, and good for domestic use. 

Well water; sent by Mr. F. C. Howard, Carisa Plains, San Luis Obispo 
County. 



Grains per 
Gallon. 



Parts In 

10,000. 



848.31 


66.63 


230.14 


39.40 


74.65 


12.78 


43.62 


7.45 


216.20 


87.02 


9.64 


1.63 


4.40 


.75 


73.25 


12.54 


1.40 


.24 



Total solid residue by evaporation - 

Soluble part after evaporation 

Insoluble part after evaporation... .'. 

Chemically combined water and organic matter 

The soluble part consist! of— 

Sulphate of soda (chiefly), with an appreciable amount of sul- 
phate of magnesia, ana a small amount of sulphate of potash. 

Common salt 

Bicarbonate of soda 

The insoluble part consists of— 

Carbonates of lime and magnesia and sulphate of lime(gypsum). 

Silica 



The presence of so large an amount of the soluble sulphates of soda 
(Glauber's salt), magnesia (Epsom salt), and potash makes this water 
very strongly purgative, and entirely unfit for domestic purposes. With 
care, it can be used as a purgative medicine in certain diseases. 

Well water, from a well on the San Juan Ranch; sent by Mr. William 
Kelly, Cholame, San Luis Obispo County. The water is clear and 
colorless, and has a strong odor of sulphuretted hydrogen. It has the 
following composition: 



Grains per 
Gallon. 



Paitain 
10,000. 



653.04 


94.68 


407.24 


69.72 


70.21 


1202 


75.69 


12.94 


372.60 


63.78 


27.21 


4.67 


7.43 


1.27 


68.22 


aes 


1.99 


.34 



Total residue by evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation 

Organic matter and chemically combined water 

The soluble part consists of— 

Sodium and potassium sulphates (Glauber's salt, etc.) 

Sodium chloride (common salt) 

Sodium carbonate (sal soda) 

The insoluble part consists of — 

Calcium and magnesium carbonates ) 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum) , f 

Silica 



This water is strongly medicinal in its character, its mineral ingredi- 
ents consisting very largely of Glauber's salt, with much common salt, 
thus making it a saline purgative of considerable strength. It is entirely 
unfit for either domestic use or irrigation purposes. 

Well water, from the west end of Ojai Valley; sent by Mr. K. P. 
Grant, Nordhoff, Ventura County. The sample is clear, colorless, and 
odorless, and has the following composition: 



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ANALYSES OF WATERS. 



73 



Grains per 
Gallon. 



Total residue by evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation 

Organic matter and chemically combined water. 
Silica ._ 



24.18 


4.14 


8.47 


1.46 


10.17 


1.74 


5.64 


.96 


8.16 


.54 



The soluble portion is composed of a little more than three and one 
half grains of bicarbonate of soda, and of two and one half grains each 
of common and Glauber's salt. The insoluble portion comprises, 
besides the silica, seven grains of lime and magnesia carbonates and 
sulphates; these make the water " hard," but they can be precipitated 
by boiling, thus reducing the soluble constituents to 8.47 grains per 
gallon. This can also be done by the lime treatment, given on page 12 
of the Report on Waters, etc., for 1886-1889. 

This water is therefore quite within the received limits of good pota- 
ble waters, and can be readily still further softened and purified. 

Waters from the wells and streams of Nordhoff, Ojai Valley, Ventura 
County; sent by the Nordhoff Board of Health, for examination as to 
purity, it being the supposed cause of the sporadic occurrence of typhoid 
fever in that town, which obtains its water supply both from wells and 
from hydrant water conveyed from the mountains by pipe. 

" No. J is water from the hydrant or pipe. The stream from which it is 
taken is quite small (only about four inches at this season of the year, 
viz.: December). 

"No. 2 is from a well belonging to a family, two members of which 
are affected with the fever. This well is thirty-two feet deep, and has 
eighteen feet of water in it. The strata through which it is bored are 
as follows: Sandy soil, nineteen feet; gravel, two feet; red clay, six feet; 
gravel with water, three feet; red clay, two feet. 

"No. 3 is from another well belonging to a family, four members of 
which have the fever. The depth of this well is eighteen feet, with the 
following strata: Adobe soil, six feet; sand and gravel, twelve feet. 

" No. 41B from a small stream, upon which is located a slaughter-house, 
which furnishes the town with meat. The cattle drink this water, and 
it is used also about the slaughter-house and on the meat at the time of 
killing." 





Total Solids. 


Ammonia. 
Parts per 1,000,000. 


Grains per 
Gallon. 


Parts In 
10,000. 


Free. 


Albuminoid. 


Total. 


No. 2— Well water 

So. 8— Well water 

So. 4— Stream water.. 


46.60 
70.09 
43.22 
64.32 


7.96 
12.00 
7.40 

9.80 


.032 
.069 
.200 
.060 


.036 
.064 
.200 
.100 


.088 
.138 
.400 
.150 



All these waters contain a somewhat excessive amount of mineral 
salts; No. 2 more than any water for domestic use should have. 

The determination of ammonia represents the greater or less con- 
tamination with the products of animal and vegetable decay. In Nos. 
1 and 2 this does not exceed the limit usually allowed. No. 3 exhibits a 



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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



very decided and inadmissible excess of albuminoid contamination, and 
is not fit for either human or animal consumption. Water No. 4 is close 
to the allowable limit, and, if taken at a time when there was no special 
cause for contamination from the operations of the slaughter-house, is 
to be considered suspicious. 

An analysis of the residue from well No. 3, whose water contains the 
greatest amount of ammonia, gave the following results: 



Grains per 
Gallon. 


Parte In 

10,000. 


43.22 


7.40 


19.39 


3.32 


18.10 


S.10 


6.73 


.88 


10.35 


1.77 


4.09 


.70 


4.96 


.86 


18.31 


2.28 


4.79 


.8-2 



Total residue by evaporation . 

Soluble iii water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation 

Organic matter and chemically combined water 

The soluble part consult of— 

Sodium and potassium sulphates (Glauber's salt, etc.) 

Sodium chloride (common salt) 

Sodium carbonate (sal soda) — 

77k insoluble part consists of— 

Calcium and magnesium carbonates...' ) 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum) ) 

Silica 



There is in this water enough of the soluble alkali sulphates 
(Glauber's salt, etc.) to render it somewhat debilitating to the system, 
if used constantly, and thus render more effective and dangerous the 
rather large amount of albuminoid ammonia present. The presence 
of so much common salt at the same time, suggests at once its con- 
tamination with sewage. 

Altogether there is little doubt that the prevalence of typhoid fever 
in the two families was the result of the use of the water from their 
respective wells, and especially so from well No. 3. 

Well water; sent by Mr. J. William James, Los Angeles. 

" The well is one hundred and two feet deep, and cased with double 
iron pipe. Water was reached at seventy-five feet; boring was continued 
through a small bed of clay, then through eighteen feet of fine sand, 
and finally through clay again; the water then rose in the pipe to within 
twenty feet of the surface." 

The sample of water sent is clear, colorless, and tasteless, and has the 
following composition: 



Grains per 
Gallon. 



Parts In 

10,000. 



Total solid residue by evaporation... 

Soluble part after evaporation 

Insoluble part after evaporation 

Combined water and organic matter 
Silica 



39.83 
13.43 
15.07 
11.33 
2.92 



6.82 
2.30 
2.58 
1.94 
.50 



The soluble part consists of about equal portions of common salt, 
bicarbonate of soda, and sulphates of soda and potash; the insoluble 
part contains about three grains of silica per gallon, the rest being the 
carbonates of lime and magnesia, and sulphate of lime (gypsum). This 
is a very hard water, and likely to disagree with many persons, unless 
purified by boiling, or by treatment with lime, as recommended in the 
previous report on waters, etc. 



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ANALYSES OF WATERS. 



75 



WeU water, from the Blaisdell Ranch, in the valley of Gila River; 
sent by Mr. Hiram W. Blaisdell, Yuma, Arizona.* The waters are 
clear and tasteless, but slightly flattish on the tongue. 





Grains per Gallon. 


Parte in 10,000. 






9 

eB 


>■! 




9 
sB 


¥ 

sB 








av. 


S-o 
off 


fit 






a?, 


• 


!* 




Ti 


it 


»» 

il 


if 


TI 


n 


re 


"I 








: B 


: § 


■ <P 

: .e 


: b 


: B 


; § 


Total residue by evaporation ... 


41.6 


44.2 


42.5 


87.8 


7.12 


7.66 


7.28 


6.88 




80.4 


82.2 


80.7 


29.1 


5.20 


6.52 


6.24 


4.98 


Insoluble in water after evaporation 


8.8 


8.9 


9.4 


6.0 


1.48 


1.52 


1.60 


.86 


Organic matter and combined water .. 


2.4 


8.1 


2.4 


8.2 


.44 


.62 


.44 


.54 


The uhMt part consult of— 


















Sodium and potassium sulphates..) 
Sodium chloride (common salt) f 


26.7 


28.6 


26.9 


22.6 


4.76 


4.88 


4.67 


3.88 


Sodium carbonate (sal soda) 


8.7 


8.7 


8.8 


6.5 


.64 


.64 


.66 


1.10 



The insoluble part of these waters consists of carbonates of lime and 
magnesia, silica, and a very little sulphate of lime (gypsum); also 
traces of iron, alumina, and phosphoric acid. 

The soluble salts exceed, in the months mentioned, what is usually 
deemed admissible in waters for permanent irrigation, unless special 
measures be taken to remove the salts from time to time. The presence 
of carbonate of soda should be counteracted by the use of plaster — say 
one hundred pounds the first year, and half that amount each succeed- 
ing year. The soil is so porous that a leaching out of accumulated salts 
would seem to be easy by thorough flooding in winter. . 



D. ARTESIAN WATERS. 

Water from an artesian well on an island in the middle of Suisun Bay; 
sent by Mr. J. W. Dutton, Dutton's Landing, Solano County. " This 
water came from a depth of two hundred feet below the surface, and was 
pumped up with a deep-well pump through a two-inch pipe. The water 
in the well rises to within twenty inches of the surface. The strata passed 
through in this well are as follows: A heavy clay soil or slickens from' 
eight to ten inches deep, underlaid by a half decomposed vegetable- 
rooty peat to a depth of seventy feet; near the bottom of the latter, mud of 
a bluish nature is found. To a depth of one hundred and eighty to two 
hundred feet there are layers of dark sand and gravel, alternating with 
blue clay, from seven to ten feet each; the lower strata of the latter are 
very firm, and sometimes nearly as hard as dry putty. In some cases 
we have found a yellow clay, under which the best water was had. If 
we go below two hundred feet the strata average about the same, with 
gravel somewhat coarser, to a depth of three hundred and ten to three 
hundred and thirty feet, where a stratum of white sandstone, or a kind 
of limestone, occurs, under which water is found very strongly charged 
with sulphur; on opening a bottle of it, after being sealed for twenty- 



Analyzed at the request and expense of the sender. 



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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



four hours, a very decided odor of sulphuretted hydrogen gas is percepti- 
ble. Cattle drink it ravenously and seem to thrive on it well." 

The sample is clear and colorless, and an examination shows it to have 
the following composition: 



Grains per 
Gallon. 



ParUln 

10,000. 



88.82 


1136 


64.32 


9.30 


19.86 


3.40 


9.64 


1.65 


1.87 


.33 


46.00 


7.70 


7.46 


1.27 


16.69 


2.84 


8.27 


.66 



Total residue by evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation . 

Organic matter and chemically combined water 

The solubk part consist* of— 

Sodium and potassium sulphates (Glauber's salt, etc.) 

.Sodium chloride (common salt) 

Sodium carbonate (sal soda) 

The insoluble part consist* of— 

Calcium and magnesium carbonates ) 

i alcium sulphate (gypsum) ) 

Silica 



The water is rather strongly saline, more than one half of its mineral 
contents consisting of common salt; it seems to be only diluted sea 
\\ ater. It is unfit either for domestic use or for irrigation. 

Water from a flowing gas-well in Sacramento; sent by the " Sacramento 
Natural Gas Company." 

" The well is three hundred and eighty feet deep, the following strata 
having been passed through: 

Loam and sand 81 feet. 

Bluish sand 16 feet. 

Gravel and cobblestones 54 feet. 

Alternating beds of clay and sand 4 feet. 

Sandy cement 42 feet 

IHue clay 67 feet 

Clay and. sand in streaks 71 feet. 

"The last stratum was a quicksand, underlaid with a thin clay sheet, 
followed by coarse sand, from which came a flow rising six feet eight 
inches above the surface of a low lot; the diameter of the pipe is eleven 
inches. A large quantity of gas accompanies the water." 

The sample of water is clear, with a slight odor of sulphuretted hydro- 
gen; its composition is as follows: 



Grains per Parts In 
Gallon. 10,000. 



28.91 


4.96 


13.72 


2.35 


9.36 


1.60 


6.84 


LOO 


8.99 


1.54 


1.64 


.28 


8.09 


.63 


4.15 


.71 


5.20 


.89 



Total residue by evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation 

Organic matter and chemically combined water 

The soluble part consists of — 

Sodium and potassium sulphates (Glauber's salt, etc.) 

Sodium chloride (common salt) 

Sodium carbonate (sal soda) 

The, insoluble part consists of— 

Calcium and magnesium carbonates 1 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum) ( 

Silica 



This water differs rather markedly from the waters that usually 
accompany the gas around Stockton, which seem to be merely brackish 
waters slightly changed. Here the amount of common salt is quite 

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ANALYSES OF WATERS. 



77 



small, while, on the other hand, it contains enough sulphate of soda 
(Glauber's salt) to create discomfort with some persons who use it. It 
belongs to the same class of carbonate of soda waters that are found 
southward of Merced. 

The mineral contents of the water are not large, and most people 
would quickly become accustomed to its use. 

For irrigation the water would be good enough on sandy land, or even 
on well-drained loam land, but on heavy soils it would gradually cause 
alkali to accumulate. 

Water from the artesian well at the Asylum for the Insane, Stockton ; 
sent by Dr. H. W. Rucker, Medical Superintendent. The well was 
bored to a depth of one thousand and seventy feet. 



Grains per 
Gallon. 


Parts In 

10.V0O. 


47.84 


8.19 


83.41 


6.72 


9.41 


1.61 


6.02 


.86 


1.52 


.26 


22.92 


3.79 


8.97 


1.67 


1.80 


.28 


2.61 


.42 


.40 


.07 


6.20 


.89 



Total residue by evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation 

Organic matter and chemically combined water. 
The tolubie part comiits of— 

Sodium and potassium sulphates. .. 

Sodium chloride (common salt) 

Sodium carbonate (sal soda) 

The insoluble part contittt of— 

Calcium carbonate 

Magnesium carbonate 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum) 

8ilica 



The chief mineral constituent of this water is common salt, which, 
though not very excessive, injures what otherwise would be a very 
good water for domestic use. If used for irrigation purposes it would 
soon render a heavy soil saline; but on a porous soil, kept well tilled, it 
would doubtless do well with proper precautions. 

Artesian water, from the waterworks at Stockton; sent by Mr. A. M. 
Noble, Secretary of the San Joaquin County Board of Trade. The 
source of the water is a deep bored well. The water is clear, tasteless, 
and odorless, and has the following composition: 

Grains ■per Gallon. 

Total 23.89 

Again soluble after evaporation 11.51 

Sodium carbonate (sal soda) 4.88 

Sodium chloride (common salt) 8.41 

Chlorine 2.07 

Parti per Million. 

Free ammonia 260 

Albuminoid ammonia .124 



So far as the mineral contents are concerned they do not differ mate- 
rially, either as to quality or quantity, from the ordinary well and 
spring waters of the Coast Range, and notably of the Santa Clara 
Valley. It is somewhat hard, but well within the range of good pota- 
ble waters. 

Considering its origin from deep bored wells, the somewhat high pro- 
portion of free and " albuminoid " ammonia forms no objection, being 
referable to the solvent action of carbonate of soda upon the peaty sub- 



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78 



UNIVKRSfTY OF CALIFORNIA.. 



strata of the valley; and therefore of no sanitary significance, here as 
elsewhere, so long as the water is not stored in large reservoirs so as to 
permit of the development of minute vegetable growth. Under such 
conditions it will be a good water for all domestic purposes. 

Water from the arteeian and gas weU of St. Agnes Academy, Stockton; 
sent by Rev. W. B. O'Connor. 

" The well is one thousand three hundred and fifteen feet deep, the 
last fifteen feet being in a bed of coarse gravel, round and smooth, as if 
worn by the action of a mountain stream." 

The sample is clear and colorless, with a decided saline taste. 



Grains per 
Gallon. 



Parts In 

10,000. 



Total residue by evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation 

Organic matter and chemically combined water 

The soluble part consul* of— 
Sodium and potassium sulphates (Glauber's salt, etc.), small.) 

Sodium chloride (common salt) I 

8odium carbonate (sal soda) 

The insoluble part consist* of— 

Calcium and magnesium carbonates ..) 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum), little .• f 

Silica 



174.94 
135.75 
15.83 
23.36 

132.63 
3.12 

10.28 
5.55 



29.96 
23.24 
2.71 
4.00 

22.71 
.» 

1.76 
.96 



The mineral matter in this water is very large, and consists mostly of 
common salt, as is the case with most of the gas wells of this State; 
in fact, the composition of these waters is practically that of slightly 
brackish tidewater. The amount of salts in it is such that it could not 
be used for irrigation, save perhaps in sandy soils, well under-drained 
naturally. On heavy soils it would quickly render the land unfit for 
cultivation, since it contains quite ten times as much salt as is usually 
considered admissible, and over twenty times as much as the water of 
Mokelumne River. 

Water from an artesian well on the ranch of Mr. H. T. Emeric, San 
Pablo, Contra Costa County. The water was obtained at a depth of 
one hundred and seven feet. The following strata were penetrated: 
Black soil, gravel, yellow clay, cement rock, and gravel; in the latter 
the water was found. The sample is clear and colorless. 



Total residue by evaporation . 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation 

Organic matter and chemically combined water 

The soluble part consists of— 

Sodium and potassium sulphates (Glauber's salt, etc.) 

Sodium chloride (common salt) 

Sodium carbonate (sal soda) _•. 

77i« insoluble part consists of— 

Calcium and magnesium carbonates 1 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum) ) 

Silica 



Grains per 
Gallon. 


Parts In 

10,000. 


27.45 


4.70 


12.86 


2.20 


9.93 


1.70 


4.67 


.80 


3.26 


.56 


3.41 


.69 


6.19 


1.06 


8.18 


1.40 


1.76 


.30 



The water contains a rather large amount of saline matter, but 
not enough to be injurious for ordinary uses. It will be a little 



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ANALYSES OF WATERS. 



79 



"hard" from the presence of the carbonates of lime and magnesia, but 
these can be removed by boiling or by adding a little lime water, say one 
twentieth, and letting it settle. The carbonate of soda may render it a 
good water for acid dyspepsia, but it is not strong enough to be medici- 
nal, properly speaking. 

Water from an artesian well in Goshen, Tulare County; sent at the 
request of Dr. C. P. Buckley, San Francisco. The sample of water is 
clear, colorless, and tasteless, and has the following composition: 



Total residue by evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation 

Organic matter and chemically combined water. . 

The totuble part contutt of— 

Sodium and potassium sulphates (Glauber's salt, etc) 

Sodium chloride (common salt) 

Sodium carbonate (sal soda) 

The intoluble part consult of— 

Calcium and magnesium carbonates... I 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum) f 

Silica 



Grains per 
Gallon. 


Parts in 

10,000. 


9.64 


l.«5 


5.84 


L00 


2.84 


.40 


1.46 


.26 


1.09 


.19 


.42 


.07 


4.83 


.74 


.94 


.16 


1.40 


.24 



The water is rather remarkably pure, especially considering the alkali 
nature of the region where it was bored. It is very nearly like the 
water of Kern River — if anything, a little purer. It is good both for 
domestic use and for irrigation purposes. Here, as elsewhere, surfaoe 
water should be strictly excluded from bored wells, as it is intensely 
alkaline. 

Water from an artesian weU at Hanford, Tulare County; sent by 
R. W. Musgrave. 

"The water comes from a depth of one thousand one hundred and 
fifty feet, and has a medicinal effect on some persons. The well has been 
bored through an immense stratum of sand to a clay." 

The water is clear and tasteless. 



Grains per 
Gallon. 


Parts In 
10,000. 


15.18 


2.60 


14.81 


2.46 


.58 


.10 


.29 


.05 


1.46 


.26 


5.42 


.93 


7.43 


1.27 


.80 


.06 


.28 


.04 



Total residue by evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation 

Organic matter and chemically combined water. 

The tolubtt part contittt of— 

Sodium and potassium sulphates (Glauber's salt, etc.) 

Sodium chloride (common salt) - 

8odium carbonate (sal soda) 

The intoluble part contitts of— 

Calcium and magnesium carbonates 1 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum) f 

Silica 



The amount of mineral matter in this water is rather small, and 
consists almost exclusively of alkali salts, chiefly common salt and sal 
soda, which, in such small quantities, are not prejudicial to its domestic 
use. The surface waters of the region usually differ from it in being of 
a much more saline and purgative character. 



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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



Artesian water from the reservoir on Richard Gird's ranch, Chino, 
from which the water supply for South California Experiment Station, 
near Pomona, is drawn. The sample is clear, colorless, and tasteless. 



Grains per 
Gallon. 


Parte in 

10,000. 


11.94 


2.M 


3.03 


.52 


7.92 


1.35 


.99 


.17 


1.26 


.22 


1.06 


.18 


.26 


. .04 


.47 


.08 


4.64 


.78 


1.30 


.22 


.63 


.08 


1.65 


.26 



Total residue by evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble jn water after evaporation... 

Organic matter and chemically combined water 

The soluble part consists of— 

Sodium sulphate (Glauber's salt) 

Potassium sulphate 

Sodium chloride (common salt) 

Sodium carbonate (sal soda) 

The intoluble part consult of — 

Calcium carbonate 

Magnesium carbonate 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum) 

Silica 



This is an excellent water for both domestic use and for irrigation. 
At the rate of one tenth of an inch per acre it will supply about sixty- 
two pounds of potash sulphate annually, being more than most crops 
require, and worth at wholesale $1 85. 

Water from an artesian well at San Bernardino; sent by Mr. W. H. 
Avery, Los Angeles. 

" The well is one hundred and eighty feet deep, and is one of the 
seven similar wells located at the foot of the mountains six miles north- 
east of the city of San Bernardino. The temperature of the water is 84 
degrees Fahrenheit. This water is used for the irrigation of citrus trees 
on the granite soil at the base of the mountains. It is considered 
unsuitable for domestic use, producing slight sickness, and not so effect- 
ually quenching the thirst as other waters." 

The water is clear, colorless, and odorless, and has the following 
composition: 



Grains per 
Gallon. 


Purls in 

10,000. 


15.77 


2.70 


11.66 


1.98 


1.70 


.29 


2.61 


.43 


5.33 


.91 


1.34 


.23 


4.89 


.84 


1.40 


.24 


.30 


.05 



Total residue by evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation 

Organic matter and chemically combined water 

The soluble part consists of— 

Sodium and potassium sulphates (Glauber's salt, etc.) 

Magnesium sulphate (Epsom salt), small amount. 

Sodium chloride (common salt) 

Sodium carbonate (sal soda) ... 

The insoluble part consists of— 

Calcium and magnesium carbonates 1 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum) - f 

Silica 



This water is weak in mineral matter, but the greater part of this 
consists of Glauber's salt and sal Foda, with a little Epsom salt, which 
would together, doubtless, affect some persons as a mild laxative; 
otherwise it is suitable for all domestic uses. In view of its somewhat 
considerable proportion of carbonate of soda, its continued use on soils 
not very pervious will, after awhile, require the use of gypsum as an 
antidote. 



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ANALYSES OF WATERS. 



81 



Water from an artesian well south of Santa Ana; sent by Mr. C. T. 
Hopkins, Pasadena, Los Angeles County. The well is in a region of 
moist adobe lands, whose ground-water is within a foot of the surface. 
The sample of water is clear, colorless, and tasteless, and has the fol- 
lowing composition: 



Grains per 
Gallon. 


Parts In 

10,000. 


24.59 


4.21 


11.68 


2.00 


6.81 


1.08 


6.60 


1.13 


7.29 


1.26 


.68 


.11 


3.71 


.64 


6.14 


.88 


1.17 


.20 



Total residue by evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation 

Organic matter and chemically combined water 

The soluble part consists of— 

Sodium and potassium sulphates (Glauber's salt, etc.) 

Bodium chloride (common salt) 

Sodium carbonate (sal soda)... 

The insoluble part annuls of— 

Calcium and magnesium carbonates i 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum), very small f 

Silica 



The mineral matter in this water is not very large, although the 
Glauber's salt present might act as a slight purgative with some persons 
at first. For irrigation purposes it is a little stronger in alkali than is 
desirable upon adobe soil, though it will do upon well-drained lands. 
This is one of a number of wells that have been allowed to " run wild " 
on these coast lands for a number of years, and although not at all 
strongly alkaline in themselves, have converted an originally non- 
alkaline soil into an alkali swamp, on which it is difficult to grow any- 
thing useful. It is, of course, quite feasible to reclaim these lands by 
capping the wells and draining; and there ought to be regulations pro- 
hibiting the running to waste of water from artesian wells, both for the 
preservation of the artesian supply and for protection against such 
injury as has occurred here. 

Water from the artesian well at Elsinore, San Diego County; sent by 
Mr. E. Z. Bundy. 

" The well is one hundred and twenty-five feet deep and seven inches 
in diameter. At one hundred and twenty feet, in a gray granite, water 
was struck which flows forty-four gallons per minute, and has a 
temperature of 110 degrees Fahrenheit. The water is used for drinking 
and bathing purposes by one half of the citizens of Elsinore." 

The sample is clear, and has a taste of sulphuretted hydrogen. 



Grains per 
Gallon. 


Parts In 
10,000. 


19.28 


3.30 


12.86 


2.20 


6.66 


.95 


.88 


.16 


6.02 


.86 


1.64 


.28 


6.19 


1.06 


2.04 


.85 


3.61 


.60 



Total residue by evaporation 

Soluble in water after evaporation 

Insoluble in water after evaporation 

Organic matter and chemically combined water 

The soluble part consists of— 

Sodium and potassium sulphates (Glauber's salt, etc.) 

8odium chloride (common salt) 

Sodium carbonate (sal soda) 

The insoluble part consists of— 

Calcium and magnesium carbonates I 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum) ) 

Bilica 



6" 



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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



The total mineral matter in this water is about the same as in that 
supplied to the city of Lob Angeles from the Los Angeles River, but 
differs materially in kind, being not nearly so hard; i. e., containing 
much less of lime and magnesia, but considerably more of carbonate of 
soda. The latter prevents the slightly purgative action that might be 
expected from the Glauber's salt. The water is therefore entirely 
unexceptional for domestic use. If used for irrigation, it would be 
necessary to offset the "black alkali" (carbonate of soda) that would 
gradually accumulate in the soil, by an occasional dressing of gypsum 
or land plaster. 



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ANALYSES OF ROCKS, CLAYS, MARLS, ETC. 



83 



III. ANALYSES OF ROCKS, CLAYS, MARLS, PEAT, GYPSUM. 



"Phosphate rocks" (two samples); sent by Mr. Samuel Cassidy, Peta- 
luma, Sonoma County. " How much phosphoric acid is there in the 
samples?" 

An analysis showed the presence of only eight hundredths (.08) of 
one per cent in one of the samples; and in the other, sixteen hundredths 
(.16) of one per cent. These amounts are not more than is found in 
ordinary soils. 

Soft limestone ; sent by the Germain Fruit Company of Los Angeles. 
"How much phosphoric acid does it contain?" 

The material is chiefly carbonate of lime, with thirty-six hundredths 
(.36) of one per cent of phosphoric acid, and nearly three (2.98) per 
cent of silica. The amount of phosphoric acid is extremely small, and 
would not justify its use as a fertilizer. Some good soils contain nearly 
as much as does this limestone. 

Rock and elay from near Santa Barbara; sent by Mr. J. C. Merrill, of 
Los Angeles, for examination, to ascertain its adaptability for the manu- 
facture of Portland cement. " There is quite a ledge of the rock near 
Santa Barbara." 

An examination showed that the rock contains very little carbonate 
of lime, and is chiefly an infusorial earth. The clay is simply an adobe, 
containing 10.88 per cent of carbonate of lime. Neither material is of 
value for the making of Portland cement. 

" Cement rock; " sent by Messrs. Fraser Bros., of South Riverside. It 
was found to contain : 



Calcium carbonate . . 59.99 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum) .15 

Magnesium carbonate 9.79 

Clay and silex (mostly the latter) 22.67 

Iron and alumina 4.00 

Volatile matter and chemically combined water 1.88 



Total 98.48 



There is too much magnesia in the rock ; and an examination of the 
insoluble residue under the microscope shows that instead of being 
chiefly clay, as it should be, it is prevalently a very fine silex only. 
The tests made as to its setting qualities resulted very unfavorably, for 
there seem to be no hardening qualities whatever in the burnt mass. 
The material thus affords no advantages for the manufacture of Port- 
land cement, the presence of so much magnesia alone disqualifying it 
from use as a cement material. 

Clay and limestone from near Riverside, San Bernardino County; sent 
by Mr. Francis Cuttle, for examination as to their fitness for the manu- 
facture of hydraulic cement. 

The clay is greenish in color, and is slightly gritty to the teeth; softens 
quickly under water and becomes fairly plastic. The limestone (marble) 
contains a small amount of carbonate of magnesia. The composition of 
the air-dried clay is as follows: 

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84 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 

Insoluble matter 30.85) 

Soluble silica 24.82f 66 ' 87 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum) 3.18 

Magnesia (carbonate of magnesia) 5.88 

Carbonic acid (carbonate of magnesia) — - 6.34 

Peroxide of iron 6.84 

Alumina 10.14 

Alkalies, etc 2.18 

Water and organic matter 10.06 

Total 100.00 

The clay is near the lower limit of adaptable materials, since, when 
calculated to the dry substance, the alumina stands within a fraction of 
a per cent of the Medway clay, which is used for the original Portland 
cement. It, however, differs in other respects, and its precise qualities 
cannot be predicted without a practical trial. The limestone, while 
rather hard to grind fine enough, is sufficiently pure, and may be used 
experimentally in the proportion of a little more than two to one of the 
clay. 

Clay from near Bahersfield; sent by Mr. Geo. Johnston, San Francisco, 
to be examined with respect to its possible fitness for fining wines. 

The clay underlies the deposit of gypsum; it has a light bluish tint, 
and is gritty to the teeth, due to the presence of fine sand. A decided 
clay odor was perceptible on boiling the sample with water; after sii 
hours' boiling the odor practically disappeared. An examination shows 
the clay to contain: 

Silica, sand, etc 75.W 

Lime H 

Alumina, with some ferric oxide 24.H 

100.<X 

The first requirement with respect to the fining of wine is that the 
clay should not impart the " clay taste to the wine. This condition is 
fulfilled by the sample only after six hours' lively boiling, which is 8 
long time. Still, steam is cheap, and it might be done. Its content ot 
one half (.50) of one per cent of lime is within the limits of the Spanish 
fining clays; and so are the amounts of iron and alumina. Apart from 
the taste, then, this clay might do for fining. 

Marl ("shell lime"); sent by J. DeBarth Shorb, Esq., San Gabriel 
Los Angeles County, to be examined for phosphoric acid. 

The marl contains 60 per cent of carbonate of lime, and only twentj 
hundredths (.20) of one per cent of phosphoric acid. A conglomerate 
that accompanies it has the same amount of lime, and only ten hun- 
dredths (.10) of one per cent of phosphoric acid. The two samples arf 
therefore of no value as far as regards their content of phosphoric acid. 
Upon soils deficient in lime, their application would doubtless be attended 
with good results. 

Peat; sent by Mr. C. J. Davis, Colton, San Bernardino County. 

" The deposit, or rather accumulated growth, is found on the level 
ground, away from any wash, and lies in a somewhat circular area with 
a level surface, which is about five feet above the surrounding country 
Springs are yet forcing their waters up to the top of the deposit, but 
the flow sinks again before reaching the edges of the bank. It is at 
least eight feet deep. Citrus growers have for years been putting this 
peat in the bottom of the holes in which the young trees are planted 



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ANALYSES OP BOCKS, CLAYS, MARLS, ETC. 



85 



and are loud in their praise of its qualities. I think that the Colton 
terrace soils will be greatly benefited by it; and all soils, not adobe, 
upon which it has been used seem to retain moisture better for its 
presence; the trees. are very dark green, with good growth and strong 
branches." 

The sample is brownish black in color, and, air-dried, yields: 

Organic matter, etc 90.44 

Ash 9.66 

100.00 

Ammonia, ready formed 04 

The ash contains: 

8orable matter 1.70 

Insoluble matter 7.86 

The soluble part of the ash consists almost wholly of gypsum; the 
insoluble part consists chiefly of silica, with some gypsum and sand. 

The fresh mass sent contains three fourths of its weight of water, 
and practically half of this is retained on drying, this being due to the 
great absorptive power of humus for moisture as well as for other 
gases. Of course this will, so far as it goes, render it valuable for 
droughty (very sandy) soils, in increasing their retentiveness. The 
available nitrogen (ammonia) is very small, hardly enough to be con- 
sidered, as it would only amount to eight pounds in a ton of the raw 
material (value, about $1). Of course there is more nitrogen in the 
peat, but it is in the inactive form in which it exists in common humus, 
and of no definite value, save in the long run. 

Of other useful ingredients, the important phosphates and potash 
compounds are present in traces only. The soluble part of the ash 
consists essentially of gypsum, with a little common salt, some lime, 
and carbonate of soda. 

As a direct fertilizer, then, the material can be seriously considered, 
only in the case of soils very deficient in vegetable matter, such as the 
mesa soils around Colton and elsewhere, where the increase of retentive- 
ness would be an important consideration. In any case it would of neces- 
sity have to be used in connection with some lime, marl, or wood ashes, 
to neutralize its acidity. But as a material for making composts, and 
for retaining the valuable liquid and gaseous portions of the manure, 
which are commonly lost from the manure pile, the peat would be of 
great usefulness. For that purpose it should be allowed to dry, and then 
used with other litter, as a most effectual absorbent. 

Peat, from the San Bernardino Valley; sent by Mr. Wm. H. Avery, 
Los Angeles, to ascertain its value as a fertilizer. It is formed in 
"cienegas," chiefly from the roots of grasses. Its composition is as 
follows: 

Organic matter, etc 36.70 

Ash 64.80 

100.00 

Nitrogen, total 1.31 

In the ash were found: 

Phosphoric acid 86 

Soluble potash 08 



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86 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



There is not enough of active nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash in 
this material to make it of value as a fertilizer. On general principles 
the peat is valuable as an absorbent for use in stables, corrals, etc.; and, 
when used with lime or marl, cannot fail to work &• great improvement 
on the mesa soils of that region in supplying humus to them. It would 
be of little value upon moist lands, in which humus is, as a rule, abun- 
dant. The nitrogen of peat is well known to be in a very inert condition 
naturally, but becomes gradually available when subjected to the action 
of carbonate of lime, such as marls, plastering, etc. 

Gypsum; sent by the Alpine Plaster and Cement Company, Loe 
Angeles. " The material is very slow-setting, and when mixed with 
sand makes a very fine wall plaster. It is not a rock, but can bt 
shoveled like earth. It sets under water, but will not stand the effect 
of running water. Will it make a cement for walks in the place oi 
Portland cement?" 

An examination showed the following composition: 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum) 94.8 

Clay 1-S 

Sand 2 

Carbonates of lime and magnesia, and moisture 3-8 

100.0 

This sample is practically pure gypsum, the impurities contained ii 
it not being such as to materially change its character as plaster. It ii 
just possible that there may be a slight addition to the final hardening 
from the presence of a little clay and carbonate of lime, forming i 
hydraulic cement when burned together; but the presumption is tha 
when the material is burned high enough for cement the plaster is over 
burned, and vice versa. For all practical purposes the material i: 
plaster, pure and simple, which is soluble in water, and therefore cai 
not be made to resist running water, unless impregnated with som» 
water-proof material, such as asphalt; the latter, of course, can only b 
applied after the cast is made and dried. 

Gypseous clay from near Riverside; sent by D. L. Wilbur, Esq., River 
side, to have its value as a fertilizer ascertained. 

The clay contains 48.9 per cent of gypsum, and is, to that extent 
available for the correction of " black alkali." 

Gypsum; sent by T. H. Keeney, San Francisco. " Will it answer a; 
a fertilizer, or an antidote for alkali lands?" 

The air-dried sample, on analysis, was found to have the followinj 
composition : 

Sulphate of lime (gypsum) T2.1 

Carbonate of lime - - *•* 

Sand and silica 

Clay, water, etc - 1& ' 

100.0 



The percentage of gypsum is below the average of the samples here 
tofore examined from the Bakersfield deposit, which was about 85 pei 
cent, but for all that the material will serve as good a purpose, th< 
only difference being that a larger quantity will have to be hauled. 

Numerous other samples of gypsum, calcite, and other rocks anc 
minerals have been determined mineralogically, without analysis. 



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ALKALI. 



87 



IV. ALKALI. 



ALKALI ; ITS NATURE, CAUSES, AND REPRESSION.* 

By E. W. Hilgabd. 

[It should be premised that, as stated in previous publications, no 
signs of alkali existed in the Fresno plateau — the divide between the 
San Joaquin and Kings Rivers — at the time the region was settled some 
sixteen years ago, nor for some time thereafter. Small spots of alkali 
gradually made their appearance in the older settlements, and visibly 
enlarged from year to year, finally causing vines and trees in the center 
of the spots to sicken and die. This state of things has now attracted 
the serious attention of the progressive inhabitants who do not intend 
to sell out, but to preserve a good heritage for their children or succes- 
sors. It was by the request of a number of these that this lecture was 
prepared and delivered.] 

The first point to be discussed in considering the subject I have been 
asked to bring before you is " What is alkali* " 

The chemist will tell you that it consists of soluble compounds — 
salts — the basis of which is mainly soda, together with smaller amounts 
of potash, and usually a little lime and magnesia. When these salts are 
present in the soil to any considerable extent, their presence becomes 
manifest, in summer, by their appearance on the soil-surface in the form 
of white crusts or crystals. These represent mainly the following com- 
pounds: Sulphate of soda, or Glauber's salt, which is sometimes used 
as a medicine for cattle and horses; chloride of sodium, or common salt, 
which you know too well to require description; and last, but not least, 
carbonate of soda, or sal soda (washing soda), with which .you are 
almost equally familiar. With these predominant salts, which are 
nearly always present in varying proportions, there are, in much 
smaller amounts, other salts highly important for vegetable nutrition, 
namely: sulphate of potash, phosphate of soda (or of lime), and very 
often nitrate of soda or Chile saltpeter; all ingredients of commercial 
fertilizers, the presence in which determines their value, and which 
are of prime importance to plant growth. With these we find usually 
to a greater or less extent Epsom salt, or sulphate of magnesia, and a 
little gypsum or sulphate of lime. 

Next comes the question: " How do these alkali salts get into the soils f" 

The reply is, that all soils are formed from rocks in which these sub- 
stances occur in various forms, by the combined chemical action of air 
and water, and by mechanical pulverization by frost, flowing water, and 
moving ice, or glaciers. The same alkali salts are formed everywhere 
in the world; but in countries having abundant rainfall they are cur- 
rently washed, as formed, into the country drainage, while in regions 
where rainfall is deficient, the scanty moisture only carries them a little 
way down into the subsoil, from which they rise to the surface by the 
evaporation of the water, and are thus accumulated at, and close to, the 

* 8ynopsis of a lecture given at the Farmers Institute held at Kresno, April 8, 1891. 

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



very top of the soil. It is right there that nearly all the damage is 
done; the water in the depths of the soil is very rarely strong enough 
to hurt the roots of plants, directly. 

It follows from what I have said that " all natural waters must con- 
tain alkali salts " to a greater or less degree. That this is actually so 
can be seen from the table below, which shows the composition of a 
number of rivers in your valley and elsewhere, by giving, in grains per 
gallon, the amount of each of the Baits present. Taking into considera- 
tion, for our purpose, only the soda and potash compounds here shown, 
it is seen that the purest water, from this point of view, is that of the 
Mokelumne; next in purity comes that of Kings River, which runs in 
your ditches; the largest amount of alkali is shown by the water of 
Kern Rive,r. It is the evaporation, for countless ages, of the Kern River 
water that has filled the lake basins of the upper San Joaquin Valley 
with waters now so strong in alkali that to use them for irrigation 
would be to quickly fill the lands on which they are used, with more 
alkali than would be compatible with crop-bearing. 



Analyses of Watkbs from thb San Joaquin Valley. 
Grains per Gallon. 



Total 
Residue. 



Carbonate 
of Soda. 



Common 

and 
Glauber's 
Salt, etc. 



Carbonates 
ot Lime, 
Magnesia, 
and Silica. 



Vegetable 
Matter. 



10. 

n. 

12. 
18. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 



Los Angeles River 

Kern River (caflon) 

Kern River (ditch) 

Kern Lake 

Tulare Lake (south end) 

Tulare Lake (middle, surface) 

Tulare Lake (middle, 10 feet below 

surface) 

Tulare Lake (middle, 20 feet below 

surface) — 

Tulare Lake (near mouth of Kings 

River) 

Tulare Lake (near outlet of west 

side canal, 10 feet below surface). 

Kings River (June) 

Kings River (November) 

San Joaquin River 

Merced River 

Mokelumne River 

Sacramento River 

Point of Timber (San Joaquin 

delta), well water 



17.63 
9.49 
9.62 
211.50 
84.44 
81.95 

81.83 

81.72 

38.56 

76.00 
4.13 
6.03 
4.64 
6.64 
6.97 
6.69 

67.75 



1.22 
1.23 
64.37 
27.92 
36.80 

30.46 



13.46 

80.95 
0.00 



0.45 
0.19 



0.27 
10.83 



8.87 
1.77 
2.21 
115.41 
87.85 
35.96 



16.01 

33.95 
0.86 



0.15 

0.09 
0.42 
1.42 

48.41 



9.16 
5.66 
5.83 
9.29 
13.44 
6.37 

7.47 



6.11 

6.60 
8.27 



2.16 
4.18 
4.42 
5.00 

7.41 



0.96 
0.86 
22.43 
2.23 
5.82 

4.41 



4.50 

"afi 

0.89 

'iuo 

1.10 



"How and why does alkali rise to the surface f" As I have already 
said, it is surface evaporation that brings it up. The soil acts like a 
wick ; and if you will take a lamp wick and plunge its lower end in salt 
water, while exposing the upper end to the air, you will quickly see an 
" alkali crust" forming on that end. 

But you also know that different wicks will raise water or coal oil to 
different heights, according as they are closely woven or loose like candle- 
wicking. The close wick will raise the fluid higher, but it will rise to 
its highest point more slowly than when you use the loose wicking. 
Just so in soils — the close ones will raise the soil water from a greater 
depth than loose sandy soils, but the latter will bring it up much quicker 
to the full height to which it can rise at all. 

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ALKALI. 89 
TABLE 



Showing Sapidity of Ascent of Water in Different Soils, and Limit of Same. 



No. 1, 




No. 4. 




SANTA PAULA. 


No. 8. 


No. 2. 


Surer, 9iin8Uin. 


Ira Sediment— Tamped. 


Fine Sediment- 


-Tilled. 


Adobe, University. 






.46 


22rfdajs.. 




-SO LIMIT. 


195 days.. 




-limit. 


195 dayfl-- 




-LIMIT. 










.46 
















.44 






.44 






















1 17 days. . 
















.42 






.42 
























- — 






— — 








.40 
.38 
.36 






90 days- - 




















.40 























.38 
.36 






















50 days 
















.34 






.34 






































.32 






.32 



















.30 






.30 


















.28 






.28 


















- 2 




























.26 










































.24 
.22 






.24 
.22 
































6Xdays.- 

















6X days.. 
















.20 






.20 










































.18 






.18 


































6S'days- 




-LIMIT. 

.16 


























.16 






































.14 


6X days-. 




.14 




















































1 day— 










.12 






.12 




























12 bra. .. 








.10 






.10 




















7 tare. .. 




































-.8 
























-6 


4 hra. .. 




-.8 






















..6 
































4 bra. .. 










-4 






..4 








2hrs. .. 












lhr. ... 






1 tar. ... 
















~2 






..2 








1 tar. ... 




































1 






1 


j 






WATIlt 






















LEVEL. 































The digram before you shows these differences. The coarse sandy 
soil from Stanislaus has, in six and a half days, sucked up the water to 
the full height of sixteen and a half inches, and has remained there. 
Within the same time the close adobe soil of our experimental grounds 



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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



at Berkeley haB made the water rise to the twenty-three-inch mark, but 
it has taken it nearly two hundred days to reach the final maximum 
height of forty-six inches; and there are some soils in which water will, 
in the end, rise even higher — say to fully five feet. 

You see, then, that if alkali water should stand in a sandy soil at the 
depth of two feet, very little of it would evaporate at the surface, and 
therefore alkali would show on the surface only slightly, or not at all; 
while from a clay soil having water even twice the depth, the evapora- 
tion from the surface would be brisk and continuous, and an alkali 
crust would promptly form. You know well from your experience that 
alkali is always worse on clay soils than on adjacent sandy ones. 

Beyond question the damage done by alkali {in at least nine cases out 
of ten) is due to accumulation at or near the surface. When we examine 
the soil of an alkali spot for its alkali contents at various depths, we 
find five or six times as much in the first inch from the surface down 
as is contained in the bottom water, or at the depth of a few feet in the 
soil itself. The top crust is sometimes almost pure alkali salt, and it is 
no wonder that it should corrode the stem or root-crown, and weaken 
or kill the plant. It obviously follows that the first requirement in pre- 
venting damage from alkali, is to prevent surface evaporation as much 
as possible. The first condition in this regard is to lessen the formation 
of a surface crust; in other words, to keep the soil in deep, loose tilth, 
or else, to mulch it. In either case, surface evaporation is reduced tc 
the lowest point practically attainable. Evaporation through the leavet 
of plants — for instance in an alfalfa field — brings up no alkali to hurt 
More than half of the alkali land in this State that people are afraid tc 
touch, requires no other remedy than thorough, deep tillage, maintained at 
all times. 

But in bad cases other means are required; and this leads us to con- 
sider which of the above salts is the most injurious. 

Your experience tells you that the worst alkali is the "black." Now 
what is black alkali, and why is it so called? 

Not, as some have imagined, because of its moral turpitude, bul 
because it causes blackish tinted puddles to stand on the ground, and, 
on evaporation, leaves black rings around the margin of the pool. 
When we analyze such blackish water we find that its chief ingredient 
is carbonate of soda — sal soda — and that the black tint is caused by the 
humus of the soil, which it has the power to dissolve. This in itself is 
a serious injury, for humus is one of the most important of soil ingre- 
dients. If held in solution, or washed away through the soil, the pro- 
ducing powers of the land are seriously impaired. 

That, however, is not the end of the injury; for when accumulated by 
evaporation around the root-crown, it absolutely corrodes and dissolves 
the bark as it does the humus of the soil, causing a dead ring around 
the butt, and finally girdling the stem aB effectually as could be done by 
the knife; or, even worse, because the wound is poisoned and the wood 
attacked after the bark is gone. 

Nor does the injury end there. In heavy (adobe) soils the presence 
of a small amount of sal soda renders tillage almost impossible; in all 
cases it renders the production of good tilth more difficult, causing the 
formation of little close-textured pellets instead of true tilth. I will 
illustrate these points to you by experiment. 

Here is a calcareous "adobe" soil wetted with pure water and dried, 

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ALKALI J 91 

I throw it on the floor before you, and it crumbles into a thousand 
crumbs. Here is a lump of the same soil wetted with sal soda solution, 
and also dried; I throw it on the floor and you hear it strike like a 
brick-bat, and it breaks into two or three hard clods, which you can just 
scratch with your finger nail. 

You see the extreme importance of getting rid of the " black " part of. 
alkali in every case. This can be done by giving the soil a dressing of 
gypsum or land plaster. 

Here is a solution of sal soda; I pass it through this filter filled with 
black soil; you see the water that passes through is almost as black as 
ink, and we now have the same solution that you see in alkali puddles 
where it is " black." Had I time to finish this operation you would in 
the end find the black soil turned gray or whitish, just as are your 
alkali spots after the rain has washed out the color. 

Now, I add to this black water a quantity of powdered gypsum, and 
shake it up. We shall have to wait a little to see the action completed; 
but in the end you will see that the solution has become nearly or quite 
colorless, while the gypsum has turned dark from the precipitated 
humus. That is precisely the way it acts in the soil; it keeps the humus 
from being washed away, and above all, it converts the " black " alkali 
into " white; " that is, the carbonate of soda has now been turned into 
sulphate of soda or Glauber's salt, which, as I first told you, is one of 
the chief ingredients of all our alkali, and is quite bland and harmless 
as compared with the corrosive sal soda. We have thus taken the cut- 
ting edge off the alkali. 

In thousands of cases this change, with thorough tillage, is all that 
is needful to do away with all damage from alkali. The amount of 
plaster to be used per acre depends, of course, upon the strength of the 
salts in the soil. Sometimes five hundred pounds per acre will be 
enough, then again, it may take a ton, or even more, and after that 
perhaps an annual dose of from one to three hundred pounds per acre, 
until the carbonate of soda is completely destroyed. 

You may ask how you are to know that by an easy test; here it is: 
This is paper tinted with a solution of litmus, a preparation you can 
find in most drug stores, and if not, they should be made to keep it for 
you; any acid (vinegar will do), you see, turns the blue solution red; 
add sal soda or potashes (ash lye) to the red solution, and the smallest 
amount will instantly turn it blue. So with this paper; as you see, I 
can change the color at will, and when the red paper turns blue when 
I touch the alkali water or the wetted soil, I know at once that there is 
black alkali there, even if it be too little to show in the mud puddles. 
Any child can make this test, but you must understand that the change 
to blue should be prompt. Almost any California soil will, in the long 
run, turn litmus paper blue, because all contain considerable lime, which 
acts like the sal soda, but much more slowly. 

There is one virtue possessed by gypsum that I have not yet alluded 
to; it is, that when (as is frequently the.case) the alkali contains phos- 
phates in solution, these phosphates are fixed and retained in the soil; 
whereas, otherwise, every rain and every irrigation washes them out, 
more or less. 

But if, after transforming your black alkali into white and practicing 
thorough tillage, you still find your trees or vines under stress, there is 



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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



but one remedy, a radical one, which ride you of all alkali, black and 
white, for good — that remedy is underdrainage. 

That this is so is self-evident from the fact that in countries having 
heavy rainfall there is no alkali in the soils. What prevents it is the 
natural seepage through the soil into the country drainage. Where 
this does not exist naturally, it can be established artificially by first 
laying drain tiles and flooding the land until the last vestige of alkali 
is washed out. Experience fully and amply confirms this conclusion; 
but experience has also abundantly shown that alkali cannot be 
washed off the land by abundant flooding without drainage. All you 
do in that case is to put the salts down into the subsoil, from which they 
will rise again at the first chance, and your water and trouble will have 
been wasted. What you sometimes can effectively do, in bad cases, ifl 
to scrape off the alkali crust bodily and haul it off where it will be 
carried off by the streams — or possibly by the ditches — for the benefit 
of your neighbor below. Such things have happened. 

But some will say, underdraining costs too much. About that I 
have only to say that I agree with you so long as you pay the railroad 
" all the traffic will bear " for freight on tiles. When you get to making 
your tiles right here, $35 per acre ought to pay for good underdraining 
in your porous soils. If there are those who think that also too much, 
let them cease to value their producing lands at $1 ,000 per acre, and 
sell out to progressive newcomers, who think otherwise. 

It is true that the condition of things in your region is peculiar and 
different from most other localities in the State. Ten years ago nc 
alkali was to be found within a long distance of Fresno City, but since 
that time leaky ditches have filled the country up with water from 
below, and that water has brought with it the soluble salts that had 
accumulated for ages in the forty or fifty feet of dry soil that then used 
to lie under your feet. As that water evaporates at the present surface, 
all that alkali must come to the top, unless carried off in some way, ae 
by drainage. 

I have lately, with the aid of two of your public-spirited citizens. 
Miss L. E. Hatch and Mr. John S. Dore, obtained the materials for a 
proper study of the actual state of things under your soil. They sup- 
plied me with samples of bottom water taken at various points, and by 
analyzing these and comparing them with the water of your ditches, we 
• can see just how far the process of leaching upward is likely to supply 
your soils with alkali. 



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ALKALI. 



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94 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



Let me 8ay from the outset that the results of this investigation 
(which I place before you) have been most encouraging. While it is 
true that there has been a serious increase of alkali over the Kings 
River water in all cases — say from seven to ten times, so far as the true 
alkali salts are concerned — yet the water, even thus, is not worse than 
a good deal that is used elsewhere for irrigation. There are two very 
bad cases, as you see, in which the alkali salts have increased from 
eighty to over a hundred times, forming dangerous waters. But these 
are taken from ready-formed alkali spots of an aggravated type; and 
for' the existence of these there is a special cause to which you must pay 
the closest attention. 

This cause is the existence, at various depths beneath the surface, of 
a layer of limy hardpan, which all of you have seen at some time. This 
hardpan is practically impervious to water, as it is to roots; your oldei 
residents know that they have many a time been obliged to " knock the 
bottom out " of a hole in which a tree or vine was to be planted, in ordei 
that the roots might be enabled to reach a proper depth. The sudden 
" going back " of plantations of trees and vines, that have been doing 
well the first two years, has almost invariably been traced to the exist- 
ence of this hardpan, upon which the roots were compelled to spread 
out, or dry out, or be drowned out, according to circumstances. And if 
is upon the areas underlaid by this hardpan that strong alkali has appeared 
in the Fresno region. 




At first sight this may seem difficult to understand, but the matter if 
really simple enough. In winter, when heavy rains prevail, or wher 
the land is copiously irrigated, the bottom water rises and mixes wit! 
the irrigation water coming from above. Suppose this happens when 
there is a sheet of hardpan; then the mixed waters will rise around th< 
edge of the sheet and spread over it. Now these sheets are usuallj 
basin shaped, ranging in outline from round to long-oval, and lowest ir 
the center, with areas varying from a fraction of one acre to aevera 
acres. The water flowing in over the outer edge is retained there. I 
quickly evaporates from the shallow soil overlying the hardpan, and ib 
alkali also remains and accumulates near the surface. Let this procesi 
be repeated for a few years, and several times each year, and soon thi 
alkali accumulation will become sufficiently strong to affect the growing 
plants. After awhile the soil in the low center of the sheet become! 
alkali-sodden, it loses tilth, and sinks down; then the alkali watei 
gathers there, and we have formed an alkali pond like the one repre 
sented in the diagram, and by No. 7 of the table, with water too stronf 



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ALKALI. 



95 



for any useful vegetation. You see it is a bad case of " black " alkali, 
nearly one third of the whole solids of the water being sal soda. Even 
here gypsum would be useful, and should be used over the entire tract 
affected; but nothing short of drainage, or breaking up of the hardpan 
sheet, can work a radical cure. 

The diagram also illustrates the difference in the development of the 
root-system of a tree, before and after the hardpan sheet is broken. The 
former will be suffering from both drought and alkali; the other will 
flourish. 

It is not ordinarily, then, the alkaline bottom water, but the local 
sheets of hardpan that cause the scattered alkali spots of your region, 
and are the real cause of what trouble there is at present. You have not 
to fear a sudden general overrunning of your beautiful vineyards with 
alkali, so long as you keep the bottom water out of reach of the surface 
evaporation, and thoroughly till the soil. Yet certainly, the problem of 
general drainage is one that should receive your immediate attention, 
for your plantations are too valuable to be exposed to a gradual deteri- 
oration from neglect of leaky or leachy ditches. A good example of 
wise precaution in this regard has been given, for instance, by the 
seven-foot ditch that has been drawn around the property of the Fresno 
Vineyard Company; that vineyard will have no need to fear alkali or 
swamping. 

A general system of drainage will, of course, involve some perplex- 
ing questions, not the least among which is the slight fall of the Fresno 
plateau in any one direction. Long main drains may be needed, and 
so long as these are not established, many will be perplexed as to where 
they can discharge the alkali water. Let me suggest that local relief 
may be found in draining into wells, the deeper the better. This would 
increase the alkalinity of the general bottom water for a time, but 
would give present relief to many. 

My time and yours is too short to go further into the details of this 
drainage question, so I will conclude by summing up the measures of 
relief I have suggested : 

First of all, wherever alkali appears, look for the hardpan, and if found 
break it up at as many points as possible, so as to allow the roots and 
water to penetrate beneath. Be careful of thorough tillage, and never 
allow a surface crust to remain after rain or irrigation. If the alkali 
is " black," use a proper dose of plaster to make it " white." Tighten 
ditches to prevent the rise of alkali water from below as much as pos- 
sible, and seek to drain off the latter into the country drainage, whether 
by underdrains or, temporarily, by open ditches, laid deep enough to 
keep the water from being drawn to the surface by wick action. 

Some — chiefly outsiders and newcomers — ask why we should bother 
with alkali soils at all, so long as there is so much good soil left that is 
not so tainted. The reply is, that alkali soils are, from their very nature, 
necessarily rich soils, and that the labor and expense bestowed upon 
their cultivation under proper conditions is sure to be richly repaid by 
the outcome. Such soils are largely without the need of fertilization, at 
least for a long time to come. Look even at the water of the "alkali 
pond" on the table, No. 7; there is among its ingredients no less than 
eight grains per gallon of potash sulphate, a most valuable fertilizer, the 
presence of which will almost forever relieve the cultivator from the 
necessity of purchasing it. The alkali of the spots at the Tulare station 



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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



would be worth about $7 per ton as a commercial fertilizer, and contains 
an abundance of almost every element of plant-food. It is the excm 
of useless salts that we must do away with; but we should carefully 
preserve and appreciate the good things nature has so abundantly sup- 
plied to our alkali soils. 



ANALYSES OF ALKALI. 

Alkali from soils on the farm of Sol. Runyon, near the Sacramentc 
River, twenty miles below Sacramento; sent by N. W. Motheral, Ento- 
mologist of the State Board of Horticulture. 

" No. 1 was taken from the surface, at the root of a dying tree. No. i 
was taken from under the tree, thirty inches from the surface, after the 
tree was dug up. Is there anything in the soil that would kill the tree?' 

The result of the examination was as follows: ' 

Soil No. 1. — The soluble salts in one hundred parts of the soil amount 
to .124 parts, and consist chiefly of carbonate of soda, with a smal' 
amount of common salt and Glauber's salt. 

Soil No. 2. — The soluble salts in one hundred parts of the soil amounl 
to .14 parts, and consist chiefly of carbonate of soda, with a consider 
able quantity of common salt and a trace of Glauber's salt. 

The amounts of alkali salts in this soil and subsoil, as shown bj 
analysis, are not sufficient to account for serious damage to the trees 
unless permitted to accumulate on the surface by evaporation, by neglec 
of deep tillage. The quality of the alkali salts is quite corrosive, and 
in any case, it would be best to correct this by the use of gypsum, trans 
forming the " black " alkali into " white," or neutral salts. 

Alkali from soils near Fresno; sent by Mr. J. S. Dore, Fresno. 

"No. 1 was taken from the top crust under some dead apricot trees 
No. 2 from the same soil, but eight inches below the surface. The cal 
careous hardpan is here just four feet below the surface. This place 
some ten acres in extent, has never been irrigated; it is, however, sub 
irrigated, and the ground-water is probably nine feet below. Grape 
vines and fruit trees are greatly injured by these salts." 

No. 1 is a silty soil with a small amount of clay, and a large numbei 
of mica scales intermixed. A water extract gave a very faint alkalim 
reaction and contained 6.3 per cent of salts. Of the latter, a small pro 
portion was insoluble in water, and consisted mainly of carbonate o 
magnesia with a small amount of sulphate of lime, or gypsum. Thi 
part soluble in water consists mainly of sulphate of soda (and somi 
potash), common salt, and a little sulphate of magnesia. 

No. 2. This is a light yellowish sandy soil, containing many mict 
scales. A water extract gave .19 per cent of soluble salts, which consis 
largely of common salt and Glauber's salt, with considerable sulphat 
of potash and slight amounts of lime and magnesia. 

The character of the above salts is that of "white," or neutral alkal 
salts, and but for the existence of the hardpan beneath would hardb 
be fatal to apricot trees or vines. The hardpan, however, has doubtlea 
caused them to accumulate to such extent that, in connection witl 
water stagnating on it in winter, the joint effect has been hurtful 
The breaking up or underdraining of the hardpan, together with dee] 
and thorough tillage at all times, would be the proper means of recla 
mation. 



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97 



No. 2 is bat lightly charged, and with thorough tillage should not 
experience serious trouble from the neutral alkali salts indicated by the 
analysis, especially if not underlaid by hardpan. 

Alkali from Pleasant Valley; sent by Mrs. M. E. Cleary, Coalinga, 
Fresno County. A whitish powder, accumulating by the evaporation of 
the waters of the streams of the valley. 

The sample consists chiefly of sulphate of soda, or Glauber's salt, with 
small amounts of carbonate of soda (sal soda) and common salt. The 
waters of the streams (as is shown elsewhere) contain 119 grains per 
gallon of this salt, and are thus rendered unfit for domestic use. 

Alkali from soil No. 1223 taken at various depths, on Sec. 3, T. 26, 
R. 23 E., Kern County; sent by Mr. John 8. Hittell, San Francisco. It 
consists mainly of Glauber's salt with some common salt; no carbonate 
of soda. 





Depth 
2 to 4 Feet. 


Depth 
10 Feet. 


Sodium chloride in 100 parts of soil 


.71 
.18 
25.18 


.84 
.12 
36.12 


8odium chloride in 100 parts of soluble extract 





This, again, is neutral " white " alkali, of which only a large amount, 
accumulated at the surface, will injure trees or vines. This kind of 
alkali seems to be almost universally prevalent, where any at all exists, 
in the region southeast from Tulare Lake, in Kern County; doubtless 
owing to the fact, shown in other samples received from the same region, 
that crystals of gypsum are found imbedded in the subsoil at various 
depths, and thus prevent the formation of " black " alkali altogether. 
It is an excellent demonstration of the efficiency of gypsum in this 
respect. 

Alkali from Kern Island; sent by Mr. Willis Carter, Bakersfield, Kern 
County. A surface crust heavily charged with soluble salts, from the 
effects of surface evaporation. 



In 100 Parts 
of Alkali. 



Potassium sulphate 

Sodium sulphate (Glauber's salt) 

Sodium chloride (common salt) 

Sodium carbonate (sal soda) 

Magnesium sulphate (Epsom salt) 

Magnesium carbonate 

Calcium phosphate 

Calcium sulphate (gypsum) 

Oxide of iron and alumina 

Silica 

Organic matter and chemically combined water 

Total 



9.52 
82.96 
.48 
.40 
.50 
.18 
.20 
.10 
.30 
1.84 
4.07 



100.00 



This sample is thus seen to consist almost entirely of the sulphates 
of soda and potash, chiefly the former. There is not a sufficient 
amount of carbonate of soda to render the salts injurious to the soil, 
under proper conditions of subsoil and tillage. The percentage of 
potash is so large that the salt might be utilized as a fertilizer upon 

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



lands deficient in that element of plant-food. The presence of pho 
phates also adds to the value of the salts as a direct fertilizer. 

Alkali (two samples) from the Kern County artesian belt; sent by M 
Geo. A. Raymond, San Francisco. 

One of the samples consists almost entirely of Glauber's salt; it coi 
tains no carbonate of soda, and only a very small quantity of sodiui 
chloride, or common salt. It is, therefore, of a mild type, and beit 
readily soluble in water, can, by proper drainage, be easily removt 
from the soil if found to cause damage. 

The other sample is in the form of small grayish lumps, and also coi 
sists mainly of sulphate of soda, a small amount of chloride of sodium, < 
common salt, being also present. It is of the same mild, or " white 
type as the first, and, with good cultivation, should cause no serioi 
injury. 

Alkali, extracted from a soil, from Sec. 3, T. 31 S., R. 27 E., near Baker 
field, Kern County; sent by Mr. S. W. Austin, San Jose". The comp 
sition of the extract is as follows: 





Soluble Salts 
In 100 Parts 

of soa 


Compodti 
In 100 Par 
of Alkali 


8odium chloride (common salt) f 


.215 
.006 


97 
2. 


Totals 


.220 


100 





The presence of so small an amount of carbonate of soda does n< 
materially injure the soil, and the other salts may not injure veget 
tion — especially trees or vines — so long as they are not allowed 
accumulate at the surface, which can, of course, be prevented by d« 
and thorough tillage. 

Alkali crust from Colton Avenue, near Hunt's Lane, Santa Ana bottot 
San Bernardino County; top crust of the soil. 

The alkali amounts to 9.593 per cent of the crust, and consists of— 



Organic matter and water... 4.8 

Soluble in water 93.S 

Insoluble in water Lt 

Silica 0 

~ioo.c 

The soluble portion of the alkali consists of— 

Sulphate of potash 11 

Sulphate of soda (Glauber's salt) 62.1 

Sulphate of magnesia (Epsom salt) ' 

Carbonate of soda (sal soda) H.f 

Chloride of sodium (common salt) 1 10.1 

98.S 

The insoluble portion of the alkali consists of— 

Sulphate of lime (gypsum) 1 

Carbonate of lime 4 

Carbonate of magnesia... .( 

Peroxide of iron (as carbonate of iron) 4 

Total 1.6 



The amounts of soluble sulphates and of common salt in the abo 1 
crust are extremely large, and of course destructive to vegetation, bi 
being easily soluble in water they can be readily removed 6y prop 



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ALKALI. 



99 



drainage. But the presence of so large an amount of carbonate of soda 
(nearly 15 per cent of the salt, or 1.4 parts per hundred of the soil) 
makes the matter a far more serious one, especially when it is remem- 
bered that a percentage of less than one tenth of one per cent is suffi- 
cient to injure vegetation, by rendering the soil caustic and corrosive, 
and by dissolving out the humus. The only antidote would be a large 
application of gypsum and the thorough drainage of the land. 

Alkali from the toil of a vineyard in El Cajon, San Diego County; 
sent by C. M. Johnson, M.D., San Diego. 

"This land has been planted in vines for five years. In the locality 
from which the sample No. 1 was taken the vines have all been killed, 
and the surface has an efflorescent, ashy appearance. Sample No. 2 was 
taken from an adobe soil, but little distant from the first, and on which 
were vines of the same age. On both of these localities there is a slight 
depression, and back of them is a range of foothills three hundred feet 
in height, whose soil is springy, giving good sub-irrigation with a water 
that is sweet and not at all alkaline. Olives seem to do well, and 
quinces are growing luxuriantly in the strongest alkaline spots." 

The samples sent are understood to represent the surface crust, say 
to the depth of one inch. Sample No. 3 is the subsoil of the above soils. 



In 100 Parts ol the Soil. 


Soil No. 1. 


Soil No. 2. 


aubsoUNo.8. 


Carbonate of soda 


.862 
3.438 


.027 
18.823 


.050 
.482 




Total alkali 


4.095 


18.850 


.532 





The chief ingredient in each of the above is sodium chloride (com- 
mon salt), with large amounts of sodium sulphate (Glauber's salt). 
With the amount of carbonate of soda shown in No 1, these constitute 
a pretty bad case of " black alkali." It is therefore one of the cases in 
which the use of gypsum (land plaster) is indicated, and in unstinted 
quantity, probably not less than five hundred pounds per acre for the 
first dressing. Soil No. 2 is heavily charged with " white alkali," and 
will therefore be little benefited by gypsum. With good tillage these 
neutral salts might not harm the vines. The subsoil, while not very 
strongly charged, still shows enough to render measures for drainage 
advisable as soon as possible. 

Deposit in boilers, obtained by boiling an earth with water; sent by 
P. P. Keough, Bishop, Inyo County. " Does it contain borax?" 

The deposit is soluble in water, and consists chiefly of sulphates of 
potash and soda, the latter (Glauber's salt) predominating, consider- 
able common salt, and a very small amount of sulphate of magnesia 
(Epsom salt). Borax is present only in traces. 



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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



FURTHER EXPERIMENTS ON THE REACTIONS BETWEEN ALKAL 
SULPHATES, CALCIC CARBONATE, AND FREE CARBONIC ACID.» 

By M. E. Jaffa. 

[It will be remembered that at the meeting of this association hel 
two years ago, I communicated a paper containing the results of a join 
investigation by A. H. Weber and myself, on the formation of alkal 
carbonates from the sulphates, in presence of calcic carbonate and fre 
carbonic acid. The wide importance of this reaction in nature, an 
practically in connection with the question of " alkali " lands and thei 
reclamation, rendered a further 'pursuit of the investigation desirabl* 
but lack of time has prevented its being carried to the extent conten 
plated, even in respect to the calcic carbonate alone, and only und( 
ordinary conditions of temperature and pressure. Still, the results thv 
far obtained by Mr. Jaffa are of sufficient importance to render the: 
communication at this time of interest. 

The conditions under which Weber's experiments were made are give 
in the following quotation from the paper above referred to: 

"The bulk of solution used was, in all cases, one liter; in this, pn 
cipitated calcic carbonate was kept in suspension by constant agitatioi 
while carbonic gas was being passed into it at a temperature of aboi 
18 degrees C, usually for forty minutes. The first effect was always 
slight reddening of the litmus, due to the carbonic acid; but general] 
this reaction changed to alkaline during the first ten minutes, becomui 
stronger as time progressed. But comparative experiments showed thf 
nothing was gained in alkalinity by a longer passage of the gas tha 
above indicated.f 

" In each experiment 100 ccm. were decanted immediately after tb 
clearing of the magma, and titrated for ' total alkalinity,' including th 
calcic carbonate remaining in solution. When an alkaline sulphate ws 
employed, the undissolved carbonate was tested for sulphuric acid, whic 
in all cases was found to be present. 

"Another portion of the decanted solution was evaporated to drynes 
and the residue weighed as a whole, after drying at 110 degrees C, aftei 
ward leached and the filtrate titrated for its alkalinity. 

"Another portion was mixed with alcohol so as to carry its percentaf 
to about 60 per cent. This caused a gelatinous precipitate, which, afw 
twelve hours standing, condensed into easily recognizable crystals ( 
gypsum and calcic carbonate. The filtrate from this deposit was als 
titrated for its alkalinity. The subjoining table summarizes these result! 



* Read before the Society for the Promotion of Agricultural Science at the Indianspol 
meeting, August 19, 1890. ' See Station Report on Waters, 1889, p. 51. 
t Mr. Weber's record shows the following observations on this point: 



Time. 


10 
min. 


30 
min. 


60 
min. 


U 
hrs. 


12 
hrs 


Alkalinity in ccm. normal standard sulphuric acid 


7.80 


8.25 


8.60 


9.00 


9. 



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ALKALI. 101 



Experiments with Potassic Sulphate. 



Grams per Liter: 


l 4 


M 


1 


2 


Evaporation residue 110 degrees, per liter (grams) 

Residuary alkalinity in same (ccm. standard H 2 80 4 )... 

Residuary alkalinity after precipitation with alcohol... 
Corresponding HKC0 3 (per cent of total possible) 


.837 
.86 
9.96 
2.875 
100. 


1.195 
.60 
14.10 
5.76 
100. 


1.619 
.45 
12.25 

9.70 
88.6 


2.736 
.76 
14.10 
12.90 
66.6 



"The table shows that up to one half gram per liter, and beyond to a 
point not yet ascertained, there is a complete decomposition of the potassic 
sulphate, resulting in the formation of gypsum and potassic bi-(hydro-) 
carbonate. In a solution containing a gram of the sulphate per liter, 
only 83.6 per cent of the total possible amount of the carbonate is formed, 
and in a solution of double that strength (two grams per liter) only 
55.6 per cent. But up to that point, and evidently some distance 
beyond, the absolute amount of alkaline carbonate is still on the increase; 
its ultimate limit remains to be ascertained." 

Following the lines pursued in the previous investigation, Mr. Jaffa 
has used essentially the same methods, and in part the same materials 
employed by Mr. Weber; more particularly in his first set of experiments, 
the same precipitated calcic carbonate. It will be noted that in Weber's 
table there i« a striking discrepancy in the " total alkalinity " for the 
operation with five grams per liter; this discrepancy disappeared upon 
a repetition of the determination by Jaffa, which gave 10.15 in place of 
14.10 of Weber's table, and thus brings about a reasonable regularity 
of progression with increasing density of the original solution. — E. W. H.] 

Table No. 1 summarizes the first series of my work, in which the 
intention was to complete the data given in Weber's table upon potassic 
sulphate. Adopting the first two columns, relating to solutions of .25 
and .50 grams per liter (except that the " total alkalinity" was redeter- 
mined, as above stated), all the other determinations are my own, and, 
as will be seen, they diner not immaterially from those of Weber's table, 
being higher throughout. The most striking difference is, that whereas 
Weber found the critical point from which the decomposition of the 
potassic sulphate ceases to be complete, to lie between .5 and 1.0 gram 
per liter, I find it to be just beyond 1.0 gram; and I find a higher per- 
centage of decomposition with 1.25 than Weber did with 1.0 gram 
(90.85 per cent against Weber's 83.6 per cent of the possible amount). 
The cause of these discrepancies is, doubtless, to be sought for in use of 
different materials and in slightly different external conditions, as noted 
in Table No. 1. 

Having exhausted the supply of the calcic carbonate used by Weber, 
I prepared another batch, this time by precipitation with ammonium 
carbonate at the ordinary temperature instead of hot, as was done by 
Weber; the precipitate being thus, of course, finer and more bulky, and 
keing kept in suspension more easily. But, at the same time, the solu- 
tion required to be filtered from the precipitate of gypsum and unaltered 
carbonate, instead of being decanted, as was done by Weber. As the 
filtration of 100 ccm. lasted less than one minute, the loss of C0 2 was 
too slight to cause the precipitation of calcic carbonate, for usually no 
scum formed on the surface of the covered solution for twelve hours. 



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102 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



Table No. 2 shows the results obtained with this new preparation o 
calcic carbonate. 

It will be seen, on comparing Tables Nos. 1 and 2, that there is a wid< 
discrepancy between the figures obtained with the first and coarser 
grained calcic carbonate, and the fine powder of recent preparation 
While in the first case the range between .25 and 4 grams per liter ii 
9.95* and 14.80, respectively, for total alkalinity, in the second case th< 
range between the same limits is from 17.76 to 23.70. The "residuan 
alkalinity," after precipitation with alcohol (i. «., that indicating th< 
amount of alkali carbonate formed), is, of course, the same within tht 
limits of complete decomposition, in both series; and the determinatioi 
lying just beyond (for 1.25 grams per liter) shows practically identica 
figures (13.06 and 13.10). But beyond that point there is a rapi< 
increase, which is' particularly noteworthy in the figures showing tb 
actual amounts of bicarbonate formed. Thus we find that in the 4-gran 
solution, 1.42 grams of the latter salt was formed when the coarse prep 
aration was used, while 2.32 grams resulted under the influence of th 
fine precipitate of calcic carbonate, under identical conditions as t 
temperature and time. Moreover, in both series the progressive increat 
of the amount transformed became very slow with the 4-gram solution 
the difference between the amount corresponding to 4 and 8 grams, bein 
(in the second series) only .15, while between the solutions containing 
respectively, 1.50 and 1.75 grams, the difference (for only a fourth of 
gram) is .24.- It would thus seem that, under ordinary conditions c 
temperature and pressure, the practical limit of action, is nearly reach© 
with a 4-gram solution. 

The influence of temperature is rendered very apparent by the inspec 
tion of the entries showing the " residuary alkalinity " after evaporatioi 
at 100 degrees C. The ratio between the carbonates formed at ordinar 
temperatures, and those remaining after evaporation, is seen to b 
approximately one twelfth in the case of the first series, and about on 
seventh in that of the second; the difference being, no doubt, due to th 
difference of temperatures employed in drying the residues, t. «., 101 
degrees C. and 105 degrees C. as against 110 degrees C. used by Weber 
but the law for intermediate ones remains to be determined. 

It is of course to be expected that evaporation at ordinary tempera 
tures, such as usually occurs in nature, will yield results approximat 
ing much more nearly to those indicated by the titrations. 



•It should be understood that in all cases, alkalinities expressed are in ccm. of norm< 
standard H,S0 4 . 



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ALKA1I. 



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104 



UNIVERSITY OP CALIFORNIA. 



EXPERIMENTS WITH SODIC SULPHATE. 

A series of determinations was made with sodic instead of potassic 
sulphate, in order to determine whether the reaction follows the same 
law as in the latter, and if so, whether atomic proportions are observed 
from the outset; that is, from the weakest solution to the strongest. 

Table No. 3 shows the result of this series of experiments. The first 
thing that strikes the eye in these results is, that while there is a general 
agreement of the progression, the sodic salt reaches sooner the point 
where complete decomposition ceases; that point lying at .8 grams per 
liter, instead of above 1.0, as in the case of the potassic salt. It will be 
noted that these figures approach closely to the atomic ratio, which 
should be .84 for sodium. 

Continuing the comparison we find that the amounts of carbonate 
formed continue slightly higher for the sodic than for the potassic salt, 
until we reach in both 1.5 grams per liter, when the curves representing 
the progression diverge quite suddenly, the potassic salt increasing 
rapidly until, at the 8-gram solution, we approximate closely to the 
atomic ratio, the figures being 2.47 of potassic salt against 2.12 of 
sodic. The exact ratio would be 2.52 to 2.12, and would doubtless be 
reached at about the 10-gram solution for potassic sulphate. It thus 
appears that not only is the sodic salt transformed to a slightly greater 
extent than the potassic in very dilute solutions, but an inspection of 
the figures for " residuary alkalinity" after evaporation shows that larger 
amounts of the sodic salt are decomposed by high temperatures, falling 
considerably above the atomic ratio. But at 1.5 grams the amounts 
remaining undecomposed are in atomic proportions, and thereafter the 
sodic salt remains the more stable, until at eight grams the absolute 
amounts are equal, and therefore the atomic ratio is exceeded, the sodic 
salt being .259, instead of .218, to .260 of the potassic salt. It is to be 
expected that this greater stability of the sodic salt will be increasingly 
shown at lower temperatures, thus favoring the formation of "black 
alkali" under natural conditions. 

There remains to be considered, so far as the present series of experi- 
ments is concerned, the quantitative relations of the calcic carbonate 
dissolved by the carbonic acid. The amount calculated as being pre- 
cipitated by the treatment with alcohol of 60 per cent, is given in the 
fifth entry of the tables. The first point to be noted is that in the 
experiments made with the coarser carbonate the amount dissolved was 
very much less than in the finer grained, although an excess sufficient 
to maintain the reaction was always present. 

The question may be raised whether the reaction was not influenced 
by failing to supply carbonic acid until the same amount of calcic car- 
bonate was dissolved in each case. Against this objection we have thus 
far only the experiments of Weber, given above, and the fact that a true 
atomic proportion is reached where the amounts of lime present are 
smaller, viz.: in the strongest alkali solutions. It is intended to investi- 
gate this point at once to a definite conclusion, and the whole subject 
will be pursued into its ramifications with respect to the influence of the 
presence of other bases, and the variations of physical conditions, as 
rapidly as time will permit. 

In the preceding experiments the reaction between alkali sulphates 
ready formed, calcic carbonate, and free carbonic acid, has formed the 



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ALKALI. 



105 



investigation. We have since entered upon and partially 
a series of experiments in which the action of the carbonates 
onates of the alkalies upon gypsum ready formed has been 
g point, thus paralleling the case of mineral waters having 
e reaction, and at the same time containing gypsum, with 
hates, in solution. When such waters are evaporated the 
taction persists, while gypsum crystals are deposited; the 
'e relations of the several compounds under such conditions 
variations have already shown interesting points, which, 
jquire to be still further verified before being reported upon, 
re prefer to reserve these data for the present, simply premis- 
e results show that any excess of carbonic acid over the simple 
mate at once establishes the possibility of the coexistence in 
ilution of alkaline carbonates and earthy sulphates. 



106 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



V. FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTS. 



INVESTIGATION OF CALIFORNIA ORANGES AND LEMONS. 

By G. E. Colby and H. L. Dyer. 
(Experiment Station BuVetin No. 93; June, 1891.) 

[A fall investigation of the various fruits produced in California with 
respect to their proximate as well as ultimate composition has long 
been contemplated at this Station; but the fewness of the available 
workers and the heavy demands made upon them in other directions has 
until now restricted this somewhat laborious branch of research to 
occasional tests, such as have heretofore been published in respect to 
particular lots of fruit sent for examination. With the increased force 
now at hand it is proposed to investigate, as rapidly as may be, all the 
more important fruits produced on a commercial scale, so as to determine 
accurately the composition of the various kinds and varieties, both with 
regard to food value, and to the draught made by them upon the store 
of plant-food in the soils of the several regions. Since the latter vary 
very greatly in their nature, and therefore the replacement of the ingre- 
dients withdrawn by the crops will need to be made in accordance with 
the special requirements of each case in order not to " carry coal to 
Newcastle" at unnecessary expense, such investigations are of the most 
obvious practical importance; but at the same time they are extremely 
complex, and much time will be required to bring them to even a mod- 
erate degree of completeness. The work here discussed was entered 
upon in response to the constant demand of growers of citrus fruits for 
information as to the most appropriate fertilizers to be used by them. 
While it is far from complete, and will, of course, be continued and 
extended hereafter, it settles some of the immediately pressing ques- 
tions. In the execution of the work, Assistant Colby had the benefit 
of the very efficient aid of Mr. Hubert Dyer, a graduate of the Univer- 
sity, and post-graduate student in this department. Without such help 
we would have had to remain satisfied with a much smaller number of 
analyses, and a much narrower basis for conclusions. — E. W. Hilgard.] 

The purpose of this work is to show comprehensively the proximate 
and ash composition of the leading varieties as grown in some of the 
principal citruB regions, and, inferentially, the influence exercised upon 
them by the prominent conditions of soil, climate, fertilizers, etc. The 
physical data (per cent of rind, pulp, juice, etc.) are of special interest 
from a commercial standpoint, as showing what is being purchased; foi 
there can be no hesitation between an orange or lemon of average rind, 
pulp, and juice, and one of over one third its weight of undesirable rind 
and one quarter dry pulp. 

The consumer, though usually considering fruit as a pure luxury, 
would derive much valuable knowledge from studying the orange in its 
relative value as a food. The nourishing portions, shown specially by 



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FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTS. 



107 



?;enous and saccharine contents, vary greatly with the variety 
itions of growth. It is not a matter of indifference to the 
r what fruit he uses, but an important question of domestic 

h ingredients, together with the nitrogen contents of the stand- 
ties, are of high interest in connection with the vital question 
rfiaustion and fertilization. The soil ingredients extracted by 
ary crop are a serious drain upon the supporting soil, and the 
heaviest draught can only be determined by analytic deter- 
of the constituents withdrawn. 

Description of Oranges Received. 

NAVELS. 

Marysville, Yuba County. — G. W. Hutchins, grower; sample 
January 22d. A large, fairly solid, and heavy fruit, with rough 
n, indented ribs, and loose " rag; " * juice only fair in amount, 
Dounced acid, and good flavor. 

Nile8, Alameda County. — Australian (?) Navel; J. Shinn, 
sample received March 30th. Undersized, rounded in shape, 
)se skin and " rag," with tender pulp and pleasant acid. 

Niles, Alameda County. — Australian (?); J. Shinn, grower; 
eceived May 19th. Fruit differed in shape, being both rounded 
jated; base ribbed; both skin and flesh remarkably tender, " rag " 
ly moderately juicy, but of very agreeable flavor. Both Aus- 
?) Navels were budded for Washington Navel by Mr. Shinn, 
ks, however, that the graft was taken from a sample tree of the 
in Navel. 

Riverside, San Bernardino County. — "Washington Navel;" 
jox shipped to Professor Hilgard by Dr. Jarvis; grower un- 
received January 22d. It agrees well with a description of 
lavel, as given in Wickson's "California Fruits," page 451. 

Riverside. — R. W. Meacham, grower; received May 12th. 
inge was selected by a prominent nurseryman of Riverside, 
nse to a request from this Station. A large, thick-skinned- 
>ith heavy "rag" and coarse pulp, much more elongated than 
cal Riverside Navel; some with base markedly depressed or 
aped, others flattened; acid, medium. 

Pomona, Los Angeles County. — Palmer & Shaw, growers; 
April 10th; from trees six years old, on hill-land north of 

An average-sized fruit, high in color, but with thick skin, 
rag," and broadened fleshy base. On the whole a very desir- 
lge. 

Pomona. — Selected by Short & Schwab, of Pomona, from a 
lipment, as "over-size;" received April 10th; from young trees 
ire) bearing only five or six oranges. Double the usual size, 
3orrespondingly coarse structure, although not unpleasant to 
; decidedly "watery" as compared with Nos. 6 and 8. 

Pomona. — L. M. Davenport, grower; sample received April 
.n average-sized and thick-skinned fruit, of rather tender pulp 
eable acid. 



is the white tissue between the pulp and skin proper. 



108 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



MEDITERRANEAN SWEET. 

Nob. 9 and 10. Smartsville, Yuba County. — Seedling, resembling 
Mediterranean Sweet; Jas. O'Brien, grower; sample received January 
22d. Above the medium size, light-colored and smooth skin, and very 
sharp; sample apparently not quite ripe. 

No. 11. Riverside. — R. W. Meacham, grower; received May 12th. 
Somewhat elongated; color yellowish red; skin thick and with sooty 
pits; very juicy; pulp tender. 

No. 12. Pomona. — J. D. H. Brown, sender; received May 5th. 
Rounder in shape, smooth and rather thick skin; "rag" coarse; very 
juicy and slightly tart. 

ST. MICHAELS. 

No. 13. Marysville, Yuba County. — G. W. Hutchins, grower; sample 
arrived January 22d. Undersized as compared with those from Pomona 
and Riverside; medium heavy "rag" and rind ; solid texture, but pulp 
melting, and acid high. 

No. 14. Riverside. — R. W. Meacham, grower; sample received May 
12th. Larger than the Pomona fruit but of the same general appearance, 
save that the skin is lighter colored ; also of rather natter taste, but very 
juicy. 

No. 15. Pomona. — Exhibit at Los Angeles Citrus Fair ; sample 
received April 10th. A larger and less compact orange than that from 
Marysville; of very thin skin and tender pulp; acid very pleasant. 

No. 16. Pomona. — "Paper Rind;" from J. D. H. Brown; received 
May 5th. Round shape, smooth 'thick skin, and very good flavor. 

No. 17. Pomona. — From J. D. H. Brown; received May 5th. Con- 
siderably larger than No. 16; skin thick, of elongated shape and agree- 
able taste. 

MALTA BLOOD. 

No. 18. Pomona. — Mr. Reeves, grower; sample received April 10th. 
Rather larger and more round than the typical specimen; skin moder- 
ately thick; pulp tender; seeds none; acid remarkably sharp; juice 
light-red color and of considerable quantity. 

No. 19. Pomona. — J. D. H. Brown, sender; received May 5th. It 
agrees in size and shape with the previous sample, but has a thinner 
skin and "rag;" acid less pronounced; pulp melting. 

No. 20. Riverside. — R. W. Meacham, grower; received May 12th. 
More elongated than those from Pomona, and of rougher and thicker 
skin; base heavy; "rag" porous; pulp not quite so juicy, but of deeper 
red color; somewhat " mushy," indicating overripeness. 



VALENCIA. 

No. 21. Pomona. — Sent by J. D. H. Brown, and received May 5th. 
This is known in South California as "Valencia Late," or "Rivers," or 
"Rivers' Late." According to H. Van Deman, it is identical with 
"Hart's Late" in Florida. He is of the opinion that properly the name 
should be "Nonpareil." It is about the same in size as the Mediterra- 
nean Sweet, but much larger than the St. Michaels, and of marked 
elliptical form; smooth thin rind, "rag" of fine texture, pulp melting. 



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FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTS. 



109 



TANGERINE. 

San Gabriel, Los Angeles County. — A. B. Chapman, grower; 
ceived April 11th. A small deep-colored fruit with loose thick 
fibrous texture of pulp; taste very sweet; acid low; flavor 
'like garden balm), but agreeable. 

SEEDLINGS. 

Niles. — J. Shinn, grower; samples received May 19th. A 
id orange of light yellow color; base ribbed and fleshy; heavy, 
in ; thick "rag," melting pulp, and exceedingly pleasant flavor, 
ppearance marred by coast scale and fungus. 

Description of Lemons Received. 

EUREKA. 

and 25. Pomona and Ontario. — Two samples sent by Messrs. 
Ichwab, Pomona, April 10th. Of medium size, and with light 
3 rather bitterish. 

San Gabriel. — A. B. Chapman, grower; sample received 
h. Undersized; some markedly ribbed, and with very thick 
Is small and undeveloped ; flavor more agreeable than in the 

Eurekas. 

ARROYO GRANDE PRIDE. 

Arroyo Grande, San Luis Obispo County. — D. F. Newsom, 
ample received April 22d. Undersized; smooth, heavy skin; 
» taste. 

companying tables show the analytical work accomplished 
season (1891). Table A gives the physical and proximate 
Table B, the results of the analysis of the ash. 
r to bring out more clearly than is shown by the tables the 
t points of similarity or difference, we discuss briefly the data 

ORANGES. 

ion of Rind to Flesh. — Considering the matter, first, from the 
,t of the consumer, it seems that although the Navel is the 
oranges, it has, contrary to the popular impression, no advan- 
l respect to the proportion of skin to flesh, over either the 
,nean Sweet or St. Michaels. The average Navel can fairly be 
I as containing nearly 72 per cent of flesh, while the average 
,nean Sweet shows 73 per cent; the St. Michaels, 81 per cent. 
is, or Proportion of Juice to Flesh. — A comparison of the figures 
ge table shows that of the named-varieties examined the Navel 
sst, while the St. Michaels has the largest proportion of juice, 
erranean Sweet being next, and the Malta Blood third, 
acts will be better understood by reference to the little table 
dch gives the percentage ratios: 



110 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



Average Percentage Ratios. 



Proportion of Rind to 
Fleah. 



Proportion of Pulp to 
jutoe in Flesh. 



Variety. 



Rind. 



Flesh. 



Pulp. 



Juice. 



Navel 

Mediterranean Sweet 

St. Michaels 

Malta Blood 



28.4 
27.0 
19.0 
31.0 



71.6 
73.0 
81.0 
69.0 



89 
33 
31 
86 



61 
67 
69 
61 



Evidently the hard and solid, although thin rind of the Navel 
weighs heavier in the balance than the more "corky" one of the 
Mediterranean Sweet, and doubtless outweighs, also, that of many seed- 
lings. The Navel, No. 4, from Riverside, the Mediterranean Sweet, and 
No. 8, from Pomona, however, show the lowest rind-percentage of any 
in the series, save St. Michaels, No. 15, of Pomona, the genuine " paper 
rind." The study of the conditions contributing to thinness of rind 
will be of high commercial importance. 

Sugar Contents of the Juice. — The table shows the maximum of sugar 
in the hill-grown Navel from Pomona (No. 6), but this is approached 
very closely by Navel No. 8 of Pomona, the Mediterranean Sweet, No. 
9, of Smartsville, the Malta Blood, Nos. 18 and 19, from Pomona, and 
the Tangerine from San Gabriel, No. 22. It is notable that the lattei 
shows at the same time the highest proportion of cane sugar to be 
found \n the whole series, the Pomona Navels and Malta Bloods stand- 
ing next. To what extent the proportion of cane sugar determines the 
sweetness to the taste is a matter not yet fully understood; the propor- 
tion between the other two sugars (grape and fruit), not yet determined 
being an essential factor in the case. 

The average sugar contents of the fully ripe Navels (gathered in April 
and May), from all localities, is 10.8 per cent. Against this we find the 
Mediterranean Sweets from Riverside and Pomona (Nos. 11 and 12 
gathered in May) to average 9.70 per cent only; while the seedling 
from Smartsville, gathered in January, shows a little over 10 per cent 
thus indicating a very early maturity. 

The Valencia orange, from Pomona (No. 21), shows a decidedly lowei 
sugar-percentage, as does the contemporaneous Malta Blood, from River- 
side. The St. Michaels shows the lowest average of all the oranges 
(8.71 per cent), although the roundish sample from Pomona (No. 16) 
falls only a little below 10 per cent. 

Comparing these data with those of previous years, heretofore pub- 
lished, we find that the sugar-percentage of the Navel appears to have 
risen from 9.89 per cent to 10.80 per cent. For the Mediterraneat 
Sweet the figure remains practically identical. For the St. Michaels il 
is higher than we have found it this season. 

Acid in the Juice. — In respect to acid, we note at once the maximurr 
in Malta Blood, of over 2 per cent, with an average of 1.6 per cent ic 
the three samples examined. The next highest figures occur in the 
early samples of Mediterranean Sweet, from Smartsville, a maximum o; 
1.68 per cent; but the average of the many samples from Riverside anc 
Pomona is 1.23 per cent. The St. Michaels of Marysville (Januarj 
twenty-second) shows the next highest maximum with 1.46 per cent 



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FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTS. 



Ill 



ie later samples of April and May we find in the Riverside 
No. 14) a minimum of .84 per cent, with an average of 1.07 
ur later samples examined. In contrast to the Malta Blood, 

the St. Michaels counts among the varieties of low acid, com- 
wever, with rather a low sugar-percentage, as stated above, 
.lencia rates, in the same respect, nearly with the St. Michaels, 

Tangerine shows the low figure of .87 per cent of acid, with, 
tme time, a very high sugar-percentage. A former analysis 
jr its close relative, the Mandarin, a lower minimum of acid 
«nt), and the highest sugar-percentage on record, or 13.84 per 

.vel justifies the statement made in a former report, of the low 
mtage, even in samples gathered as early as January (Nos. 1 
nd still more in those of later date from Riverside and Pomona 
nd 6). The minimum (.77 per cent) of all is shown by the 
ruit (No. 6), with, at the same time, the highest sugar-percent- 
D) of the series. In the aggregate, the average acid-percentage 
vel (1.02) is the lowest of all, with the highest average of sugar 
cent) outside of the Malta Blood. These data, together with 
esh, thin and smooth rind, and excellent keeping qualities, 
ufficiently the great preference given it in our markets, 
ring these results, obtained in 1891, with those in previous pub- 
of this Station, 1879-1887, we note, first, an apparent increase 
jrage weight of the several varieties. We also find that while 
ntages of rind show very nearly the same average as in 1891, 
marked discrepancy in respect to juiciness, the pressed pulp 
; about 25 per cent less in earlier specimens. How far these 
8 may be due to influences of season or accident in sampling, is 

0 decide with the data before us; the more so, as the acid and 
centages show very nearly the same absolute, as well as relative, 
Increased age of the bearing trees may possibly account for 
hese differences. 

mona Navel from young trees (No. 7) is interesting, as showing 
an abnormally large orange differs from the ordinary fruit. It 
Uy " watery " as compared with fruit of normal size, 
editerranean Sweet (Nos. 9 and 10) are of special interest, 
y show the changes produced in an orange by two months' 
;here is a considerable loss in weight, which is found in the 
3d weight of rind and flesh. Both the sugar and acid contents 
reased, the former so appreciably as to warrant the conclusion 
fruit was sweetened by keeping, apart from evaporation. It 

1 on receipt of No. 9 that the sample was not thoroughly ripe, 
aste of the same fruit two months later was decidedly better. 
ve Values — Nitrogen Contents. — The flesh-forming ingredients 
ioids) of any article of food being of great importance as 
ts proper uses, it is of special interest to compare, in this 
he orange to other fruits, and the different varieties of oranges 
themselves. According to the latest European data, oranges 
it in the amount of albuminoids (1.73 per cent), prunes second 
cent), peaches (and probably apricots) third, bananas and 
urth, while apples and pears stand nearly the lowest on the 
i per cent). Our determinations of the same substances in 
a oranges, as a whole (rind included), show materially 



112 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



smaller figures, averaging 1.20 per cent; and as it is known that the rind 
is very poor in these substances, we are forced to conclude that the Cali- 
fornia fruit is less nourishing than that of Sicilian production; much 
lower percentages, however, are quoted for oranges from other sources. 

Here, again, the differences observed may be largely due to the age 
of the trees bearing the fruit, which in California is usually the 
minimum. 

Of the entire series the Riverside Navels (Nos. 4 and 5) show the 
highest contents of albuminoids (1.54 per cent), while the average of 
the Pomona samples js 1.18 per cent only. Next highest to the River- 
side Navels come the St. Michaels from MarysvUle, Riverside, and 
Pomona, with an average of 1.40 per cent; nearly the same is shown by 
the Riverside Malta Blood. The average of the Mediterranean Sweets 
falls below 1 per cent, that from Pomona falling to .91 per cent. The 
Malta Blood and Niles Seedling show the minimum of .69 and .75 per 
cent, respectively. The Valencia and Tangerine, with the Eureka lemon, 
seem to range about 1 per cent. 

Amount and Composition of Ash. — The table below gives in detail the 
amount and composition of the ash of representative samples of the 
several varieties. It will be noted that the average ash-percentage in 
the oranges is only four fifths of that in the lemons; also, that the 
average orange is somewhat richer in potash and in phosphoric acid 
than the lemon, but the latter takes up materially more of lime and 
less of magnesia. Potash is the prominent ash-ingredient most heavily 
drawn upon from the soil. 



Digitized by Google 



FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTS. 



Total 

Legs Excess of 
Oxygen, due to 
Chlorine 

Total 

Chlorine 

Silica 



Sulphuric Acid . 



Phosphoric Acid. 

Br. Oxide of Man 
ganeae 

Peroxide of Iron. 
Magnesia 

Lime 

Soda 

Potaih 



trcentage of Pure Ash. 



H 



a 

■< 
> 



umber. 

8* 



S33SJ282gaS; 58 



S288S228S 833 
8S88888'88 88 



co •* t- - -* \6 » ■* io cici 



5S822S88SIS 28 



sssssssss as 



^SSSS 88 



NNQh-MOOt-ifl 



>-ic©tocie>Jiie>ii-!J 



S3 



3s 



• ■ i-' ■« 1 i3 

£■£ a ns ice" 




«.S o E-S » o o a 
S Ci An ai 



i o» 

-c 

C * 

cO 
I d 

PhO? 



jpo 8 



SSSSSSS8S S3 88 



3^ 



asssas^ss aa sa 



>9 



S3 



81 si 



8S 



assssasssa sa sa 



> w t- as co t- CO i~i MCp 



3 3 



5 Ijs 



iH •«* SO OS 



ssssa sa 



113 



Digitized by 



Gool 



114 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



Draught upon the Soil Ingredients. — As will be seen by reference to 
Bulletin No. 88, of this Station, the orange stands second (grapes being 
first) among orchard fruits in the quantity of mineral matter withdrawn 
from the soil. Heretofore we have been obliged to base all conclusions 
bearing upon the ash and nitrogen of these fruits on European data; 
we are now enabled to present for oranges and lemons the outcome of 
California growth. The following summary (based on averages from 
the large table) shows, in tabular form, the amounts in pounds of the 
soil ingredients extracted by an orange or lemon crop that will have 
to be replaced by fertilization: 



Ingredient! Withdrawn from the Soil by Citrus Fruil». 





Total Ash- 
Pounds. 


Potash- 
Founds. 


Phosphoric 
Acid— 
Founds. 


Nitrogen- 
Pounds. 


O RANGES. 










European (seedless) — 










Crop of 1,000 pounds 


6.07 


2.78 


.67 


2.65 


Crop of 20,000 pounds 


121.40 


65.60 


18.40 


68.8C 


California- 










Crop of 1,000 pounds 


4.32 


2.11 


.63 


1.8 


Crop of 20,000 pounds 


80.40 


40.14 


10.60 


36.« 


LEMONS. 










Crop of 1,000 pounds... 


6.67 


2.69 


.61 


1.6 


Crop of 20,000 pounds 


111.40 


63.80 


12.20 


30.2 



It thus appears that so far as oranges are concerned, the California 
fruit drawB materially less upon all the soil ingredients that have to be 
replaced by fertilization; while as regards the lemon, it approaches 
closely to the European standard for the orange, save in the much 
smaller draught upon nitrogen. 

There is, of course, no material difference in the relative proportions 
of ash ingredients among themselves, or towards nitrogen. 

Potash is seen to be the predominating ingredient, amounting to quite 
half of the weight of the ash; it is, therefore, highly important that the 
supply of this substance should be kept up; but fortunately, as h&i 
been shown by previous investigations of this Station, the supply of 
this substance in California soils and irrigation waters is exceptionallj 
large, so that in many cases the current demand of the fruit will bf 
amply supplied in the ordinary course of cultivation for many years tc 
come. 

Phosphoric acid is not very heavily drawn upon; but as it is usualh 
present in our soils in limited quantities only, it is probable that ii 
should constitute a large proportion of any fertilizer used in the orangt 
orchard. 

Of nitrogen nearly the same may be said as regards the natural supply 
especially in the southern mesa soils; and as the draught made by th< 
orange upon this substance is very heavy, it will always be among th« 
first to be currently supplied. 

As regards other ash ingredients, it will be seen that lime is the on* 
most heavily drawn upon next to potash, although its percentage varies 
rather widely (from 16.37 to 27.77 per cent for oranges). The supplj 
of lime in California soils is almost universally so ample within th< 



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FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTS. 



115 



•owing region, that no replacement of this substance in fertili- 
11 be called for. 

)t inconsiderable demand of the orange for sulphuric acid, as 
le table, suggests that gypsum will be acceptable in this as in 
sects as a fertilizing ingredient. 

LEMONS. 

» 

:ompleteness of the data concerning lemons renders it inadvis- 
ter upon any extended discussion; the more so as no extended 
the Old World are available for comparison. It will be noted 
aost important ingredient of this fruit, viz., the acid-percentage, 
bly exceeds, for the Eureka lemon, at least, the commonly 
average; and in the case of No. 26, from San Gabriel, the acid- 
e is extraordinary. This point alone should insure to Califor- 
i lemons a high position in commerce. 

latively large percentage of sugar shown by the analyses is a 
hich will further commend them to the consumers' taste, 'as 
le percentages usually reported. It will be observed, however, 
great differences exist in the proportion of rind to flesh and 
le juice. In this respect the lemons of Pomona and Ontario 
he head of the list as far as it goes. 

composition there is no practically material difference between 
;es and lemons examined; with a more extended series the 
i in both would doubtless be shown to run parallel. 



ANALYSIS OF APRICOTS. 

larly Apricot. — "Pringlet" The sample was received June 30, 
i Mr. B. F. Moore, Tulare. 

srage weight was 24.8 grams, or 383 grains, eighteen being 
to weigh a pound. The percentage of flesh was 90.9, the pits 
le remaining 9.1 per cent. The juice was found, on analysis, 
jper (inversion) test, to contain 13.5 per cent of sugar. 
:eeding sweetness of this early fruit was so striking as to ren- 
termination a matter of curiosity as well as of some general 
The result — 13$ per cent of sugars in the juice — is the highest 
16.5 per cent) we can find on record for apricots, the usual 
iven being about 4.69 per cent in the whole fruit for European 
This latter figure, however, refers to fruits grown outside of 
, and we have yet to learn what is the usual percentage of 
our standard canning and drying varieties of apricots, 
ber of additional analyses of apricots are in progress at this 
will be reported hereafter. 



EXAMINATIONS OF SUGAR-BEETS. 

optional perfection attained by the sugar-beet in California, 
eculiar climatic advantages offered for the establishment of the 
r industry, having now been fully recognized and action taken 
y capitalists, it becomes unnecessary for this Station to repeat 



116 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



hereafter what for eleven years past has formed " the burden of its song" 
in every report, although derided and systematically belittled by more 
than a few of the present enthusiastic converts. It now behooves more, 
perhaps, to preach caution against unwise efforts to establish the indus- 
try where it is not likely to prove successful, from the very fact that 
certain localities appear to enjoy such distinguished advantages of soil 
and climate that others, less favored, cannot reasonably hope to compete 
with them. • It is therefore intended, not only to test the culture of the 
several varieties systematically at each of the culture stations, but alao 
to distribute seed to those who desire to make private tests and to send 
the roots for assay to the station at Berkeley. The transmission of such 
samples for this purpose from all parts of the State is invited, in order 
that by the systematic comparison of results the greater or less adapta- 
tion of the several climatic divisions may be ascertained, as speedily as 
possible. 

One of the most important points to be elicited by experiments is the 
season within which successive plantings of beets may be made, so as to 
prolong, as much as possible, the duration of the " campaign " of the fac- 
tories. Personally, the Director does not as yet abandon the hope thai 
in certain regions, at least, the drying of beets may be made feasible by 
proper appliances, thus extending the possible activity of the factory- 
plant through the whole year. 

SUGAR-BEETS AT FRESNO. 
(Experiment Station Bulletin No. 71; August, 18S7.) 

The culture of the sugar-beet in the San Joaquin Valley has, unti 
lately, remained a bare suggestion. It is well known that they hav< 
been successfully grown near Isleton and Sacramento, on the moist landi 
of the Sacramento River, on which irrigation is unnecessary. It is doubt 
ful that the sugar-beet has ever before been cultivated where irrigatioi 
is indispensable, and this fact, as well as the high summer temperatur 
of the southern valley, has discouraged the attempt. In fact, the ver 
idea of a root filled full of irrigation water, and then wilted by the tor 
rid heat, is enough to excite the antipathy of the manufacturer. 

The success of the sugar-beet near Los Angeles, however, encourage* 
the hope that, with a proper selection of soil, and of the time of plantin 
and irrigation, a root suitable for the sugar-maker might be produced i 
the San Joaquin Valley; and if so, that the crop might be made to sup 
plement that of the coast valleys, so as to prolong materially the annus 
campaign, the shortness of which is a heavy charge on the capita 
invested in the somewhat costly plant of beet-sugar factories. As state 
in a paper on the subject, published in the December number of th 
"Overland Monthly," 1886, the campaign period in Europe usually do< 
not much exceed three months — October, November, December — while i 
California, owing to the favoring climatic conditions, there is no difl 
culty in lengthening it to the five months, from September to Januar 
both inclusive. If, by early sowing in the precocious season of tl 
upper San Joaquin, two or three months more could be added to the tin 
of campaign, it would place beet-sugar production in this State on 
ground of vantage, from which it might calmly defy the competition < 
its tropical competitor, the sugar cane. 

Preliminary experiments to test the feasibility of growing good suga 

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FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTS. 



117 



er the condition of the Fresno climate have, during the present 
jen made by Mr. M. Denicke, of Fresno. Mr. Denicke obtained 
nn from Mr. Dyer, of Alvarado, some reliable sugar-beet seed, 
d it at intervals from December to April. The results of the 
ion of four lots, planted and harvested as stated below, were as 

1. — Seed sown in December, harvested May twenty-seventh, 
msisted of four roots, two of which (A) showed just an indica- 
)w growth starting in the center, while in the two others (B) 
ed-stalk was already formed, so that they had evidently passed 
r stage for sugar-making. 

2. — Two beets from seed planted early in April by Mr. L. J. 
, on sandy, ashy soil, on Kings River, six miles east from 
Jarvested June twenty-sixth. Little or no indication of new 
arting. 

S. — Two roots. Seed sown about March fifteenth, on " white- 
Harvested June twenty-ninth. Somewhat fresh-looking in 
but no serious show of new growth. 

4. — Date of sowing not stated. Roots in good apparent con- 

larvested August fourth. 

ays resulted as follows: 



Assays of Fresno Sugar-Beets. 



Lots. 


Sown. 


Harvested. 


Average 
Weight, 
Ounces. 


Cane Sugar, 
Percent. 


Purity 
Coefficient. 




December. 
December. 
April 10?.. 
March 16?. 
? 


May 27.-- 
May 27—. 
June 26.. . 
June 29... 
August 4.. 


21 
24 
18 

22 
26 


10.1 
7.0 
10.5 
12.6 
13.2 


82.6 
70.0 
80.7 
82.0 
75.3 











egard to the data in this table, it should be stated for the 
the general reader that roots having an average of 10 per 
ine sugar and a purity coefficient of HO (that is, 80 per cent 
igar in the total solid contents of the juice), would be consid- 
r workable material by the European sugar-maker. But a 
jar per cent in the juice may offset a lower degree of purity, 
'ersa. 

be noted that the average of the first three lots (leaving out 
sration lot 1 B) is 11.1 per cent of sugar, with a purity coeffi- 
1.4; they are, therefore, quite within the limits stipulated by 
•maker. As for lot 1 B, the fact that the roots had begun to 
seed-stalks shows at once that they had passed beyond the 
lin which the crop should have been harvested. I conjecture 
growth had been started by untimely irrigation. As for lot 4, 
it shows a somewhat higher sugar-percentage than No. 3, its 
ity coefficient would nevertheless render it less desirable as it 
at the appearance of the roots suggest, in this case, also, that 
r time for harvesting had passed by. 

sring that the persons growing these beets were without ex- 
n the premises; that, in fact, irrigation had never before been 
> the production of sugar-beets, and that the right time and 



118 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



the proper amount must in this case be considered as at least equally 
as important as in the case of wine grapes, the results obtained are 
exceedingly encouraging. They imply that in middle California the 
working campaign for sugar-beets can very probably be extended 
through the months of June, July, and August, making it reach from 
June first to February first; and considering that the beets of the first 
lot had already passed their best condition by a week or two, and that 
with somewhat improved arrangements for the preservation of the late- 
grown beets, they can probably be carried to the middle of February, 
we can foreshadow the possibility of such an extraordinary feat as an 
eight months' campaign of a beet-sugar factory running on fresh beets. 
With the additional possibility of utilizing beets sliced and dried, 
under the same conditions as the raisin crop, the full twelve months 
may ultimately be called into requisition. 

It must, however, be remembered that in order to realize such results, 
it must be feasible to bring the beets of the San Joaquin Valley, and 
those of the coast valleys, within reach of one and the same factory 
plant. The roots will not bear railroad transportation to any distance: 
but with cheap water transportation it might be feasible to let th< 
crops of Fresno and Merced start up the factories located in the uppei 
bay region in June, and to keep them running until the middle o: 
February by supplies from the coast region. It is to be hoped tha< 
more extended and carefully guarded experiments will be made tb 
coming season, even if the omission of Congress to render the Ex 
periment Station Bill effective by means of an appropriation shoulc 
not be made good in time. 

ANALYSES OF SUGAR-BEETS. 

Sugar-beets, from eight miles north of Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, 01 
the Calistoga road; sent by Mr. E. E. Sawyer, Santa Rosa, October 14 
1890. The seed, obtained from the University Experiment Station, wa 
planted on May 17, 1890. 

Sample No. 1 was grown on sandy, alluvial soil, in the bed of the Marl 
West Creek. Its weight was 1,085 grams (2.3 pounds), and the specifi 
gravity of the juice, 1.0766; the solid contents of the juice amounted t 
18.50 per cent, of which 1 5.80 per cent was cane sugar and .80 per cen 
was ash. The purity coefficient was, therefore, 85.40 per cent; and thii 
with the high sugar content, places these beets far above the minimun 
required for profitable working. It is a first class beet in every wa) 
and makes an excellent showing, especially for so large a root, whic; 
was a little above the weight generally admitted by the factories. 

Sample No. 2 was grown on an upland soil, which fairly represent 
the greater part of the land of the vicinity. The weight of the sampl 
was 330 grams, and its specific gravity, 1.0434; the solid content 
amounted to only 10.80 per cent, with a very small content of sugai 
which places it far below par. 

Sugar-beets from the Chino Ranch, San Bernardino County; sent b 
Mr. Richard Gird, Chino. They were grown upon a dark sandy loai 
soil, and from the Klein von Slavin seed, and were received in good cot 
dition July 16, 1890, nearly five months from planting. 

Sample No. 1, comprising three beets; the seed was planted Februar 
24, 1890, at a distance of four inches in rows fifteen inches apart. Th 



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FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTS. 



119 



raged 600 grams in weight, and yielded 280 ccm. of juice, with a 
ravity of 1.0875. The solid contents of the juice amounted to 
nt, of which 13.55 per cent was cane sugar. The purity coeffi- 
3, however, only 64.50 per cent, or 10 per cent below that at 
is held that beets can be profitably worked; the percentage of 
;ar" is too great. 

i No. 2, comprising one beet, was from the same seed planted at 
of six inches in rows fifteen inches apart. The beet weighed 
9, and the amount of juice was 420 ccm., having a specific gravity 

The solid contents of the juice were 17.90 per cent, of which 
• cent was of cane sugar; the purity coefficient was, therefore, 
ich, with the small sugar content, places the beet far below the 
i of profitable working. It was probably immature. 
beets from WatgonviUe, Santa Cruz County; sent by Mr. N. D. 
atsonville, October 16, 1891. The average weight of the two 
vas 600 grams, or 1.3 pounds; the juice had a specific gravity 
; the solid contents were 19.3 per cent of the juice, of which 
cane sugar, and .60 per cent was ash. The purity coefficient 
re 87.1 per cent, or 12 per cent higher than the minimum for 

working. The content of cane sugar is also higher than 
d nearly 5 per cent above the average richness of beets used in 
nufacture in Europe. These samples are as fine as any thus 
ned in the State, and it is unfortunate that the variety of seed, 
ature of the land, both physical and chemical, are not known. 
teeta from the Foothill Station, five miles northeast of Jackson, 
County. These samples, representing five different varieties, 
rn upon the red slate soil (No. 1113) of the station tract, which 
ous report is thus described: An orange-red loam, the lumps 
are easily crushed between the fingers when dry, and show 
ble coarse sand. When wetted it becomes only moderately 
while its color darkens materially. Slate fragments are inter- 
nore or less all through, much of the sand being comminuted 
he vegetation on this soil comprises yellow, sugar, and nut 
two mountain live oaks, black, white, and blue oaks, buckeye, 
l, toyon, manzanita, madrone, spiny chaparral, poison oak, or 
mac. Among the herbaceous growth the yerba santa, several 
isses, the alfilerilla, and several native clovers were conspicuous, 
ail (No. 1114), from twelve to twenty-four inches in depth, is 
glaringly orange-red tint, the lumps of which, when dry, can 

crushed between the fingers. Its color hardly changes on 
»ut it becomes quite adhesive when kneaded; like the soil, it 
ich coarse sand and some slate fragments. This material 
ere to depths of three to five feet, with increasing number of 
tnents. 

lowing analyses give the composition of the soil and subsoil: 



120 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 
Sugar-Beet Soil of the Foothill Station. 



No. 1113. 
SoiL 



No. 1114. 
Subsoil. 



Coarse materials> O-S™". 
Fine earth 



19.20 
80.80 



7.88 
92.14 



Analysis of Fine Earth. 



100.00 



100.00 



Insoluble matter 

Soluble silica 

Potash (K.O) 

Soda (Na.0) 

Lime (CaO) 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Br. ox. of manganese (Mnj0 4 ). 

Peroxide of iron (Fe,O s ) 

Alumina (Al 2 Oj) 

Phosphonc acid (P 2 O s ) 

Sulphuric acid (S0 3 ) 

Water and organic matter 



49.961 
ll.96f 
1.48 
.48 
.60 
2.21 
.05 
11.62 
12.81 
.05 
.02 
6.63 



64.92 



40.931 
21.23f 
1.82 
.43 
1.37 
2.28 
.06 
11.89 
14.08 
.07 
.02 
5.62 




Totals 



100.22 



99.79 



Humus 
Ash.... 



.64 
.80 
.03 
.60 
5.74 



.18 
.33 
.01 
.19 
6.59 



Sol. phosphoric acid 

Silica 

Hygroscopic moisture (absorbed at 15° C.) 



The potash percentage in the above is very high; the amount of lime 
though not very high in the surface soil, is abundant in the subsoil 
direct determination shows .04 per cent to be in the form of carbonate 
The percentage of phosphoric acid, as usual in California upland soils 
is not high, but very largely in the soluble form. The amount oi 
humus is rather low. For the special culture of the beet there is at 
ample supply of potash, lime, and phosphoric acid, but probably » 
deficiency of humus, the reservoir for nitrogen compounds so important 
for the thrifty growth of the plant; it having been found that " root! 
which bear leaves of a broad surface are generally more rich in augai 
than those having small leaves upon a contracted top." 

The five varieties of sugar-beets were sown May 6, 1890; the bottonc 
leaves turned yellow September twenty-sixth; were harvested Novembei 
third, and forwarded to Berkeley February 2, 1891. 

Though sown on both the granite and red land, the samples forwardec 
were of the red soil only. Those on the granite soil were beaten dowi 
by the rain and covered with such a thick and impenetrable crust tha 
the beds could not very well be reclaimed for that season; the few plants 
coming up were of no use. Those on the red soil received occasiona 
irrigation from the seepage of the vegetable patch close by. They wen 
also hoed three times; no manure of any kind was applied. The pie© 
of land in which they were grown is considered the richest part of th< 
red soil, but as it contained little or no sand, it is not very well fitte< 
for cultures which must be hoed; the ground bakes and forms a trouble 
some crust, which cracks in the sun as soon as irrigation is given. 

The samples were received on February 11, 1891, and analyzed on th 
next day, with the following results: 



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FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTS. 121 



Analyses of Sugar-Beett from the Foothill Station, Amador County. 





No. 1. 
Bulteau 

Deprez 
(Richest). 


No. 2. 
Florimond 

Deprez 
(Richest). 


No. 3. 
Dippe's 
Klelnwanz- 
lebener. 


No. 4. 
Simon Le 

Grand 
White Imp. 


No. 5. 
Dippe's 
Vilmorin. 


ight of sample 














oil. / 


ooU.U 


0*0.0 


oOO.U 


lount oi juice 












186.6 


183.8 


208.8 


188.3 


210.0 


vity of juice 


1.0744 


1.0887 


1.0652 


1.0713 


1.0647 


its of juice 


18.00 


16.70 


15.90 


17.80 


16.80 


per centof juice. 


14.18 


12.79 


12.82 


12.96 


13.88 


cient 


78.50 


76.60 


80.68 


74.90 


84.64 




16.05 


14.60 


19.13 


21.20 


17.8 


it of juice 


.88 


.89 


.67 


.61 


.77 















he varieties are below the average weight, but all fall within 
ts regarded at the factories as profitable for working, though 
reatly in sugar contents and purity coefficients. 
Iteau Deprez has the largest percentage of solid contents as 
' sugar, though its purity coefficient is low. The percentage 
somewhat greater than desirable, and militates against the 
r alue of the sample. 

orimond Deprez would probably be rejected at the factories 
f its low purity coefficient and rather high ash-percentage, 
iving a fair sugar content. 

ope's Kleinwanzlebener ranks very well with a good sugar con- 

511 purity coefficient, and a low ash-percentage. 

non Le Grand White Improved has in its juice a large amount 

ontents, which, though its sugar content is good, places the 

fficient quite low and within the danger limit; ite ash is for- 

.ow. 

ope's Vilmorin is, seemingly, the best of the varieties, with a 
entage of sugar,-and a high purity coefficient, though its ash 
ously high. It is questionable whether its value as a sugar- 
K>ve the Dippe's Kleinwanzleben, which has a lower purity 
,, but at the same time a much lower ash-percentage. 
eets from the Southern Coast Range Station, two miles from 
les, San Luis Obispo County. The seed was sown on May 5, 
the crop harvested on October 6, 1890. 

i samples, representing as many different varieties, were grown 
idy loam soil (front land soil No. 1147), which consists mainly 
j sand, intermingled with white hornstone and claystone debris, 
rhich is little, if at all, waterworn. A small, but somewhat 
proportion of clay, serves as a binding material, which gives 
lough consistency to turn a furrow slice, and to prevent leachi- 
e tree growth consisted almost exclusively of the blue oak, with 
ill white oaks. The soil is of a reddish-gray or fawn color, 
spens considerably on wetting, by bringing out the color of the 
esent; but it can hardly be said to assume any plasticity, and 
lently be safely plowed almost at all times, 
nposition of this soil, as reported previously, is as follows: 



122 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 
Sugar-Beet Soil of Southern Coast Range Station. 



No. 1147. 
Bandy Loun Soil 



Coarse materials>0.5 mn ' 
Fine earth 



38.5 
60.5 



Analysis of Fine Earth. 



100.0 



Insoluble matter. 
Soluble silica 



85.121 
5.67j 
.68 
.31 
.31 
.87 
.04 
8.83 
1.74 
.07 
.03 
2.19 




Potash (K-O) 

Soda (Na.O) 

Lime (CaOJ 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Br. ox. of manganese (Mn 3 0 4 ). 

Peroxide of iron (Fe 2 0j) 

Alumina (A1 2 0.) 

Phosphoric acid(P 2 O a ) 

Sulphuric acid (SO,) 

Water and organic matter 



Total 



100.29 



Humus 

Ash 

Hygroscopic moisture (absorbed at 15" C.) 



.66 
.79 
1.84 



" The sandy nature of this soil is well shown in the large proportion oi 
inert matter and the low moisture-absorption; so low, in fact, that but 
for the great depth at all points it would constitute a serious defect, and 
would necessitate very frequent irrigation. But as there is a scarcely 
noticeable change in the nature of the soil for eight feet or more, both 
moisture and nourishment can be brought up by the roots independently 
of the surface soil. As a matter of fact, however, moisture, sensible to 
the hand, is always found in this land at a depth of six or eight inches, 
and the roots of smaller plants are usually found unhurt by drought oi 
heat much nearer the surface. There is an abundance of potash pres- 
ent with a relatively small proportion of lime, which, however, does not 
amount to a deficiency in so sandy a soil, and still imparts to it the 
characters of a calcareous one. For so sandy a soil, again, the supply 
of phosphoric acid is quite large, especially in view of the great depth 
to which the roots can readily go. The supply of humus is only fair, 
and might be advantageously increased." 

Physically, this soil seems well adapted to the culture of the beet, 
possessing, as it does, depth, moisture, porosity, lightness, and good 
drainage. In its chemical character, however, while there is an abun- 
dance of potash and phosphoric acid, and perhaps of lime, there is lack- 
ing the humus which, as the store-house for nitrogen, is so important 
for beets, and to whose deficiency may be due the relatively low grade* 
produced on this soil, as shown in the following table giving the tests 
with five varieties of seed: 



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FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTS. 123 



tugar-Beets from the Southern Coast Range Station, San Luis Obispo County. 





No. 1. 

XP 1 s\ rH rn n n A 

r lunixiuuu 
Deprfez. 


No. 2. 
Dippe's 
Vilmorin. 


No. a. 

Simon Le 
Grand's Im- 
proved. 


No. 4. 
Bulteau 
Deprtz. 


No. 5. 
Dippe's 
Kleinwanz- 
lebener. 


ght of beets 

nice (com.) 

ity of juice 

8 


120 
650 
1.0530 
13.1 


690 
800 
1.0674 

16.4 

12.44 

75.86 


760 
400 
1.0630 

15.4 

18.06 

84.15 


885 
425 
1.0610 

16.10 

10.71 

71.46 


580 
260 
1.0570 
14.10 















i varieties, there are but two which are above the minimum 
rentable sugar-making, viz.: the Dippe's Vilmorin, which is 
lin the limit, though its sugar content is fair, and the Simon 
t Improved, whose sugar content and purity coefficient are 
le above the average. Supposing that the conditions attend- 
lture of all of the varieties were similar, the latter variety is 
i best and the only one adapted to this soil. By reference to 
i of the Foothill Station, given on a previous page, it will be 
here this variety does not take precedence, but ranks second. 



TIVE TANNIN ASSAYS OF CANAIGRE ROOTS GROWN 
IN CALIFORNIA. 

Graduating Thesis, by Charles S. Bonner. Class of 1800. 

aigre is the root of a species of dock (Rumex hymenosepalum) 
va wild in Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Southern California, 
of Mexico. It has been long used for tanning purposes by 
tB, and also of late years by the tanneries of those districts. 
i use has been very limited in the past, it is highly probable 
count of the large amount of tannin in the root, its culture 
eatly extended, and that it will become a very general and 
inning material. As it grows well, in its native country, in a 
soil, almost unavailable for any other purpose, many parts 
» might be advantageously employed in growing it, provided 
ic conditions are favorable. 

to test the growth of the plant in this State, some of the roots 
ted in the University Experimental Garden, at Berkeley, in 
now shows a vigorous growth. The tuberous roots are very 
istered at the base of the plant, and are nearly all of large 

samples of which these analyses were made, with the excep- 
> which came from Colton, California, were taken from roots 
nts grown at Berkeley. The results of these analyses were 
ictory, showing that the plants will flourish as well and store 
h tannin in its roots in this State as in its native country, 
e samples from Berkeley gave a very much higher tannin-per- 
m was found in a root from Texas, the analysis of which is 
he report of the United States Department of Agriculture for 
878. The latter gave but 26 per cent of tannin, while the 
? the analyses, summed up below, is about 36 per cent. 
>ot from Texas, however, was analyzed in the Agricultural 



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124 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



Laboratory at Berkeley (report for year 1884), and gave 38 per cent 
which will be seen to agree very closely with the results given below. 

Internal Structure of Root. — The root of this plant resembles a swee 
potato in shape, varying in diameter from one half an inch to two inches 
Upon cross-section it presents a somewhat concentric cell-structure 
The texture of the root is soft and delicate throughout, with the excep 
tion of a zone near the outer surface, which is of a firmer, more wood; 
fiber. In an ordinary root of about an inch and a half diameter, th 
woody zone would be about one quarter of an inch thick, and would b 
situated between the inside core of soft cellular matter — from thre 
quarters of an inch to an inch in diameter — and an outside narrow zon 
of soft matter, not more than an eighth of an inch in thickness. Whei 
freshly cut, the softer tissue is colored a bright yellow, which, on expos 
ure to the air, changes gradually to a reddish brown, the woody laye 
being white. Through this white matter, however, are found concentri 
rings of yellow. Some of the roots have only a small amount of coloi 
ing matter. 

Microscopic Character of the Root. — The cell-structure of the root i 
very delicate in all parts except the woody fiber, the cells of which ai 
very much thicker than the others. The partial yellow coloration of th 
root is due to a yellow oil or resin, which completely fills a great man 
of the cells. In the woody fiber, which to the naked eye appears to b 
colorless, these yellow cells are also found, but very much more dii 
persed than in the other parts. A great many ducts run through th: 
part of the root, and around these the yellow cells are collected in larj 
numbers, giving rise to the appearance of the concentric rings of yello 
matter spoken of above. 

Starch grains are very thickly scattered through the whole root. Tl 
analysis of the root found in the report of the Department of Agr 
culture, before mentioned, gave 18 per cent of starch. These grain 
when viewed under the microscope, had every appearance of stare 
grains, and it was attempted to stain them with an iodine solutioi 
The iodine, however, did not diffuse sufficiently through the cell men 
branes to give a characteristic reaction, and it was necessary to use tl 
powdered substance to get a satisfactory test. The starch grains coul 
then be distinctly recognized, colored by the iodine. 

Location of the Tannin. — Besides the cell walls, the yellow colorin 
matter, and the starch grains, nothing can be seen which would sho 
that the tannin is in any other form than in solution. This conclusio 
was. regarded as the only possible one, and it was attempted to color tl 
tannin with an iron compound (ferric sulphate and chloride being usee 
for examination. The results, however, were not very satisfactory. Tl 
iron salts did not seem to diffuse thoroughly through the cells, althoug 
sections of the root were allowed to soak for over twelve hours in U 
mixture, and the coloration was confined to the cell walls. The faiht 
of the iron salts to diffuse through the membranes was possibly due 
the formation of the insoluble tannate of iron directly upon the ct 
^yall8. The sap, however, wherever squeezed out of the root, gave 
characteristic coloration, with ferric chloride; and even the knife-blad 
used in cutting sections, was covered with a black stain. Thus, the pro 
that the tannin is in solution in the sap of the root, seems conclusive. 

Determinations of Tannin. — The method employed in making the 
tannin determinations was, to extract with ether, evaporate to drynes 



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125 



n water, and titrate for tannin. The ether solution contains, 
le tannin, the yellow coloring matter, which is slightly soluble 
ind almost insoluble in water. The amount of coloring matter 

by the ether is quite small, so that the weight of the extract, 
xtration of the ether, should be but little more than the tannin 

titration. This weight was used in all cases as a check upon 
The percentages were calculated upon the substance dried 
jjrees C. 

statement below, samples Nos. 1 and 2 were from Colton, Cal. 

i very much blackened and apparently decomposed, which is 

verified by the result of the analysis. 

8 were from Berkeley, and were gathered on April 10, 1889. 

r as also from Berkeley, but was gathered May 20, 1889. 

ind 2 compared, show the amount of tannin found in the same 

fd in different ways. No. 1 was sliced and dried, and No. 2 

whole. Both roots were very small. 

ind 4 give a comparison of the amount of tannin in roots of 
colors. 

ind 6 were compared to show where the tannin is principally 
in the root. This knowledge is of practical interest, 
ind 8 give a comparison of the amount of tannin in small and 

DOtS. 

Determinations of Tannin in Caflaigre RooU. 



Character op Sample. 


Ether Extract 
—Per cent. 


Tannin— Per 
cent. 




16.90 


16.90 




7.66 


6.09 




36.76 


34.76 




39.60 


35.14 




33.49 


31.20 




47.97 


46.80 




48.93 


41.79 




40.77 
36.06 


38.61 
34.12 





ind 2 give very poor results. No. 2, as has been stated, was 
)le, and gave evidences of being decomposed. None of the 
;he root was visible, its appearance being similar to a compact 
x>dy. From this fact the following conclusion of practical 
5e is to be drawn, viz.: that on account of the extreme liability 
s solutions of tannin to decomposition, it is necessary, in order 
le roots without deterioration, to facilitate and hasten the 
>n of water by cutting them into thin slices, 
mparison of Nos. 3 and 4, it will be seen that the tannin-per- 
ears no direct relation to the amount of coloring matter in 
It is also seen that the coloring matter is more or less soluble 
and to a less degree in water. The tannin per cent of No. 3 
t-colored root) was very nearly equal to that of the ether 
!5.76 per cent; the ether extract corresponds to 34.76 per cent 
min). Comparing this with results of No. 4, the dark-colored 



126 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



root, we find that 39.5 per cent of ether extract gives only 35.14 per 
cent of tannin. 

Distribution of the Tannin in the Root. — From a comparison of Nos. 5 
and 6, we see that the inside parts of the root give more tannin than 
the outside. The samples were taken so as to divide the roots into very 
nearly equal parts, cutting out an inside core about equal to one half of 
the root. These samples gave very wide differences in results, as would 
be expected. The woody layer being quite near the exterior surface, 
was cut with the outside sections. This woody tissue contains a very 
small amount of tannin, as compared with the other parts of the root, 
as may even be easily detected by the taste. This is natural, as the 
tannin is, doubtless, in solution in the sap of the root, and would there- 
fore be confined mostly to the softer and growing parts. 

The smaller roots contain less of the thick and heavy woody tissue 
and more of the soft growing parts, and therefore give a large percentagt 
of tannin, as will be seen from No. 7. No. 8, a very large root, gaw 
more tannin "than was found in most of the other roots; but this is 
probably not due to the size of the root, all being liable to vary more oi 
less in the tannin-percentage. 

Time of Gathering. — Sample No. 9 is of a root picked May twentieth 
having been allowed to remain on the plant nearly six weeks longe; 
than the others. It does not show any increase in tannin over Nos. 1 
and 4, thus showing that the roots may be gathered at any time afte: 
the plants have ceased flowering. 



PRESERVATIVE FLUIDS FOR FRESH FRUITS. 

By E. W. Hilqabd. 
{Experiment Station Bulletin No. 86; May, 1890.) 

As the fruit season approaches there is a constant inquiry for som 
mode of preserving fruit samples for exhibition at the several fairs 
As a general answer to inquiries of this kind that have already com' 
dropping in, I give the following data in regard to the more successfu 
preservatives that are within reach of the practice of any intelligen 
farmer. I preface them with an explanation of the demands made upoi 
such preservative methods, for the benefit of those to whom the subjec 
may be new, in order that they may better adapt their practice to cir 
cumstances. 

1. The preservatives must prevent all fermentation, moulding, or othe 
fungous attacks. This, of course, means that the outside of the fruit, anc 
the air or the liquid around it, shall be " sterilized " in some way compati 
ble with the preservation of the form, at least, of the fruit or vegetable 
This, again, excludes any considerable heating, such as is necessar 
in " putting up " fruit for eating purposes. We are practically reducet 
to the use of antiseptics, acting at the ordinary temperature. Amonj 
these we have to choose between gases and liquids; but as the manipu 
lation of gases does not come within the condition of easy practicabilit; 
in an ordinary household, we are further confined to the use of liquid 
only; the more, as these help to prevent damage in transportation, b; 
removing the greater part of the weight of the individual fruits, tha 
would otherwise tend to deform them. Hence, 



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preservative should be a liquid. This liquid, besides being an 
mtiseptic, should not exert any solvent or softening action 

skin of the fruit. This condition excludes from the outset 
xc solutions (such as, e. g., cyanide of potassium, silicate of 

and all the stronger acids, including acetic acid or vinegar. 
mtiseptic fluid should not extract or change the color of the fruit. 
e of the most difficult conditions to fulfill, and yet one of the 
itial. It excludes at once so excellent a preservative as alco- 
aany others that would otherwise be available; among others, 
alt, which is available at most for green fruit. 
preservative fluid should neither cause the fruit to swell, so as to 
s size, and sometimes burst it; nor should it have the opposite 
•using it to shrink. This implies that in the exchange that 
oidably occur between the juice inside and the fluid outside, 
iall pass through the skin with about equal rapidity. Accord- 
l known physical laws, this necessitates that the two liquids 
ipproximately of the same density. Thus, if the fruit to be 
were grapes containing a juice showing 25 per cent by spin- 
uid outside ought to be made of the same density. If not, 
rill either shrink or swell, at least at first; in some cases the 
ulk will ultimately be recovered; but usually, particularly 
banned fruits, the change is more or less permanent. Thus, 
I ripe olives, the size of the fruit may be materially reduced, 
substance toughened when too soft, by the use of strong brine, 
is preeminently true of fruit preserved in alcohol or in strong 

sr, then, may be the kind of antiseptic employed, this condi- 
>roximately equal densities of the fruit juice and preservative 
be fulfilled if the former is to maintain its natural size, espe- 
le fruit be soft or thin-skinned. 

of sugar to bring up the antiseptic solution to that of the 
naturally suggests itself, and with some fruits very good 
y be obtained in that way. Still, sugar itself being easily fer- 
ind liable to change tint when not very pure, it is preferable 
trine, which can now be obtained so cheaply as to render it 
o all, and which is, for practical purposes, unchangeable when 
According to actual trial, commercial " pure " glycerine will 
.tisfactorily when used per cent for per cent by weight in place 
To do this by liquid measure, use four fifths per cent of gly- 
qual to one per cent of sugar. Like alcohol, however, glycer- 
a slight solvent action upon many fruit colors, e. g., that of 
lackberries, etc. 

salt has the disadvantage of darkening all vegetable colors 
aparatively short time; and Glauber's salt, alum, and other 
available salts exert a not inconsiderable solvent action upon 
ch renders their use inadvisable. 

always, of course, easy to ascertain the density of the juice 
ut the housewife or farmer may rest content with the follow- 
imations to the soluble matters of fruit juices for ripe fruit: 



•ears, about 

», apricots, and peaches, about 

ut 

about 



•lifornia 



12 per cent. 

... 10 percent. 

12 per cent. 

8 per cent. 

10 per cent. 

.18 to 30 per cent; average, 24 per cent. 



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128 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 

It is only in very tender-skinned fruit that a per cent or two, more 01 
less, will make a difference in the result. 

Of antiseptics, the following are the most available: Salicylic acid 
boraeic acid, sulphurous acid and its compound, bisulphite of soda (an< 
of lime), and last but not least, bichloride of mercury, or corrosive subli 
mate. 

Salicylic acid, or its compound with soda, both obtainable in commerce 
is one of the best and most energetic antiseptics. Its use in spirituou 
lluids is but too well known; in watery solution it is not so much used 
on account of some difficulty in making it dissolve, particularly whei 
the water is cold. An ounce of the acid dissolves in a little less thai 
live gallons of water at the ordinary temperature; but when it is sirapb 
thrown on the water it may float there a long time, being very light, aiu 
many persons will think that it will not dissolve in that proportion. Ii 
hot or boiling water there is no difficulty, and the solution is made ver 
easily by the addition of a little carbonate of soda (sal soda) even with 
out heating. But when making use of the soda it is absolutely necessary 
to avoid an excess, as the uncombined soda exerts a very injurious influ 
ence upon the preservation of fruits. A solution of one ounce of salicyli 
acid to five gallons of water, to which as much glycerine has been added a 
corresponds to the density of the fruit juice (see above), constitutes a pre 
servative fluid which has been used with very satisfactory results here 
tofore. Trouble has arisen from the use of too much soda in makini 
the acid dissolve; as already stated, with patience or heating, the wate 
alone will dissolve the acid, and soda need not be used at all. 

Boraeic acid, while an excellent preservative so far as the mere pre 
vention of decay or fermentation goes, is more liable than the salicylic t 
soften the skin and alter the colors of fruit, acting in that respect, ii 
some cases, like alkaline solutions. It is, therefore, not well adapted t 
long conservation of samples in their natural aspect, but will do well fo 
a few weeks with most fruits. Use the solution as strong as water wil 
make it, which is about five ounces per gallon. 

Sulphurous acid, the same substance of which the use is so mud 
abused in fruit drying and in the treatment of wines, can also b 
employed in solution for the preservation of fruits. This solution ma; 
be made directly from the gas of burning sulphur — by an operatioi 
sufficiently familiar to cellarmen, and described below. It is, howevei 
more convenient and just as good to use in combination with soda, viz 
the "bisulphite" of soda (not that of lime, used in bleaching saccha 
rine juices, as it will form deposits upon most fruits), heretofore sol 
under the fanciful name of "California Fruit Salt," and recommend© 
for use in canning fruit for human consumption. Those whose dige! 
tion is better than necessary, and who do not object to the sulphuron 
flavor of the fruit so preserved, may choose to use the preparation. 11 
merits as an antiseptic are unquestioned; its bleaching effects are equall 
so, and, as in sulphuring wines, the natural colors will suffer more c 
less from its use, as well as from that of the acid solution. Use five 1 
eight ounces per gallon. 

The following mode of preparing a preservative fluid with sulphuroi 
gas, obligingly communicated by Manager J. Q. Brown, has been ver 
successfully used at the rooms of the State Board of Trade at San Frai 
cisco: 

" Put thirty gallons of water into a forty-gallon barrel; float on top < 



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FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTS. 



129 



a tin pan, in which put a portion of 25 cents' worth of sulphur, 
ilphur on fire and cover tightly until the fire goes out; renew 
iir until the whole is consumed, opening the barrel for renewal 
veen doses." 

his mode of proceeding is somewhat wasteful of sulphur, and 
mproved upon by cellarman, yet it is so simple, and sulphur 
p, that it may well be recommended for use on the farm, 
itely the use of mercuric bichloride, or corrosive sublimate, for 
•Be has been brought prominently forward by Prof. P. Pichi, 
oratory for botany and vegetable pathology in the Royal Viti- 
jhool of Conegliano, Italy. In an article published in the April 
' the official journal of that school, Professor Pichi discusses 
ements for the preservation, especially of collections of grapes, 
he most difficult of all. He states, that after experimental 
11 the usual preservative solutions, such as alcohol of various 
and of watery solutions of salicylic, boracic, and other acids, 
of copper, he finally made trials with solutions of corrosive 
ranging from 1 to 4 pro mille in strength. After" two months 
ill in perfect preservation, both as to color, form, and size, and 
i remained firmly attached to their stems. After five months, 
n the 1 pro mille solution was in a decidedly unsatisfactory 
and after the first year, unfit for study; while those in the 
ilution were in good condition, but the fluids were of a slightly 
lge, particularly in the 2 pro mille solution. After four or five 
>re, this difference against the weaker solutions was still more 
d, and it was evident that 3 pro mille is the least strength com- 
th good conservation. A second series of experiments con- 
i, and pointed to a solution of 4 pro mille as probably the best, 
ionclusions are stated as follows: 

ill that I have reported I believe that I am able to conclude 
i bunches can be best preserved for collections by keeping 
ersed in a solution of corrosive sublimate, taking care to wash 
mghly beforehand with water. At first we will use a solution 
ille, and after some time we replace this with a solution at 4 
About the end of the second year we will renew the solution, 
.11 thus have assured their preservation for a number of years, 
»ut a trifling expense." 

lor finally calls attention to the poisonous nature of the pre- 
id, which is, however, the same as in pathological laboratories 
infection of hands and instruments after use in anatomical 

ngth above referred to as the best is equal to half an ounce of 
iblimate to a gallon of water. Nothing is said by Professor 
•ding the addition of glycerine or anything else to correct the 
the solution; and it is possible that the hardening of the 
s, caused by the action of the sublimate, renders such addi- 
essary. 

is would certainly be both the most perfect and the cheapest 
satisfactory preservation thus far found, the possibility of 

mistakes for such specimens of ordinary " put-up " fruit alone 
Its merits, with respect to other fruits than grapes, are now 

. at this station, and will be fully tested during the coming 

all available fruits. 
9* 



130 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



The solution should properly be made with distilled water. Whei 
this iB not available, other water may be used — preferably that from tb 
larger streams; but (particularly in the case of well water) it sliouli 
first be boiled and allowed to clear by settling, before dissolving th 
sublimate. Even then a whitish or grayish turbidity and sediment wil 
usually form after awhile; this should be allowed to settle fully befor 
putting the fluid over the fruit. It would be well to label all such frui 
jars " poison," for the sake of safety. No metal must come in contac 
with the sublimate solution, as it would be quickly decomposed. 

[Experience had since the publication of the above article suggest 
the following points: 

The solution of corrosive sublimate, prepared as above prescribed, an< 
with the proper addition of glycerine to prevent shrinking or burstin 
of the fruit, insures a very perfect preservation of the form and size ( 
the fruit. The color is not extracted, but is marred materially by 
deposit of a whitish powder (calomel) on the surface of the berrie 
giving a ghastly appearance. This deposit is not mentioned by Pr< 
fessor Pichi, perhaps because it is really of little consequence in tfc 
preservation of specimens for instruction; but few would desire to ej 
hibit their fruit in such unattractive exterior guise. In the case of th 
solution, the exclusion of air appears to make no difference, so long s 
evaporation is prevented. 

The use of the solution of sulphurous gas, with a proper addition i 
glycerine, and with exclusion of air (to prevent the escape of the su 
phurous gas), therefore in glass-stoppered or otherwise well sealed jar 
is the next best preservative so far as form is concerned, but it bleach* 
all colors very sensibly in the course of a few months, and while tt 
fruit is not thus made to look as ghastly as in the case of the mercuri: 
solution, white cherries, plums, and strawberries, and oranges of a ligl 
lemon yellow, are not very natural-looking; yet, if the fruit has not I 
be kept very long, this solution supplies an easy mode of preserving 
intact, if not with its full color. 

The solution of salicylic acid, or salicylate of soda prepared as aboi 
indicated, and kept from access of air by tight sealing, acts very we 
and does not bleach the colors; but in the case of deeply colored fruit 
such as cherries and blackberries, the color is extracted and impart* 
to the fluid in the ratio of its bulk to that of the fruit. There is thu 
at least, an indication left of the intensity and tint of the original colo 
which in the use of the sulphurous solution is lost entirely, and in th 
of the mercurial one veiled by the film of calomel. 

Experience also suggests that inasmuch as all fruits, when they a 
to be preserved for exhibition, are gathered before full maturity in ord 
that they may not be too soft for handling and transportation, ther 
fore the full amount of sugar given by the analyses quoted in the abo 
table is not yet present as it was determined in fully ripe fruit. Henc 
in some cases, the full amount of glycerine prescribed caused contra 
tion, from which the fruit (especially cherries) did not recover full 
It would seem advisable to reduce the above figures to two thirds 
even to one half, according to the stage of ripeness at which the frr 
has been gathered. 



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FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PR0DUCT8. 



131 



nents with the bisulphite of soda ("California Fruit Salt") are 
s and may yield more satisfactory results than the free sul- 
cid of the solution prepared as above. The use of this salt 
re the advantage that the strength of the solution could be 
■ gauged by the weight of the salt used to each gallon of 



THE SULPHURING OF DRIED FRUITS. 

By E. W. Hiloabd. 
(Experiment Station Bulletin No. 86.) 

ter's views on the above subject have been so often expressed 
stings of fruit growers, and in print before the general public, 
ght seem uncalled-for to reiterate their formal expression in 
Yet the frequent requests, both written and verbal, for such 
is seem to render it the briefest mode of disposing of the sub- 
more, as the only radical solution of the question lies in its 
re and more fully understood by consumers (to whom these 
are equally addressed) who now sacrifice good flavor and 
less to mere appearance. 

phuring of dried fruit has two chief objects. One, and that 
rally kept in view, is the brightening of color, which always 
>articularly in sliced fruit, in whatever way it may be dried, 
e of color being due to the action of the air (oxygen) upon 
sily changeable substances contained in all fruits. This dark- 
>stly to a light brown) is a practically inevitable result of 
y fruit in contact with air, whether in sunshine or by artificial 
should be looked for by every consumer as the natural mark 
sst, unmanipulated article. 

ond object sought to be attained by sulphuring is to render 
lecure from the attacks of insects, whether by rendering its 
tpalatable before the eggs are laid, or by killing eggs laid dur- 
rying, that might subsequently hatch in the packages. The 
set involves, of course, the sulphuring of the dried fruit; while 
r is, to a greater or less extent, attained by sulphuring before 

sets of sulphurous acid (the gas, not the visible fumes given 
jurning Bulphur) as a disinfectant and bleaching agent, are 
understood. The gas is absorbed by the moisture of the fruit, 
mt dependent upon the time of exposure, its fresh or dried 
, and the amount of Bulphur used. When freshly sliced fruit 
red for a short time, the gas penetrates only " skin-deep;" and 
fruit is afterward dried, whether in the sun or drier, most of 
capes and few persons would note the difference in taste pro- 
reby. Insects, nevertheless, are to a material extent deterred 
hing such fruit. 

en the latter is dried and then thoroughly sulphured, as is too 
y done, the effect is much more serious. The gas then pene- 
! entire spongy mass, bleaching it, so that carelessly dried fruit, 
to be marketable, can thus be made to appear more or less 
to the eye. Not, however, to the nostrils or to the taste, for 
color the flavor has also suffered correspondingly; and upon 



132 



UNIVERSITY OK CALIFORNIA. 



opening a package of such fruit, instead of the natural aroma, ther 
appears the flavor familiar to those who visit a chemical laboratorj 
or acid manufactory. 

The consumer then has reason to object to dry-sulphured fruit 01 
two counts, either of which is sufficient to condemn the practice. On 
is that dirty, ill-prepared, or damaged fruit may thus be imposed upoi 
him for good quality; the other, that the natural flavor of the fruit i 
either seriously impaired or sometimes almost completely destroyed, ani 
(as will be shown) its acidity greatly increased. 

There is another and very serious count in the indictment, namely 
that such fruit is unhealthy because containing an antiseptic tha 
impedes digestion, and, while the fruit is relatively fresh, causes head 
aches, just as will sulphured wine. After some time the "sulphurous 1 
acid originally introduced becomes converted into "sulphuric" acid,: 
condiment that few will desire to consume in their daily food. Tb 
precise extent to which this may be present is shown in the subjoine* 
analyses, respectively of apricots sulphured before, and of "silve 
prunes " Bulphured after drying, as found in the market: 





Total Acidity* 
Per Cent 


Sulphuric Acid (80, 
Per Cent 


Non-sulphured apricots 




.067 (combined 
.232 (mostly free 
.056 (combined 
.346 (mostly free 


Sulphured apricots 




Non-sulphured prunes 

Sulphured prunes 


.321 
.644 





In considering the above results, it should be understood that th 
sulphuric acid, given as contained in the unsulphured fruit, is presen 
in the form of " neutral salts," such as occur in the ash of all vegetabl 
products; while that which is added in sulphuring exists in the form o 
free acid. 

It will be seen that in the case of the apricots the increase was t 
the extent of about twice and a half the amount originally present 
although these were reported to have been sulphured only before (mor 
probably during) drying. Their lack of natural flavor and pungen 
acid taste at once revealed the effects of sulphuring. 

In the prunes which had been sulphured after drying, the effect wai 
much more striking. Here the increase was over six times the nature, 
contents. The total amount added by sulphuring amounted to nearl] 
a third of 1 per cent, and the free sulphuric acid in the dried frui 
amounts to .22 per cent, which is equivalent to about twenty-five grain 
of commercial oil of vitriol per pound. 

In addition to rendering the fruit unpalatably acid, it has been ren 
dered obnoxious both to the digestive organs and to the teeth. No on< 
could habitually consume such fruit without feeling the effects of sucl 
an amount of mineral acid, introduced into his food purely for the grati 
fication of the eye with an unnatural tint. 

But so long as the public and its agents, the dealers, continue wilUnj 
to pay from 30 to 50 per cent more for the whitened sepulchres offeret 
them in the shape of sulphured fruit, than for that which retains, witl 
its natural flavor and sweetness, the natural tint of dried fruit, and witl 
it the marks of careful or careless treatment, so long will the produce 

• Expressed in terms of sulphuric acid. 

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133 



to supply the demand for the doctored article; unless, indeed, 
hould intervene, as has been done in most European countries, 
s sale of sulphured fruit is simply forbidden as injurious to 
alth, and as coming under suspicion of having been "doctored 
an inferior article, with fraudulent intent, 
therefore, it is asked what I "think is the proper policy to be 
n this respect, by a region which this year will, for the first 
ie into the dried-fruit market, I reply that I think that the time 
to make a step forward and try to put upon the market a first 
lie of " unsulphured dried fruit," with the express statement 
l that it is unsulphured and retains the natural sweetness and 
California fruit, instead of being reduced to a common level 
arorst products of any other country. For it is certain that the 
reen dried apples and pears now sold at high prices in our 
ores, might just as well have been grown anywhere from Nor- 
te Mediterranean, for aught they teach of the quality of our 

lowing suggestions are offered to those who are willing to proc- 
uring to a moderate degree only, and with some regard to the 
ion of the fruits' palatableness: 

uantities of sulphur introduced at once into the drier or sul- 
ox will tend to cause a deposit of sulphur, in substance, on the 

the fruit, adding its flavor to that of the acid, which alone is 
be less sulphur is put in at one time, and the more air admitted, 
lere will be of the visible fumes that carry the sulphur up into 

It is best to let the sulphur catch fire all over before putting 
i box at all. 

itever sulphuring you must do be done before drying, as in that 
nly will the drying process itself drive off a great deal of the 
s acid and prevent it from penetrating the whole, but the flavor 
jrior will penetrate outward and measurably do away with the 
' odor that will otherwise pervade the fruit package, 
sightly and appetizing cinnamon-brown tint for sliced apples 

may be secured by dipping, for a few minutes, the freshly- 
ts, contained in a properly shaped basket (of galvanized wire 
), into a solution of salt containing not less than two ounces 
Ions of water. This prevents any spotting where the fruit has 
led. Instead of the salt, a similar solution of the bisulphites 

lime may be used, which effect a slight external bleaching 
jury to the flavor of the fruit. 

it not least, let us try to gradually educate the public taste up 
it of preferring in this matter the substance to the shadow, and 
healthy, brown, high-flavored dried fruit to the sickly-tinted, 
tainted product of the sulphur box. 



134 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



VI. FERTILIZERS, ETC. 



THE USE OF FERTILIZERS IN CALIFORNIA. 

By E. W. Hiloard. 
(Experiment Station Bulletin No. 88; October 6, 1890.) 

The fortieth anniversary of the admission of California into the Unio 
reminds us that she has ceased to be a stripling. With this advance i 
dignity comes the inference that however fertile her soils, it is to I 
expected that those long occupied, or heavily cropped, will now requii 
serious care in order to keep up or restore production. That this 
really so is proved by the rapidly increasing correspondence on the sul 
ject that is addressed to this Station; and to avoid the unnecessai 
rehearsal of general statements in each individual case, it seems desir: 
ble to put in print for general information what can be stated in a gei 
eral way on this subject. Of course, many individual cases will sti 
require special consideration on account of" peculiar conditions of sc 
or location; for in a great many instances, the failure to produce sati 
factory crops is not at all due to soil-exhaustion, but to improper phy 
ical conditions of the subsoil, unsuitable cultivation or irrigation, alka 
etc. The fact that orchards and vineyards form costly investments 
much greater permanence than the annual cropB that occupy the va 
majority of the cultivated land east of the Rocky Mountains, and tl 
high returns so often realized from them, has brought the manure que 
tion forward here much earlier than has usually been the case in tl 
United States; and happily, the silly adage that "manuring is t 
costly, and will never pay," which has long kept agriculture on tl 
down grade elsewhere, has never had a serious foothold in Californi 
The sovereign truth that nothing pays worse than poor crops upc 
large areas of which the cultivation costs just as much as if it we 
yielding high returns, is quite generally appreciated here. Cultivatii 
too much land poorly, and getting poor returns both as to quantity ai 
quality, has been the bane of farmers all over the East, ami has doul 
less done at least as much toward "agricultural depression" as all oth 
causes combined. 

But whether fertilization will pay or not clearly depends direct 
upon the particular requirements of each soil. Unlike Europe, whe 
long cropping has reduced all soils alike to a condition when th 
require an " all around " fertilizer, the soils of California have most 
had a onesided wear from the constant succession of one and the sai 
crop. In orchards and vineyards this state of things is unavoid:i'> 
since they are expected to last twenty to forty years without renew 
or possibility of rotation of crops. It is this one-sided wear, insepai 
ble from the chief horticultural industries of the State, that requii 
special attention at this time; for it is clear that to apply "complet 
fertilizers in these cases, would be to pay out a portion of their c< 
uselessly, since nothing can be gained by adding to the soil more of t 
ingredients that are already abundantly present in available form. 



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er to fertilize intelligently we must know, first of all, what 
ts are chiefly drawn upon by the crop sold off the land; secondly, 
know which of these ingredients are so abundantly present in 
or irrigation water, as the case may be) to render their replace- 
lecessary for the present at least. 

bjoined table gives some insight into the amounts removed by 
y some of the chief fruit crops, of nitrogen, potash, phosphoric 

lime; these being, according to all experience, the only ones 
the replacement need ordinarily be considered in fertilization, 
ounts are expressed both with reference to one thousand pounds 
ruit, and to what, according to our best information, may be 
to be a " fair crop " per acre. The latter figure is, of course, 
rreat variations and differences of opinion; but, by the aid of 
ithmetic, each one can calculate for himself the data suitable 
a case or views. The crop assumed in the case of oranges is 
i per acre of fifteen-year-old trees; that of grapes is intended to 

a mean between upland and lowlands. 



Quantities of Soil Ingredient* Withdrawn by Various Fruit Crops.* 



FfLESH Fruit. 


Ash- 
Pounds. 


Potash- 
Pounds. 


Phosphoric 
Acid- 
Pounds. 


Nitrogen— 
Pounds. 


5,000 pounds per acre 


8.8 


6.00 


1.52 


1.70 


88.0 


60.00 


16.20 


17.00 


000 pounds 


6.1 


2.78 


.67 


2.69 


,000 pounds per acre 


122.0 


66.60 


13.40 


58.80 


,000 pounds per acre 


3.3 


1.80 


.60 


.60 


66.0 


36.00 


10.00 


12.00 


,000 pounds per acre 


2.9 


1.72 


.44 


4.20 


87.0 


61.60 


18.20 


167.70 


,000 pounds per acre 


2.2 


.80 


.30 


.60 


44.0 


16.00 


6.00 


12.00 



be seen that for equal weights of these fruits, grapes take from 
»y far the largest amount of mineral matter, of which nearly 
is is potash; they also carry off the largest amount of phosphoric 
r seedless grapes the latter item would, however, be considerably 



i the drain of total mineral matter from the soil stands the 
; also draws heavily on the potash, and also upon the nitrogen 
I, but less than the grape upon phosphoric acid; this independ- 
he seeds, the analysis having been referred to seedless fruit; 
ing (seedling) fruit would presumably draw more heavily both 
boric acid and nitrogen. f 

»me next as regards total mineral matter, but draw quite 
i nitrogen. 

(including prunes) are conspicuous chiefly for their heavy 
>n the nitrogen of the soil, greatly exceeding in that respect the 
r equal weights, and enormously for an (assumed) average crop, 
fference between apples and pears in respect to soil-exhaustion 

Jyses of ashes here given are mostly those of European chemists, generally 
representing averages. California-grown fruits will be investigated at this 
coming season for this purpose. 

alyses of California oranges seem to show no material difference between seed- 
1 seedless fruit. 



136 



UNIVERSITY OP CALIFORNIA. 



for an equal weight of fruit is quite striking, the amount of potash in 
apples being less than half, the phosphoric acid only a trifle over hall 
as much as in the pear; while nitrogen is equal in both, and quite km 
as compared with the orange, which has over four times as much, and 
must therefore be accounted relatively much more nourishing to man 
as well as more exhausting to the soil. 

While the data given above, in relation to the " outgo " of soil ingredi 
ents, through the harvesting of the several fruits, may be considered &i 
holding good, practically, in all countries and on all soils, the vast differ 
ences in the nature and composition of different soils introduce an element 
of uncertainty as to the need of returning to every soil the full amount 
of the outgoing ingredients. Few soils are about evenly constituted 
with respect to the four important plant-food substances. There is, ir 
most cases, one or several of these present in superabundance, so tha 
to replace the small amount carried off by the crop would be as uselea 
as " carrying coals to Newcastle;" at least for the present. The analysi 
of soils and irrigation waters is necessary to gain information on tha 
points. 

As regards waters, the information so obtained is positive and unim 
peach able. Whatever is dissolved in the irrigation water is absolutel; 
available to vegetation, and the amount annually so conveyed to th 
soil is capable of close calculation on the basis of the current practic 
of each irrigation district. If the amount of any substance so given t 
the soil approximates to, or exceeds the amount withdrawn by crops, i 
is quite certain that no money need be expended in the purchase of tha 
particular substance as a fertilizer. 

As regards soils, the indications given by chemical analysis are no 
so definite, because the acids used in the laboratory are more powerfb 
than those at the command of the roots of plants; although some of th 
latter (e. g., oxalic acid, that of sorrel, rhubarb, etc.) approximate closel 
to the same solvent power. Here experience must be our main guid< 
and this has shown that, practically, soils containing (by the results c 
analysis) more than a certain percentage of a given substance, may b 
considered as abundantly supplied with the same; while if the percent 
age so indicated falls below a certain other point, such ingredient ma; 
be considered as being deficient. The crucial test in either case is th 
experimental use of that substance as a fertilizer on the soil in question 
when it fails to produce a definite, favorable result, it may be consider© 
that the native supply is sufficient, and vice versa. 

It is obvious that in order to secure to the farmer this saving of th 
purchase of superfluous fertilizing ingredients, a comprehensive systen 
of investigation of soils and waterB is necessary. This has been froE 
the outset the central thread of the work of this Station; the objec 
being to obtain, as quickly as possible, the facts necessary for the com 
pilation of a soil map of the State. For want of funds for field worl 
and too limited a force for laboratory work, this fundamental plan ha 
been carried out only to a limited extent, and chiefly in certain region 
where considerable interest in agricultural improvement was manifested 
We are not, therefore, as yet prepared to give information as to th 
entire State; and unless some special provision is made it will be Ion 
before this can be the case. But, so far as the work has gone, the follow 
ing points may be considered as practically settled: 

1. From climatic, as well as geological causes, nearly all the soils c 



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may be considered as abundantly supplied with lime. The 
options occur in the higher portions of the foothills, where the 
i high, and summer rains occur. In all the valley soils lime 
nt; and liming is, therefore, not among the means of improve- 
illy to be thought of in California. This applies to the use of 

and ground limestones; not necessarily to the use of marls, 
tally contain other ingredients besides lime, to render their use 
where it can be done with little cost. 

jst the same that is stated above of lime may be said of potash. 
majority of soils in this State, more especially all valley soils, 
utely all soils in which there is the least manifestation of alkali, 
a abundance of available potash for all agricultural purposes; 
10 that dissolved potash salts frequently circulate in the soil 
lost irrigation waters furnish an additional supply, sometimes 
' itself to make up for all that the crops take away. Outside 
ny belts of the Sierra and of the northwest coast, therefore, 
on of potash in fertilization must, in general, be considered in 
>f " carrying coals to Newcastle " — superfluous and unprofitable 
sent time; and farmers should object to paying for the potash 
rcial fertilizers (put there under the Eastern idea of making 
lete" fertilizer), because the investment will pay them no 
They should demand for their money the ingredients that 
hem for their use in this State, regardless of what may pay 

' cases in which at present the use of potash will pay are those 
! culture in vegetable gardens and berry patches, where crops 
continuously and successively throughout the season. Here 
ht upon the soil ingredients is so heavy that within a few years 
e current replacement. 

hosphoric acid, an ingredient so important that even in Europe 
nning to be claimed as the practical measure of fertility, 
has shown an almost universal scarcity in the soils of this 
rays excepting the alkali soils, in which it, or its compounds, 
t circulate in proportionally large amounts. Phosphoric acid 
the substances to be first suspected of exhaustion in the non- 
oils of California; it is therefore an ingredient that should be 
t in all compound commercial fertilizers, and which will be 
' pay " in most cases of decreasing production. 
> the fourth of the critical soil and plant ingredients, nitrogen, 
iry measure in soils is the vegetable mould or humus, the 
)f which is generally manifested, and outside of " red " soils is 
isured, by the more or less blackish tint when wetted. From 
auses, humus is rarely abundant in the upland soils of the 
I very generally its amounts may be said to be small. This is 
true of the mesa soils of the South — those best adapted to the 
the citrus fruits — and hence it is reasonable to suppose that 
nitrogen will be among the first things to be apprehended when 
shrinks in size and production falls, on these soils, 
ere stable manure is the ordinary source of this as well as of 
substances when required only in moderate amounts; but for 
sons stable manure is less available in the dry climate of Cali- 
in elsewhere. It is produced only in small quantity in horti- 
:ommunities; and when put in the soil it is long in decaying 



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138 



UNIVER8ITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



and becoming effective. It should for our climates be systematically 
" cured " in the manure-pile before being used — a point of vantage whicr 
explains, in part, the good effect of sheep corral manure. 

By far the most convenient, and at present certainly the cheapest anc 
most available source of nitrogen at command of the farmer, is Chit* 
saltpeter, which contains about 16 per cent of nitrogen in its mos 
effective form. From one hundred and fifty to two hundred pounds pe: 
acre is the usual dose; more than this will not be used by the croi 
plants in one season, and a surplus is likely to be washed out of the soi 
by the winter rains. Moreover, an excessive application might resul 
in too much wood and too little fruit, and that fruit of a sappy, flavor 
less character, though of large size. 

Sulphate of ammonia is the other most available source of nitrogei 
obtainable in commerce. A good commercial article contains 20 pe: 
cent and over of nitrogen. It does not, however, act quite as rapidh, 
as the Chile saltpeter. 

To the citrus growers, then, who at present seem to be most concernet 
about the fertilizer question, I would say that, well-cured stable an( 
sheep corral manure apart, their best resort at present is to the commer 
cial phosphates and superphosphates of high and honest grade, mixed 
either by themselves or by the manufacturer, with a proper proportioi 
of Chile saltpeter or ammonia sulphate, and generally no potash what 
ever. 

In order to cover approximately the ground of the questions mos 
commonly propounded in our correspondence on the subject of fertil 
izers, the following points are briefly stated: 

This Station has no direct or definite knowledge of the quality o 
"trueness to name" of any of the commercial fertilizers now sold ii 
this State. Analyses of mere samples sent by the manufacturers o 
others prove little or nothing, so long as no regular " fertilizer control : 
is established by State authority. That this should be done as soon a 
possible, in the interest of both the users and honest manufacturers c 
fertilizers, is manifest; and nearly all the older States have found thi 
regulation of the fertilizer trade necessary long ago. At present thi 
Station declines to analyze, and certify to the composition of fertilize 
samples, except in cases of suspected fraud, for the reason that sucl 
samples prove nothing as to the general quality of the material put oi 
the market, and their analyses have been used in advertising as thougl 
offering a kind of guarantee or recommendation on the part of th 
Director. The latter disclaims pointedly any such responsibility, an 
does not authorize the use of his name in connection with any fertilize 
advertised. He has, however, no reason to question the bona fide chai 
acter of the several fertilizers manufactured in this State. That in ind 
vidual cases disappointment must often occur, is natural from the caus< 
stated above, and proves nothing against the honest composition of tt 
goods. In this, as in other cases, the right thing may be put in tr 
wrong place. The useless addition of considerable potash is the obje 
tion lying against several of the brands in the market. 

Farmers should be willing to pay a good price for a high-grade ferti 
izer, especially in the case of superphosphates. The only consequem 
of insisting on too low a price is that the manufacturer, in self-defene 
adds to the active matters, enough of some cheap, inert material to 1 
able to afford the lower rate; the result being that the farmer pa; 



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139 



d say the least, on " dirt," which he might as well put in on 
if so inclined. " Spent refinery charcoal " in coarse grain is 
unprofitable an investment as a farmer can well make. He 
! willing to pay enough to justify the manufacturer in reduc- 
grain of it to the soluble form by the use of enough sulphuric 
is not advisable for any one to attempt to do this at home, 
ird to the use of bones, it may be said that any one may, with 
uble, use all the bones accumulating about a homestead in 
three ways: 

es put into a well kept (moistened) manure-pile will themselves 
' decay and disappear, enriching the manure to that extent. 
' bones may be bodily buried in the soil around the trees; if 
a sufficient depth, beyond the reach of the summer's heat and 
the rootlets will cluster around each piece, and in the course of 
trs consume it entirely. But it will not do to have these root- 
troken up by cultivation every season. 

es may be packed in moist wood ashes, best mixed with a 
cklime, the mass kept moist but never dripping. In a few 
he hardest bones will be reduced to a fine mush, which is as 
as superphosphate. "Concentrated lye" and soil may be used 
f ashes. In this process the nitrogen of the bones is lost, going 
form of ammonia, the odor of which is very perceptible in the 
I. 

ither of these processes should the bones be burnt. The burn- 
mes is an unqualified detriment to their effectiveness, which 
be undone by the use of sulphuric acid. 

es steamed for three or four hours in a boiler under a pressure 
five to forty pounds can, after drying, be readily crushed in an 
barley-crushing mill, and thus be rendered more convenient 
Practically, very little of the nitrogen (glue) of the bones need 
>st. Very good bone-meal is found in the market at reasonable 

brmation concerning the value and proper use of land plaster 
n (also one of the inquiries continually made), I refer to pages 
145 of the "Report on the Experiment Stations," lately issued, 
11 be mailed free to any one desiring it. It may here simply be 
at while gypsum is not a general fertilizer like the phosphates 
ites, for the simple reason that it does not contain, and there- 
lot supply, the plant-food substances of which the withdrawal 
causes sterility: yet its uses, especially in the irrigated regions 
lkali soil, are so many and so important that it should be" very 
sed so soon as a reasonably cheap supply can be obtained. 



140 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 

ANALYSES OF FERTILIZERS. 

Fish guano; sample sent by Messrs. Allen & Lewis, San Francisco; 
manufactured by the Alaska Oil and Fertilizer Company, Killisnoo, 
Alaska. 

The air-dried substance was found, on analysis, to contain: 



Moisture 12.9J 

Nitrogen, as ammonia (ready formed) .. .62 

Organic 10.83 



Total , U.4I 

Calculated as ammonia 13.91 

Potash V. 

Phosphoric acid, insoluble 80 

Soluble 1.91 

Reverted 3.2H 



Total r 6.0 

Phosphoric acid available (reverted and soluble) 5.2 



The nitrogen in the above, while in fair amount, is mostly in th< 
form of organic matter, which needs to undergo decomposition befori 
being available for plant use. 

The comparatively large percentage of available phosphoric acid add 
value to the guano as a fertilizer, while, on the other hand, the preseno 
of a larger amount of potash will not be needed upon the lands of thi 
State, which already are well supplied. Altogether, this sample com 
pares very favorably with the fish-scrap fertilizers usually put upon th 
market elsewhere in the country. 

Dry " hog tankage" fertilizer; sent by Messrs. Frost & Burgess, River 
side, with request for opinion as to its fitness as a fertilizer for nurser 
stock. The analysis shows that the sample contains 7.54 per cent o 
nitrogen, equal to 9.15 per cent of ammonia. The proportion of othe 
ingredients was not determined. This is evidently a bona fide article 
and will be of high efficacy as a furnisher of nitrogen in place of Chil 
saltpeter or ammonia sulphate. 

Sulphur refuge, from the sulphur works near Shell Mound Statior 
Alameda County; sent by the Messrs. Sherwood, San Francisco. 

" This refuse is from the reduction of sulphur ores, and is compose 
of sand, loam, lava, ashes, etc. Will it make a good fertilizer? " 

An analysis of the sample shows the presence of the following: 



Insoluble matter 

Potash ' 

Soda •! 

Lime'. ' 

Magnesia. - •' 

Peroxide of iron and alumina LI 

Phosphoric acid - 1 

Sulphuric acid - 2.! 

Sulphur 37.' 

Organic matter and water 12.: 

Total 1(KM 



The amounts of the important elements of plant-food (potash an 
phosphoric acid) present in the sample are no more than Are found i 
ordinary soils; there is very little lime or magnesia; while on the othe 
hand, the enormous amount of sulphur and sulphuric acid would be 
positive injury to any soil. 



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, from Sophia Island; sent by Messrs. Crawford & Co., San 
o; the analysis to be compared with those of other samples of 
! made by other chemists. 

made at the University of California Experiment Station. 

made by Messrs. Thomas Price & Son, San Francisco. 

made by Mr. J. A. Pond, public assayer at Auckland, New 



resume that the sample of the article we now send you com- 
orably with the sample that the above named parties assayed." 
r-dried substance contains: 



i ammonia (ready formed) . 

i nitrates 

rganic 



rogen found 

.lculated as ammonia 



acid, soluble.. . 
acid, reverted . 



liable 

acid, insoluble 

>horic acid, available and insoluble 

tie matter (organic and carbonic acid, etc.) 
itter (not included above) 



No. 1. 



.08 
.48 



1.22 



.27 
4.28 

4.66 
26.61 



9.87 



1.50 
.08 



30.06 
26.40 



No. 2. 



6.90 



2.80 



24.61 
24.61 
32.26 
34.41 



No. 3. 



6.86 



31.26 
62.44 



ove analysis, made only with a view of showing what are the 
murial ingredients of this guano, shows quite material differ- 
jomposition, and therefore in value, from the samples of which 
have been made by Messrs. Pond and Price. We find con- 
more phosphoric acid and less nitrogen and organic matter 
Price; while in phosphoric acid we agree nearly with Pond, 
ng the large proportions of insoluble phosphoric acid present, 
>f some sulphuric acid is advisable, to give it better value, 
it will do much good even as it is. Its particular adaptation 
s for the orange-growing districts of South California, where 
i is needed, but chiefly phosphoric acid and a moderate amount 



en. 



THE FERTILIZING VALUE OF GREASEWOOD. 



By E. W. Hiloabd. 

(University Experiment Station Bulletin No. 94.) 

itity of the dry brush of the greasewood plant (Sarcobatus ver- 
t) was furnished by Geo. W. Raymond, of Miramonte, Kern 
she object being to determine whether or not it would pay to 
>lant, or its ash, as a return to the soil, or in making composts 
il purposes of fertilization. 

ble below shows the result as obtained by Mr. Jaffa, alongside 
h analyses of some other well known plants, for comparison. 



142 UNIVERSITY OP CALIFORNIA. 



Table Showing Ash Composition of Greasewood Compared with Other Plants. 





Grease- 
wood. 




Seaweed. 


Cabbage. 


Timoth 
H»y. 


Samphire. 


Fueus 
vesiculosa b. 


Laminarla 
digltata. 


Silica 


11.81 

18.53 

QQ AK 
OO.W 

1.86 
1.09 

7 ntt 
i.yJo 

8.51 

4.93 

15.30 




1 i 
14.5 

OA A 

13.9 

Q fi 
V.O 

1.1 

3.1 
24.0 
10.1 


i ft 

22.4 

11.9 

.6 
2.6 
13.3 
17.2 


1.2 
48.6 

Q Q 

15 3 

3.3 


3. 
2 

f 

. 


Potash 

8oda 

Magnesia 

PprmriHft ftf iron nnrf 

alumina 


2.6 
86.4 


Phosphoric acid .... 

Sulphuric acid 

Chlorine 




15 8 
H.b 
2.5 


1 


Less excess of oxygen 
due to chlorine 




103.04 
3.25 






















Total 












99.97 
12.03 












Ash percentage of plant. 




14.4 


18.6 


10.8 





It will be noted that of all the plants here shown, among which a 
three (samphire, or "salt grass," and the two seaweeds) presumed 
contain unusually large percentages of soda, the greasewood shows t 
largest amount of sodium salts, nearly 40 per cent of the ash being soc 
out of which over 25 per cent of common salt and nearly 8 per ce 
of Glauber's salt are formed. There remains out of the total amou 
shown in the analysis 23 per cent that will go toward forming carbons 
of soda, if returned to the soil, increasing its weight to about 39. Tl 
means that out of one hundred pounds of greasewood ash, seventy-t 
pounds would be " alkali " of the usual composition of " black alkal 
which would, at the very least, be of no use to any soil; while to the 
already charged with alkali it would be decidedly detrimental, as addi 
so much to the evil already existing. 

It is true that there are 18 per cent of potash and Si per cent 
phosphoric acid to be placed to the credit of the ash, as available a 
valuable plant-food. But as potash is usually abundant already in t 
soils upon which the greasewood grows, this would hardly outweigh t 
disadvantage of the alkali in the same soils. Practically the 31 1 
cent of phosphoric acid alone is to be written to the credit of the grea 
wood ash where it would usually be convenient to apply it, against 1 
disadvantage of a returning of three fourths of the whole ash in t 
useless or detrimental form of " alkali." 

The question still remains, how much of the other important fertil 
ing element, nitrogen, would be supplied by the fresh plant. This 1 
not as yet been determined; when it is, it may turn out that on w< 
drained soils not too rich in alkali the use of fresh or dried (but not 
burnt) greasewood brush would be advantageous. 

On the other hand, it may be asked whether in clearing greasewc 
land it would be an advantage to remove the brush, so as to dimini 
the alkali, as is done when beets are planted in saline soils. 

The fresh plant, including stem and leaves, may be estimated to « 
tain about 75 per cent of water. A ton of the fresh brush would tl 
contain five hundred pounds of dry matter, of which sixty poun 



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143 



: ash; and of this ash about forty-five pounds would be tr.ue, 
alkali." 

1, the ground were so thickly overgrown with the greasewood 
lish about ten tons of brash per acre, to remove that brush 
equivalent to taking away something like a quarter of a ton 
This is not an insignificant amount in soils liable to injury 
excess of salts; and if the process were repeated several times 
ewood would serve, like the beet, to remove a very notable 
n of the total alkali salts present in the soil, just as does the 
>f samphire in reclaiming salt-marsh lands. On the other hand, 
greasewood growth only scattering, its removal would serve no 
y important object. 

riaon with Other Crops. — Comparing greasewood with the other 
ies in the table, it will be seen that while it does not agree 
ith any of these, it approaches the seaweeds more closely than 
hire in its contents of potash and phosphoric acid. Seaweed 
ised for preparing fertilizing composts in countries where sum- 
3 prevail, and usually on the sandy seashore soils, through 
; excess of saline matters (sodium salts) is readily washed into 
ainage, and consequently does not stay to increase the salts in 
,s would be the case in our arid climates. It will be noted that 
, supply considerable potash, much needed in rainy countries, 
a small proportion ot phosphoric acid, upon which the food 
e plants draw so heavily, as is seen in the annexed analyses ot 
of cabbage and timothy hay. Phosphatic fertilizers are, there- 
ful in connection with the use of seaweed (and greasewood) 
in order to supply the demands of the common culture plants. 



II. 

REPORTS 

ON 

EtE WORK AT THE EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 

Central Station; Alameda County. 

Foothill Station; Amador County. 

Southern Coast Range Station; San Luis Obispo County. 

San Joaquin Valley Station; Tulare County. 

South California Station; Los Angeles County. 



10* 



ON CULTURE WORK AT THE SEVERAL EXPERI- 
MENT STATIONS. 



DNTRAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Berkeley, Alameda County. 



iPORT ON FIELD WORK AT CENTRAL STATION. 

By Edward J. Wicraos. 

;ure work at the Central Station has been prosecuted under 
gent supervision of Captain E. Kellner, as foreman. His 
e resulted in more economical and efficient management and 

il outline of the work carried on during the year, including a 
special features to which fuller allusion is made in other por- 
ts report, may be sketched as follows: 

work consisted in the main of sowing the whole cereal collec- 
} continuation of the experiments with the Hessian fly, and 
pose of securing fresh seed of some varieties which had not 
«n reproduced. The plots adjoining the Economic Garden 
be western entrance to the station grounds occupied a rich 
id underdrained with tile the previous year, and thus rendered 
yt this purpose. The benefit derived from the tiling was very 

It rendered early sowing possible where, before draining, 
'as boggy until late in the spring, because of abundant seepage 
ijacent hillside. The wheat plots during the whole growing 
e notably fine in appearance and attracted much attention 
jrs. On the main field of the station grounds there were 
s of other cereals than wheat, and large plots of varieties 
desired for seed-distribution supplies for the coming winter. 
iy was produced on other portions of the main field to sustain 

team during the year. 

and Vineyard. — The old vineyard plot adjacent to the green- 
ich has been maintained several years longer than otherwise 
for the special purpose of observation and experimentation 
ihylloxera, was cleared out during the spring of 1890, and the 
secured was devoted to the extension of the olive plantation, 
made necessary because of the large accessions made to our 
ieties by direct importation from Italy and France, and by 
from other importers. These trees have made very satisfac- 
h. 

ular-shaped piece of ground adjoining the Economic Garden, 
h eucalyptus trees were cut several years ago, was cleared of 
enched deeply, and planted to resistant grape varieties, for 
•e was not sufficient space in the Economic Garden. This 
jyard has been neatly trellised with a strong post-and-wire 



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148 



UNIVER8ITY OF CALIFO 



trelliB, and offers excellent opportunity foi 
which moat of these varieties require for fru 
also for comparative experiments in long an 
varieties; also, to secure more wood for cul 
and for distribution. 

Our standard orchard of deciduous fruit tr 
the same manner as in previous years, and e: 
of many new varieties, both of local and d 
collection has been thus extended, extra spa 
up a portion of the later-ripening peach a 
which this location is not suited. 

The underdrainage of the orchards, to wh 
in previous reports, has continued to yield 
surplus water is quickly removed from port 
so boggy during the winter that cultivation < 
proper time. Since the drainage, the orchar 
its moisture conditions, and can be freely wc 

Garden and Nursery. — The Garden of Ecoi 
tinued upon its former plan, and through o 
of the grape collection and for purely bota 
has been secured for the extension of other 
The growth of many exotics in the garden 
interesting and attractive, and furnishes d 
other portions of this report. The same is 
with grasses and forage plants, reported uj 
the garden, by its command of popular int* 
the adaptation of plants from distant counti 
fully realizing the purposes had in view at il 

The needs of the Department of Botany ar 
by the establishment of a botanic garden 
station grounds. It has been laid off with su 
is being progressively planted under the 
Professor of Botany. 

The old nursery ground adjacent to the gr 
to meet the growing demand for propagation 1 
and for distribution, a new piece of land in 
main field was plowed, subsoiled, and laid ofl 
of the space was given to the multiplication 
grape varieties, mentioned elsewhere, to the 
fruit trees, and to other growths needed for di 
suited for the purpose, except in the lack of i 
secured later. 

Propagating Houses. — The re-painting and 
gating houses has extended their period of ue 
fact of their insufficiency for the present wor 
more clear. Not only is it impossible to ke< 
propagation under glass, but, as has been sta 
able plants are being continually sacrificed b 
gers the low, insecure roofs under which they 
needed proper greenhouse accommodations, 
palms, become interesting and valuable as tb 
at this point we are obliged to throw them < 
reason to expect that a remedy for this dep 



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CENTRAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



149 



rovided in the form of a plant house, for which provision has 
e from the General Fund. 

bouse has been constructed sixteen and one half by twenty and 
eet, with a height of eight feet eight inches. This is strongly 
edwood frame, with battens instead of lath, which gives the 
promise of long usefulness. 

opagation during the year has been chiefly in the line of 
plants for trial and distribution, as heretofore. With increased 
[ation we hope to do something more to interest the planter for 
rnment. 

ims. — The hillside arboretums on the eastern boundaries of 
rsity grounds have been given due attention, and the results 
satisfactory, considering the difficulties of the arid situation, 
a of the heavy winter of 1890 were obliterated by grading; 
were cleared and repaired, and the arboretums made more 
Additional plantings included English oaks and Monterey 
The oaks have done moderately well. 

etum on the west side of the grounds has been improved by 
;hinning out. 

md Walks. — The roads and walks throughout the station 
ave been improved by grading, the construction of culverts, 
aveling. They are now in better shape than formerly, and 
arrangements for drainage, which have been made, can be 
t in fair condition. 

». — The application of considerable quantities of manure is 
for the satisfactory growth of orchard trees and in gardening 
i. Supplies are now being secured from the village barnyards 
>st — the hauling being done by the station team. 



THE BOTANIC GARDEN. 

By Edward Lee Greene. 

anical garden has always and everywhere been recognized as 
portant adjunct to a thorough and efficient course of instruc- 
; knowledge of plant life in general. The Garden of Economic 
ig ago established at Berkeley by Professor Hilgard, is to be 

an excellent beginning in this direction, and is doing good 
[Ward the close of the current year a special apportionment 
from the College Aid Fund for the purpose has enabled us to 
tive steps in the direction of a more general botanical garden; 
proposed, first of all, to form a living collection or garden of 

trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants of the State of California; 
in at the same time, as rapidly as our limited facilities will 
ose of our neighboring States on the Pacific Coast. No region 
rid has a more interesting or varied native vegetation than 
; and scarcely more than a beginning has been made at the 
study of it as a whole. The moderate climate of Berkeley, 
om all extremes of heat and cold, humidity and drought, is 
rhich must prove adapted to the growing of the greatest variety 

in the open air, and without irrigation. During the few 
hich have elapsed since the movement became authorized, we 



150 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



have been procuring from collectors in several parts of the State su< 
seeds as they could obtain, and have received several valuable invoic 
of living plants and shrubs. Upwards of a hundred select specie 
chiefly from the southern counties, are already thriving on the sma 
plot of ground specially allotted; and, although the season for seed ar 
collecting in the various mountain districts is not yet past, we are 
possession of seed packets to the number of six hundred species ai 
more. It is therefore confidently expected that the next growing seas( 
will enable the Station to exhibit an interesting garden of native plan 
from many and divers localities within the State, arranged systematical! 
and inviting the studies of the systematist and economist alike. 

The prospective new plant house, to be constructed under the supe 
vision of Professor Hilgard, will furnish a welcome and most importa 
accessory to the work undertaken, as giving the means of growing t 
more curious and instructive of tropical plants, along with those 
economic value. 



OLIVE CULTURE AND OLIVE OIL. 

OBSERVATIONS ON OLIVE VARIETIES. 
By W. G. Kleb. 
{Experiment Station Bulletin No. 85.) 

[The increasing prominence of olive culture in this State gives imp 
tance to all light that can be thrown upon the subject; the more 
as the slow growth of the tree renders mistakes made in the selection 
varieties both costly and difficult of rectification. It is therefore t 
intention of the Station to subject both the growing trees and the fr 
and its products to the most thorough comparative observation a 
investigation as quickly as the material shall be obtainable. In t 
meantime the observations of Mr. Klee (recorded below) appear 
sufficient practical importance to justify their publication at this tir 

It is evident that, both with respect to the production of oil and tl 
of pickled olives, the proportion of kernel to meat is a matter of 
mean importance, when we see, as is shown below, that this proporti 
varies all the way from 8 to over 34 per cent. Some have the impr 
sion that the oil of the kernel, or pit, forms a considerable proporti 
of the product, but the investigation of this point, made by Mr. 
Paparelli, upon the common olive of central Italy, showed this prop 
tion to be as one to thirty, while in the Mission olive, noted for I 
rarity of sound kernels, the proportion was found, by Mr. Ad. Somrr 
of the University, to be as one to one hundred and sixty-two; hence, 
the oil-maker, as well as to the consumer of pickled fruit, the data gii 
will be of some interest. — E. W. Hiloard.] 

The following records and table show the growth of a number 
varieties of olives as the result of several years' observations, and i 
hoped will add to our knowledge of some of the numerous variel 
now cultivated in this State. This is, of course, only the beginning 
observations which will be continued for years to come. Nearly all 
varieties enumerated are now growing at the four different experim 
stations, viz.: Berkeley, Paso Robles, Jackson, and Tulare, and we si 
thus have a good opportunity to test their respective value in these f 



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OLIVE CULTURE. 



151 



t sections. Those at Berkeley were planted five years ago, while 
t the other stations were set out only a year ago (1889), and thus 
but few data of value. 

observations of the varieties growing on the grounds of the Cali- 
Nursery Company, Niles, and at Fancher Creek Nursery, Fresno, 
personally had the opportunity to make, through the courtesy of 
sspective managers, Mr. John Rock and G. C. Roeding, who, as 
Mr. Juan Gallegos, of Mission San Jose, kindly allowed me to 
lecimens for identification. 

le text following the table only a description of the fruit is given, 
tie foliage varies so much, as between old and young trees, as to 
t difficult of use as a distinctive mark. 

Series I," the varieties are arranged in accordance with the pro- 
i of the pit to the pulp, by bulk, as shown in the last column of 
tail table preceding their discussion. The measurement given 
nts, of course, the average of a greater or less number, made on 
I fruit. We can thus obtain a fair idea of the actual bulk of pulp 
led in a gallon of the fruit. This, it is true, is only one of the 
that determine the value of the olive. The actual yield of oil, 
e quality of the latter, remain to be determined hereafter, but 
le, as it is, will serve for purposes of investigation, and is cer- 
of practical interest. 



152 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



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154 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 
Olive Varieties Ranked According to Per Cent of Pit. 



Dimensions ol Fruit, in 16ths ol 
an Inch. 



Variety op Olive. 



Whole Fruit. 



Pit 



Length. 



Width. 



Length. 



Width. 



5 



Regalia 

Manzanillo No. 1 . 
Nevadillo bianco . 

Pendulina 

Columbella 

Mission 

Polymorpha 

Rubra 

Rock's Oblonga 

Mignolo* 

Redding Picholine 
Uvaria 



17 
16 
16 
12 
14 
16 
19 
12 
15 
U 
8 
13 



13 
13 
10 
9 
11 
10 
12 
8 
8 
7 
6 
9 



9 
9 

10 
7 
8 

10 

12 
8 

11 
8 
6 

10 



5 
6 
4 
4 
5 
5 
6 
4 
4 
4 
4 
6 



3 



Series I. 



Regalia. — Imported by John Bock from France. Almost perfect 
rounded-oval; when ripe, dark purple or black; large, one and o 
sixteenth inches long by thirteen sixteenths of an inch in thicknei 
flesh firm; pit nine sixteenths of an inch by five sixteenths of an inc 
generally straight, square at the base, pointed at the apex. Ripe 
slightly ahead of the broad- leaved Mission variety. 

Manzanillo No. 1. — Imported by F. Pohndorf from Spain, and groi 
by Juan Gallegos, Esq., at Mission San Jose - ; large, one inch long 1 
thirteen sixteenths of an inch in thickness; regular rounded-oval; \ 
straight, strongly pointed at the apex, nine sixteenths of an inch loi 
five sixteenths of an inch thick. Ripens early— several weeks earli 
than the broad-leaved Mission. In many respects this resembles t 
Sevillano Gordal, or queen olive of Spain, more than any variety I ha 
examined in this State. The fruit grows on long stems, and in a wim 
place would be liable to fall. The pulp parts readily with its bitterne! 
and is exceedingly rich when pickled. 

Polymorpha. — Imported by John Rock from France; very large, ova 
oblique and pointed; one and three sixteenths inches long by twel 
sixteenths of an inch thick; pit twelve sixteenths of an inch by six si 
teenths of an inch in thickness, square at the base, strongly pointed 
the apex; flesh firm. Time of ripening falls much like the broad-leav 
Mission; fruit grows on strong stems in clusters of two or three. 

Macrocarpa. — Very much like above; we have not had specime 
enough to make out a distinction. 

Columbella. — Imported by John Rock from France. General foi 
broadly oval, fourteen sixteenths of an inch long and eleven sixteent 
of an inch thick; very even in size; remarkable for the peculiar pi 
yellow color which all the fruit assumes before turning fully ripe ai 
becoming dark purple; pit small, eight sixteenths of an inch long 
five sixteenths of an inch in thickness; straight and sharp point* 
The pulp seems to part with the bitterness slowly, but when extract* 
the flavor is very rich. Ripens late — later than the broad-leav 
Mission. 

'Measurements taken from Caruso's cut of this variety, for the sake of comparison. 



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OLIVE CULTURE. 



155 



llo Blanco. — Imported by F. Pohndorf from Spain. Oval, 
oblique, pointed, one inch long by ten sixteenths of an inch 
jembling somewhat a broad-leaved Mission, but is generally 
igated in proportion to its diameter than the latter. Pit small, 
nd generally pointed at both ends, ten sixteenths of an inch 
bur sixteenths of an inch thick. The fruit is borne in clus- 
iree to five. Its time of ripening does not appear to be much 
an the broad-leaved Mission. 

iriety has been propagated considerably at the nursery of the 
snt Station, and has been scattered widely by distribution 
e during the last two or three years. The reports received 
se trees go to show that it is a remarkably robust and fast 
1 the hottest as well as in the coolest portion of the State, 
his olive prove a good and constant bearer, as there is every 

believe, it will prove a valuable addition to varieties of olives, 
of ripening may be an objection to its planting in localities 
coast, subject to early frosts. Reports indicate that it is more 

frost than certain other varieties, a fact which is undoubtedly 
i almost constant growth, and shows that moist soil should be 
or this variety, perhaps, more than for any other. 
nillo No. 2. — Imported by F. Pohndorf from Spain. As the 
small apple") indicates, this variety is of an unusual shape, 

the Dalmatian (Hervaza), resembling it. It is nearly round, 
it of rounded-oval shape, rather squarely cut off at the base, 
pecimens were few and not quite fully grown, measurements 
riven. This variety ripens early — several weeks earlier than 
l-leaved Mission olive; the fruit grows generally singly on long 

»riety, which I have seen fruiting in Fancher Creek Nursery, 
sno, has the same straggling and sparse growth which char- 
the variety I have designated as Manzanillo No. 1. It is sup- 
be this variety (No. 2) which has been disseminated from the 
although as Mr. Gallegos has received the other variety (No. 1) 

same source as we, under the name of Manzanillo, the two 
9 been mixed, the wood and foliage being much alike. 
ina. — Imported by John Rock from France. This variety is of 
jval shape, rounded at both ends, quite variable in size, many 
□aining small and undeveloped; twelve sixteenths of an inch 

nine sixteenths of an inch thick; pit seven sixteenths of an 
; and four sixteenths of an inch thick, exclusive of the small, 
ints often found at both ends. The fruit grows in clusters of 

to five; the pulp parts very readily with its bitterness. This 
aust not be confounded with the Pendoulier, a variety imported 
Jbert Montpellier, and fruited at his place at Vacaville. The 
riety is somewhat larger and more of an ovate shape. 
a. — Imported by John Rock from France. An olive of a pecul- 
like shape, being narrow at the stem end, broad at the point, 
and strongly oblique; fifteen sixteenths of an inch long and 
teenths of an inch in thickness; pit curved, eleven sixteenths 
:h long by four sixteenths of an inch in thickness; generally 
at both ends. The pulp loses its bitterness comparatively 
n pickling. This olive ripens quite early — at least two or three 
rlier than the broad-leaved Mission; color dark purple. 



156 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



Coutance, as well as several other authors on the olive, gives tl 
name of Picholine as synonymous of Oblonga. As a matter of fact,tl 
olive imported by Mr. Bock under the name of Oblonga is a total] 
different-looking olive from the variety described and pictured in tl 
Annals of the School of Montpellier (and translated in Mr. Lelong 
pamphlet on olive varieties) as the Picholine. Rock's Oblonga seen 
to me to belong in the neighborhood of the Lucques. 

Common or Broad-Leaved Mission Olive. — The variety of olive mo 
generally known as the Mission; thirteen sixteenths of an inch loi 
by ten sixteenths of an inch thick; ovate, oblique — sometimes vei 
much so. The pit straight or slightly curved, ten sixteenths of a 
inch long and five sixteenths of an inch thick; fruit very variable i 
size, growing singly or in clusters of two or three, or even five. Tin 
of ripening, late, in the coast region, sometimes not before Februar 
but generally in December; in warmer localities, in November. 

Rubra or Caillon. — Imported by John Rock from France. Oval 
slightly oblique, looks a good deal like a small Mission olive; twel 
sixteenths of an inch long and eight sixteenths of an inch thick; I 
straight, pointed, eight sixteenths of an inch long and four sixteen! 
of an inch thick. This variety is an early one, and ripened three 
four weeks earlier than the common Mission variety; is of a jet blai 
when ripe. This variety, it appears, has been imported by sever 
different persons; among others Mr. Bliss, of Riverside, on whose pla 
I saw trees of it three years ago, heavily laden with fruit. 

Uvaria. — Imported by John Bock from France. Oval, regular, ai 
rounded on both ends; thirteen sixteenths of an inch long and ni: 
sixteenths of an inch in thickness; pit straight, heavy, ten sixteent 
of an inch in length and six sixteenths of an inch in thickness. Lai 
later than the common Mission olive. Color dark purple or blai 
when ripe. The name "grape-like," is well chosen, the fruit growii 
in clusters, as many as seven together, and in shape themselves i 
sembling the grape. 

"Redding Picholine." — Imported by the late B. B. Redding. A perfe 
oval in shape, eight sixteenths of an inch long and six sixteenths 
an inch thick. Ripens early, several weeks earlier than the comm< 
Mission ; dark purple or black when ripe. In pickling, the pulp los 
the bitterness quickly, the fruit being very pleasant. This variety h 
been propagated extensively in the State, and until fruiting, was su 
posed to be a large "pickling" variety; then, not having an adequa 
description of the Picholine at hand, it was believed for a number 
yearB to be rightly named after all; various authors designated tl 
Picholine as a small olive. Two years ago, in the Annals of the Schc 
of Montpellier, France, there appeared a description of the Picholine 
known there. Mr. B. M. Lelong had this promptly translated for I 
report, and deserves credit for having thus settled that the variety 
Redding's introduction is not the French Picholine. The Redding Pich 
line, which name has naturally suggested itself for want of a better, h 
produced oil of good quality. In proportion of pulp to pit it is b 
slightly inferior to the Italian Mignolo or Gremignolo, judging fro 
Caruso's description. The only record in regard to the yield of oil 
have had occasion to examine into was made several years ago by ft 
L. A. Gould, then of Auburn, who, from two thousand five hundr 
pounds of olives, chiefly Picholine, only obtained twenty-four gallons 




OLIVE CULTURE. 



157 



ing a percentage of 7.04. The Italian Mignolo, in Caruso's work, 
3 only nine sixteenths of an inch, with a thickness of seven 
as of an inch; the pit being large, eight sixteenths of an inch 
four sixteenths of an inch thick, which places it very near the 
Picholine. The strong recommendation of this olive by the 
iuthorities, for foggy regions, makes this variety, nevertheless, 
ng and worthy of trial in such places. 

Series II. 

se no measurements .have been made, but some record of growth 
sral behavior is given in the preceding table. 
ubens. — Im ported by John Rock. According to Coutance, sy non- 
rith Salierne or Sayerne; of a violet-black color, covered with 
>loom; rounded at the base, pointed at the top; cultivated 
>ut Languedoc; valuable for oil. 

ttro-violacea. — Imported by John Rock from France. A good- 
ve, making oil of first quality, according to soil, 
or Frantojano. — Imported by Judge J. R. Logan, of Santa Cruz, 
from the Lucca district, in Italy; oval, medium size or below; 
, in its native country, a very fine oil. 

giolo, or Grossajo, or Frantojo. — Imported by Judge J. R. Logan, 
, Cruz. An olive from the Lucca and Pisa districts, in Italy, 
ag some of the finest oil; fruit medium-sized; of inverted-oval 
i) shape, narrower at the stem end, broader toward t